Collectors in Series

Performance data for a single panel cannot be applied directly to a series of connected panels if the flow rate through the series is the same as for the single panel test data. If, however, N panels of the same type are connected in series and the flow is N times that of the single panel flow used during the testing, then the single panel performance data can be applied. If two panels are considered connected in series and the flow rate is set to a single panel test flow, the performance will be less than if the two panels were connected in parallel with the same flow rate through each collector. The useful energy output from the two collectors connected in series is then given by (Morrison, 2001):

Qu = Ac Fr [(toOG - Ul (T - Ta) + (ra)Gr - Ul (Tol - Ta)]

where To1 = outlet temperature from first collector given by

m cp

Eliminating To1 from Eqs. (4.19) and (4.20) gives

where FR1, UL1, and (ia)1 are the factors for the single panel tested, and K is

Ac.FmU,

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

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