Do It Yourself Solar Energy

Power Efficiency Guide

The Power Efficiency Guide is a step-by-step guide showing the users how to create their own Home Power Plant. The E-book was created just to explain and help people out of the problem they face because of the lack of electricity. The guide was made to help the users use about 90% of the tools they use regularly in their various houses for the creation of a power generator, which will beneficial to them and their family. The device uses the endless power principle used to make the electric cars constantly charge themselves from the wheels when not being accelerated. It is a unique concept that can be used in every home. It was created in such a way that it would be a quick fix for the users' electricity problem. In other words, when the users purchase it during the day, the users will be able to make use of it before night falls. The process is so easy that even a little child can fix it up. The guide is such that comes at a cheap price and would help in the reduction of the amount the users might have to pay for regular electricity bill due to the number of appliances used at home. Read more...

Power Efficiency Guide Summary

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Author: Mark Edwards
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Power Efficiency Guide Review

Highly Recommended

I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

This e-book served its purpose to the maximum level. I am glad that I purchased it. If you are interested in this field, this is a must have.

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Solar Energy References

Solar Energy Fundamentals in Building Design. McGraw-Hill, New York. Baldacci, A., Burgassi, P.D., Dickson, M.H., Fanelli, M., 1998. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in Italy. In Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress V, Part I, September 20-25, Florence, Italy, p. 2795, Pergamon, UK. Baum, V.A. , 1960. Technical characteristics of solar stills of the greenhouse type (in Russian). In Thermal Power Engineering, Utilization of Solar Energy, vol. 2. Academy of Science, USSR Moscow, pp. 122-132. Baum, V.A., Bairamov, R., 1966. Prospects of solar stills in Turkmenia. Solar Energy 10 (1), 38-40. Delyannis, A., 1968. The Patmos solar distillation plant. Solar Energy 11, 113-115. Delyannis, E., 2003. Historic background of desalination and renewable energies. Solar Energy 75 (5), 357-366. Johanson, T.B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A.K.N., Williams, R.H., 1993. Renewable fuels and electricity for a growing world economy defining and achieving the potential. In...

Electric Power Generation Technology

Steam Electric Power Plants

Historically the first electric power plants delivering large quantities of electric energy were hydro-electric. In 1895, Westinghouse built the first AC electric power generator in Niagara Falls by passing waterflow from the Falls through a turbine that induced electric currents in copper windings. General Electric built high-power grid lines that took the 1.1MW(e) of electricity to Buffalo, New York, where it lighted the city's streetlights and powered streetcars. The technical brains behind this were Nikola Tesla who worked with Westinghouse and Elihu Thomson who was employed by General Electric (Section 3.4). Tesla who invented today's ubiquitous AC electric motor, was a Serb born in Croatia. He had studied electro-magnetics at universities in Austria, Tsjechoslovakia, and Hungary before coming to America in 1884. Following the success in Niagara Falls, ambitious programs were started worldwide to dam up rivers and build hydro-electric power plants. Because suitable waterflow was...

Thermal Analysis Of Solar Power Plants

Net Analysis Solar Power Plant

Thermal solar power plants are similar to the conventional ones with the exception that a field of concentrating solar collectors replaces the conventional steam boiler. In hybrid plants, a conventional boiler is also present, operating on conventional fuel, usually natural gas, whenever there is a need. Therefore, the thermal analysis of solar power plants is similar to that of any other plant and the same thermodynamic relations are applied. The analysis is greatly facilitated by drafting the cycle on a T-s diagram. In these cases, the inefficiencies of pump and steam turbine should be considered. In this section, the equations of the basic Rankine power cycle are given and two of the more practical cycles, the reheat and the regenerative Rankine cycles, are analyzed through two examples. To solve the problems of these cycles, steam tables are required. Alternatively, the curve fits shown in Appendix 5 can be used. The problems that follow were solved by using steam tables.

The Energy Utilization Rate

The energy utilization rate throughout the ages can only be estimated in a rough manner. In early times, man was totally nontechnological, not even using fire. He used energy only as food, probably at a rate somewhat below the modern average of 2000 kilocalories per day, equivalent to 100 W. Later, with the discovery of fire and an improved diet involving cooked foods, the energy utilization rate may have risen to some 300 W capita. In the primitive agricultural Mesopotamia, around 4000 B.C., energy derived from animals was used for several purposes, especially for transportation and for pumping water in irrigation projects. Solar energy was employed for drying cereals and building materials such as bricks. Per capita energy utilization may have been as high as 800 W. The energy utilization rate in Europe was likely 2000 calories per capita around 1200 A.D. when there was widespread adoption of advanced agriculture, the use of fireplaces to heat homes, the burning of ceramics and...

Schrodinger entropy and free energy

In his book Schrodinger (1948, p. 71) famously described the process by which an organism survives as continually drawing negative entropy from the environment. In fact on thermodynamical considerations this is not strictly true, as pointed out by Franz Simon soon after the book was first published. In the 1948 edition of his book Schrodinger added a note to this effect, admitting that it might be better to consider organisms as drawing on free energy rather than negative entropy. These niceties of thermodynamic theory are not crucial for the concerns of this book. However, what Schrodinger was describing in thermodynamic terms is an important concept in ecology namely that to survive all organisms must acquire energy from their environment and in so doing produce waste products which they release back into their surroundings. Indeed this is so fundamental that it could be considered the basic concept of ecology. Schrodinger, entropy, and free energy 19 To a (very) naive physicist,...

Stirling Solar Power Generators

Stirling Plant Engine

In addition to SEGS, ISCCS, PV, and updraft tower methods for collecting solar energy, Stirling solar dish systems are also used (Figure 1.38). These units focus the Sun's energy onto H2 in sealed Stirling engines. As the H2 is heated to 732 C (1,350 F), it expands and drives the pistons of the engine. Stirling engines are used on submarines because they are quiet (no combustion takes place). In solar applications, their main advantage is their high efficiency (30 ), which is nearly double that of the best PV collectors. These closed systems do not need to be refilled, only their mirrors need washing every couple of weeks. The operation can be fully automated including start-up in the morning, shutdown in the evening, tracking the Sun, and remote monitoring over the Internet. The displacer piston on the cooling end on the left controls the direction in which the pistons move. It determines if most of the gas is in the piston on the right or left. In phase 4 of the cycle, the displacer...

Solar Power Paris Expositions

Solar Thermal Turbine Diagram

As was seen in Chapter 1, Section 1.5, solar thermal power systems were among the very first applications of solar energy. During the 18th century, solar furnaces capable of melting iron, copper, and other metals were constructed of polished iron, glass lenses, and mirrors. The furnaces were in use throughout Europe and the Middle East. The most notable examples are the solar furnace built by the well-known French chemist Lavoisier in 1774, various concentrators built by the French naturalist Bouffon (1747-1748), and a steam-powered printing press exhibited at the Paris Exposition by Mouchot in 1872. This last application utilized a concentrating collector to supply steam to a heat engine. As was discussed Chapter 9, the direct conversion of solar to electrical energy can be done with photovoltaics, which are solid-state devices. Electricity can also be produced with geothermal energy and wind power. However, with concentrating solar power systems, there are no complicated silicon...

Renewable Energy Questions

Use with onsite renewables, especially solar electrics. How we go about thinking 1 Are we allowing for future solar installations on the building (in terms of designing roof surfaces and roof pitch) Can we integrate photovoltaics into the south-facing shading of the building 3 Have we investigated local sources of green power for possible inclusion in the project Is it possible to make this project zero net energy, at considering site energy use 4 Are green power sources available from the local electric utility, or will we be able to buy green power from a third-party provider Are these programs Green-E certified by the Center for Resource Solutions or another acceptable independent third-party Can we acquire Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) for this project 5 What is the current and likely future premium for green power, and have we communicated this to the building owner or developer for consideration Do we have policy guidance to buy RECs, or otherwise aim at a zero carbon building...

Review Of Renewable Energy Desalination Systems

Renewable energy systems offer alternative solutions to decrease the dependence on fossil fuels. The total worldwide renewable energy desalination installations amount to capacities of less than 1 of that of conventional fossil-fueled desalination plants (Delyannis, 2003). This is mainly due to the high capital and maintenance costs required by renewable energy, making these desalination plants non-competitive with conventional fuel desalination plants. Solar desalination plants coupled with conventional desalination systems have been installed in various locations in the world. The majority of these plants are experimental or demonstration scale. A comprehensive review of renewable energy desalination systems is given by the author in Kalogirou (2005). This section presents examples of desalination plants powered by renewable energy systems they comprise systems not included in this book, such as wind energy and geothermal energy systems. Solar thermal energy is one of the most...

A Brief HiStory Of Solar Energy

John Ericsson Parabolic

Solar energy is the oldest energy source ever used. The sun was adored by many ancient civilizations as a powerful god. The first known practical application was in drying for preserving food (Kalogirou, 2004). Amazingly, the very first applications of solar energy refer to the use of concentrating collectors, which are, by their nature (accurate shape construction) and the requirement to follow the sun, more difficult to apply. During the 18th century, solar furnaces capable of melting iron, copper, and other metals were being constructed of polished iron, glass lenses, and mirrors. The furnaces were in use throughout Europe and the Middle East. One of the first large-scale applications was the solar furnace built by the well-known French chemist Lavoisier, who, around 1774, constructed powerful lenses to concentrate solar radiation (see Figure 1.4). This attained the remarkable temperature of 1750 C. The furnace used a 1.32 m lens plus a secondary 0.2 m lens to obtain such...

Largescale solar condenser power generators

Perhaps the greatest advantage of these systems is that they produce a majority of their power during the middle of the afternoon, and this helps utilities with their peak-power emergencies. Peak-power consumption occurs on hot summer days when everybody's air conditioners are running full bore. The utilities cannot keep up with demand, and small-sized backup power generators are required. Large scale solar thermal power generators are ideal backup generators because they output the most power when the sun is highest and hottest, and this is exactly when the most air conditioners are being run.

Opportunities for Renewable Energy

Integrating electrolyzers with renewable energy system can present challenges as well as unique benefits. Currently most renewable energy systems produce power and interconnect with thte electrical grid via some form of power electronics (PE). To use electrical grid power, today's commercial electrolyzers also have some type of power electronics interface that can represent a significant portion of the overall system cost.43 The power electronics convert alternating current (AC) from the grid to direct current (DC) power required by the electrolysis cell stack. In addition to the DC requirements of the stack, the system also consumes additional AC power for the balance of plant or ancillary loads. At least one electrolyzer manufacturer offers a version of an electrolyzer that can accommodate a connection to photovoltaic (PV) panels in addition to having the standard AC to DC converter for utility operation.44 The additional power electronics, incorporating maximum power point tracking...

Related Authorities Establish Development Schemes Action Plans and Development Programs for Agricultural Renewable

Since the Chinese government formulated China's Agenda 21 - White Paper of China's Population, Environment and Development in 21st Century (China's Agenda 21) in 1994, related authorities under the State Council established future development schemes, action plans, or near-term and long- and mid-term development programs related to the integrated utilization and technical development of agricultural renewable energy. The Development Program of New Energy and Renewable Energy (1996-2010) established by the State Development Planning Commission in January 1995, prescribed energy development objectives, including hastening technical improvements in utilization techniques for rural biomass energy the development of woodfuel forests and firewood-saving stoves and the comprehensive utilization of waste residues of crop processing and wastes from animal husbandry.24 In the Ninth Five-Year Work Plan for Resources Saving and Integrated Utilization established in July 1996, the State Economic...

Electric Power from Saline Solar Ponds

A solar saline pond is a few meters in depth and artificially maintained so that the degree of its salinity, and consequently density, is higher at the bottom than at the surface. The difference in salinity is created by dissolving large amounts of salt at the bottom of the pond and keeping the surface supplied with low-saline water, to maintain the necessary salinity gradient. Because of the difference in salinity there is minimal mixing between the layers, and convection is prevented. Absorption of solar energy by the bottom of the pond heats the lower depths of water,

What Are Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight directly into electrical energy. The electricity they produce is DC (direct current) and can either be The basic element of a photovoltaic system is the solar cell that is made of a semiconductor material, typically silicon. There are no moving parts in a solar cell, its operation is environmentally benign and, if the device is correctly encapsulated against the environment, there is nothing that will wear out. Because sunlight is universally available, photovoltaic devices have many additional benefits that make them not only usable, but of great value, to people around the world. They are the future and by 2020, when the conventional oil supplies begin to really dry up, they will be everywhere. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are modular and so their electrical power output can be engineered for virtually any application, from low-powered wristwatches, calculators, remote telecommunications systems and small battery-chargers to huge centralized power...

Electricity from Photovoltaic Conversion

Methanol Economy

The conversion of daylight into electricity, called the photovoltaic effect, was first discovered by the French scientist Edmond Becquerel in 1839. The explanation for this effect was later provided by Albert Einstein who received for this work (and not the theory of relativity) the Nobel Prize in physics. However, the development of the first practical photovoltaic cell occurred only in 1954 at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, with the production of a silicon-based cell with 6 efficiency in converting light into electricity. The technology that was originally developed for space applications in the 1960s to power military and later commercial satellites, has since been given much attention as a potential energy source for civilian uses. Photovoltaic (PV) systems that convert the energy of photons from sunlight directly into electricity using semiconductor devices are commonly known as solar cells. When photons enter the cell, electrons in the semiconducting material are freed,...

Photovoltaic applications

Mont Cenis Academy Complex Germany

Photovoltaic cells, Jubilee Campus, Nottingham University The PV market is growing dramatically - 43.8 per cent in 2002 with most going to grid connected supply in Japan, Germany and California. This is a technology which is seen to have enormous potential and therefore is attracting considerable research effort. The Sunpower Corporation is manufacturing a solar cell which achieves an efficiency of over 20 per cent as verified by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This laboratory has also verified the bench efficiency of 36.9 per cent achieved by Spectrolab's Improved Triple Junction solar cell. Efficiencies of over 40 per cent are confidently predicted. As economies of scale also bring down costs, the impact on the electricity market could be dramatic with the potential for every home to become a micro-power station. Before these developments had occurred, Hermann Scheer calculated that Germany's aggregate demand of 500TWh year could be met by installing PVs on 10 per cent...

Beaufort court renewable energy centre zero emissions building Studio E Architects

Beaufort Court Wind Turbine

Solar design aspects of the renewable energy centre and interim findings The Renewable Energy Centre at Kings Langley in the UK is the new headquarters and visitors' centre for Renewable Energy Systems Ltd, a company whose business is developing wind farms on a global basis. The original buildings on the site housed chickens to provide eggs for the nearby Ovaltine malt drink plant. These buildings, derelict for 10 years, have now been converted and extended to provide for the office and visitors' centre accommodation. A sustainable approach was taken, particularly in respect to energy supply and use. The design was based on the comprehensive application of passive and active solar measures and is believed to be the first commercial net zero carbon dioxide emissions building in the UK. The project was completed in December 2003 and the energy systems, weather and internal comfort are being monitored over a 2 year period. An EC Framework 5 grant contributed to the cost of a hybrid PV...

Investment in renewable energy

In the Reference Scenario, total cumulative investment in modern forms of renewable energy in the period 2007 to 2030 amounts to 5.5 trillion (in year-2007 dollars). Most of the investment in renewables - 60 of the total - is for electricity generation, followed by investment in renewables for heat and biofuels, which account for 36 and 4 of the total, respectively. Total investment in renewables for electricity generation in the Reference Scenario from 2007 to 2030 amounts to 3.3 trillion this provides 1 617 GW of additional capacity, mainly from an increase in hydro and wind capacity.

Queries On Solar Power Generated Stirling Engine

Stirling Engine

I'm confused In Chapter 6, you said that the best photovoltaic panels deliver 20 W m2 on average, in a place with British sunniness. Presumably in the desert the same panels would deliver 40 W m2. So how come the concentrating solar power stations deliver only 15-20 W m2 Surely concentrating power should be even better than plain flat panels Good question. The short answer is no. Concentrating solar power does not achieve a better power per unit land area than flat panels. The concentrating contraption has to track the sun, otherwise the sunlight won't be focused right once you start packing land with sun-tracking contraptions, you have to leave gaps between them lots of sunlight falls through the gaps and is lost. The reason that people nevertheless make concentrating solar power systems is that, today, flat photovoltaic panels are very expensive, and concentrating systems are cheaper. The concentrating people's goal is not to make systems with big power per unit land area. Land area...

Figure World Electric Power Generation by Region

Power generation worldwide in the coming years. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), world electric power generation is set to soar by 2030 (see Figure 4.1). Even if only a small sliver of that total projected worldwide demand is met by solar power, we are looking at substantial growth in the demand for solar power worldwide. And, if the growth rate we saw in 2007 is any indication of the growth potential for solar going forward, believe me, solar will be the place to be in 2008 and well beyond. Now I've always been an advocate of following the money when it comes to figuring out what sector represents the next big secular growth wave. How much money is following the solar sector According to Greentech Media (, venture capital investment in solar power just in Q1, 2008, was more than 280 million (2008). That ' s just in one quarter, mind you. In 2007 total venture capital investments in the solar industry was more than 1 billion. This kind...

Renewable Energy Technologies

Renewable energy technologies produce marketable energy by converting natural phenomena into useful forms of energy. These technologies use the sun's energy and its direct and indirect effects on the earth (solar radiation, wind, falling water, and various plants i.e., biomass), gravitational forces (tides), and the heat of the earth's core (geothermal) as the resources from which energy is produced. These resources have massive energy potential however, they are generally diffused and not fully accessible, and most of them are intermittent and have distinct regional variabilities. These characteristics give rise to difficult, but solvable, technical and economical challenges. Nowadays, significant progress is made by improving the collection and conversion efficiencies, lowering the initial and maintenance costs, and increasing the reliability and applicability of renewable energy systems. Worldwide research and development in the field of renewable energy resources and systems has...

Ann applications in solar energy Systems

Artificial neural networks have been used by the author in the field of solar energy, for modeling the heat-up response of a solar steam generating plant (Kalogirou et al., 1998), the estimation of a parabolic trough collector intercept factor (Kalogirou et al., 1996), the estimation of a parabolic trough collector local concentration ratio (Kalogirou, 1996a), the design of a solar steam generation system (Kalogirou, 1996b), the performance prediction of a thermosiphon solar water heater (Kalogirou et al., 1999a), modeling solar domestic water heating systems (Kalogirou et al., 1999b), the long-term performance prediction of forced circulation solar domestic water heating systems (Kalogirou, 2000), and the thermosiphon solar domestic water heating system's long-term performance prediction (Kalogirou and Panteliou, 2000). A review of these models, together with other applications in the field of renewable energy, is given in an article by Kalogirou (2001). In most of those models, the...

Green Power and Alternative Fuels

Green power is electricity generated from fuels that do not deplete the earth's resources. Solar and wind energy are the most commonly thought of green power or renewable-energy sources, but tidal energy and hydropower are other examples of electricity-generating sources. Universities may opt to purchase green power (see chapter 8) or to generate power on campus. On-site generation may be central (see the discussion later in this chapter) or distributed (located where or near where it will be used). Alternative fuels are generally considered to be alternatives to petroleum or coal and include renewable-energy sources. These can also be used for heating hot water, creating steam for heat, or absorption cooling. Examples include biomass, wood pellets, and geothermal energy. Numerous technologies can generate electricity or heat or both at the same time from conventional and alternative fuels. Photovoltaics Photovoltaic (PV) panels absorb the energy of the sun and convert the energy into...

Increased Use of Alternative Fuels or Green Power

The electric industry, which remained basically unchanged for a century, has undergone something of a revolution in the past decade. Many states have now deregulated their electric industries. What this means for colleges and universities or other purchasers of electricity is that there is now a choice of electric generators. With this choice, a college or university may now purchase some or all of its electricity from renewable sources. Renewable energy offers low or no climate-altering emissions (in the case of wind and solar), which makes it very attractive to an institution that is interested in reducing its heat-trapping gas emissions. In addition to power purchases, colleges and universities may install green power on site, by tying solar or wind to existing or new building systems. More information on green power and alternative fuels is in chapter 8.

Operating and New Solar Power Plants

The first concentrating trough-type solar power plant in the United States was built in 1988. It is the 1 mW Saguaro plant located north of Tucson, Arizona, and was built for Arizona Public Service (APS). It covers 1 km2 and has parabolic trough-shaped mirrors. Today, the largest solar power plant in the United States is the 22-year-old thermal plant in California's Mojave Desert, which has a combined total capacity of 354 mW. At Kramer Junction, California, nine solar power plants, each 30 mW or larger, have been in operation for two decades. The yearly insolation in the area is 2,940 kWh m2. Plant efficiencies range from 10 to 17 , and their capital costs range from 2,500 to 3,500 per kWp.* The cost of generated electricity from these plants drops as their size increases, and ranges from 10 to 17 kWh. * The capacity of a collector is expressed in terms of its peak power production (Wp). This is the amount of electric power that a PV module is able to generate when it receives 1,000...

Figure The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption in the US Energy Supply

Completeness, timeliness, and quality of the data. However, the data on capacity included here help to illustrate some of the key trends in renewable energy. Renewable fuel use is growing because of government support and increasing private sector investment. Global investment in renewable energy hit a record 30 billion in 2004, accounting for 20 to 25 percent of all investment in the power industry, with solar power the fastest-growing energy technology, according to the nonprofit group, Worldwatch Institute. Technologies such as wind, solar, biofuel, and geothermal now provide up to 6 percent of the world's total energy, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That's still very small, but it's a step in the right direction. On the frontlines of the alternative energy industry, business has been brisk lately. See Figure 3.1.

Types Of Renewable Fuels Solar Energy

This is the energy radiated to the earth from the sun. Solar thermal devices use direct heat from the sun, concentrating it in some manner to produce heat at useful temperatures. The amount of energy that reaches the earth and can be tapped for our use depends very much on time and geography. What that means is that there'll be more solar energy during the day than during the night, and also that the tropics such as Africa The modern solar industry has a long history, but began in earnest with the OPEC oil embargo of 1973 to 1974 and was strengthened in 1979 during the Iranian revolution, which took out of the market about six million barrels per day of oil from Iran. The growth of the U.S. solar industry during this period of fuel shortages and high prices (1974 to 1984) soared from 45 solar collector manufacturing firms to 225 firms, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. The solar market was helped during this period by federal and state government assistance. Currently, solar...

Dual Nature of Agricultural Renewable Energy Substances as Energies and Resources

Agricultural renewable energy refers to certain biological substances generated in the course of agricultural production or labor, including rural firewood, crop straw, animal excrement, and waste residues of agricultural products. They provide energy for economic production and household uses. Rural firewood includes reeds, Mao bamboo, shrubs, weeds, and tree branches. Crop straw includes the stem, leaf, vine, root, core, Biomass energy, produced using traditional and modern methods, can be used as fuel in rural China for the daily ordinary activities of rural people. Firewood, straw, and animal excrement could be used directly for such activities. Alternatively, renewable energy substances could be used indirectly as fuels in the context of activities of urban and rural people after being processed into marsh gas, liquefied gas, or solid fuels. For instance, substances such as straw, animal excrement, and waste residues of agricultural products could be processed into refined fuels....

Energy Demand And Renewable Energy

Many alternative energy sources can be used instead of fossil fuels. The decision as to what type of energy source should be utilized in each case must be made on the basis of economic, environmental, and safety considerations. Because of the desirable environmental and safety aspects it is widely believed that solar energy should be utilized instead of other alternative energy forms because it can be provided sustainably without harming the environment. If the world economy expands to meet the expectations of countries around the globe, energy demand is likely to increase, even if laborious efforts are made to increase the energy use efficiency. It is now generally believed that renewable energy technologies can meet much of the growing demand at prices that are equal to or lower than those usually forecast for conventional energy. By the middle of the 21st century, renewable sources of energy could account for three fifths of the world's electricity market and two fifths of the...

Solar energy in building design

Solar Stirling Engine Electricity

All buildings benefit from unplanned gains of solar energy through windows and, to a lesser extent, through the warming of walls and roofs. This is called 'passive solar gain' for a typical house in the UK it will contribute about 15 of the annual space heating requirements. With 'passive solar design' this can relatively easily and inexpensively be increased to around 30 while increasing the overall degree of comfort and amenity. The main features of such design are to place, so far as is possible, the principal living rooms with their large windows on the south side of the house in the Northern hemisphere, with the cooler areas such as corridors, stairs, cupboards and garages with the minimum of window area arranged to provide a States could be generated from the solar energy falling on PV cells over an area of 400 km square or on CSP installations covering a somewhat smaller area. However, at the present time for large-scale electricity provision, neither is competitive in cost...

The Future for Renewable Energy

Renewable energy has many advantages that will help to maintain and expand its place in world energy supply Renewable energy resources are enormous hundreds of times beyond the needs of world energy consumption in 2000. Negative environmental and health impacts of renewable energy use are much fewer than those of fossil fuels and nuclear power. Many renewable energy technologies can produce energy at the point of use, allowing homeowners, businesses, and industry to produce their own power. There is strong support for renewable energy from people around the world. Many governments have programs that support renewable energy use to limit the emission of greenhouse gases and thereby reduce the threat of global warming. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2001). Renewable Energy Annual 2000, with Data for 1999. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. Renewable Energy World. London James & James Science Publishers. Available from http U.S. Department of Energy,...

Energy And Atmosphere Credit Onsite Renewable Energy

Now let's take a look at installing renewable energy measures for our hypothetical project. In this case, we are almost always faced with considerably higher capital costs, relative to annual savings. However, an important mitigating factor may be the incentives available. Many states and utilities, along with the federal government, offer tax credits, and direct payments that can reduce the effective capital cost of such measures by 50 percent or more. Table 8.7 shows the EVA analysis for two options a solar electric (photovoltaic) system or a wind power turbine, while Fig. 8.6 shows the cumulative cash flow from both project elements. Many projects are beginning to TABLE 8.7 ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE CREDIT 2 ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY TABLE 8.7 ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE CREDIT 2 ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY 1 PV SOLAR ELECTRIC Cumulative cash flow EA Credit 2 onsite renewable energy. Cumulative cash flow EA Credit 2 onsite renewable energy.

Renewable Energy Systems

Now is the time to get serious about including renewable energy systems in the project. These questions focus our attention on the technical, economic, and financial feasibility of solar and wind power especially, as strong project components. 1 How might the use of photovoltaic systems impact daily energy supply patterns and potential economics of various energy use systems 2 Have we considered the use of building-integrated photovoltaics in the project Because we can integrate the PV systems in several different ways, there needs to be time for these studies to be made. 3 If there are going to be spandrel panels in the curtain wall, for example, can photo-voltaics be incorporated on the south face of the building Are there economic benefits that would override the loss of power generation from having vertical solar panels

The photovoltaic solar cell

The silicon photovoltaic (PV) solar cell51 consists of a thin slice of silicon into which appropriate impurities have been introduced to create what is known as a p-n junction. The most efficient cells are sophisticated constructions using crystalline silicon as the basic material they possess efficiencies for conversion of solar energy into electricity typically of 15 to 20 experimental cells have been produced with efficiencies well over 20 . Single crystal silicon is less convenient for mass production than amorphous silicon (for which the conversion efficiency is around 10 ), which can be deposited in a continuous process onto thin films. Other alloys (such as cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide) with similar photovoltaic properties can also be deposited in this way and, because they have higher efficiencies than amorphous silicon, are likely to compete with silicon for the thin-film mar-ket.52 However, since typically about half the cost of a solar PV installation is...

Direct Use of Solar Energy

All direct uses of solar energy for electricity generation suffer from the dilute nature of the solar source. The average flux of solar energy at the surface of the Earth is about 200 W m2. Thus, it requires about 5 km2 to collect 1 GW of incident solar energy. The area required for electricity generation depends on the efficiency of conversion from solar energy to electricity. One potential source of electricity is biomass, used as a fuel in a steam turbine plant. The main source of biomass now used in electricity generation is wastes, including wastes from the forest product industry. However, the amounts of such wastes are limited. A major increase in biomass use for electricity generation would require dedicated biomass plantations and adequate supplies of water and fertilizer. As estimated by David Hall and colleagues, the practical maximum yields of biomass in temperate climates corresponds to an annual average efficiency of about 1 for conversion from solar energy to chemical...

Renewable energy sources

Renewable energy sources are primarily those which are inexhaustible in nature, and which are ultimately derived from the radiant energy of the sun reaching the earth. These include the obvious examples of hydroelectric power, solar energy, and wind power, as well as some not quite so obvious examples, such as combustible renewable wastes and biomass fuels like ethanol made from grain crops. In addition, sources such as geothermal energy and ocean gradient energy, which are derived from the very large quantities of thermal energy stored in the earth's crust and oceans, are often categorized as renewable, although clearly in the very long-term they are not completely sustainable. Of course, if we were to take a time-scale of millions (or perhaps billions) of years, even the sun's radiant energy will diminish, and so none of these sources is truly sustainable ''for ever.'' To a certain extent, then, the definition of renewable'' is somewhat arbitrary, but clearly these are all sources...

Next generation solar cells

Part Gratzel Cell

From the point of view of buildings, the most obvious renewable electricity source is the solar cell. High unit cost is the barrier which is preventing production achieving economies of scale. But here again things could be about to change. The solar cells of the future are likely to use thin film technology, for example titanium-oxide coated nanocrystals with ruthenium dye which mimic photosynthesis and which are now being developed in Switzerland. They absorb light strongly in the red and green parts of the visible spectrum. They should prove to be a fraction of the cost of silicon-based cells. Creating the solar cell which will use an organic solid to replace the liquid electrolyte of conventional cells is Gratzel's latest objective. Others are looking at capturing energy using biological rather than electrochemical cells. This is literally mimicking natural photosynthesis in current terms, 'biomimicry'. A chance discovery in a laboratory could be the key to the ultimate...

Solar panels and inverters

A single modern silicon solar cell will produce between 2 and 3W of power depending on its size. This will equate to between 3 and 5 A at 0.6 V. In order to provide a usable current and voltage, groups of cells are connected both in series and in parallel. For example, 36 solar cells connected in series will provide an output of about 20 V, suitable for a battery charger designed to recharge a 12 V battery. For grid-connected applications, more cells are necessary. Typical units are designed to provide up to 200 W. The individual cells are normally mounted behind a glass protective barrier similar to a vehicle windscreen. The whole assembly is then encapsulated to protect it from the weather and framed with aluminium extrusions. Such assemblies are called solar panels. A solar panel provides a stable direct current output. If this is to form a part of a grid-connected solar power system, perhaps on the roof of a household, it must be converted to AC at the grid voltage. This is...

Trends in renewable energy

Higher fossil-fuel prices and increasing concerns over energy security and climate change are expected to encourage the development of renewable energy for electricity production in many parts of the world, particularly where incentives are already in place. Electricity generated from renewable energy sources worldwide amounted to 3 470 TWh in 2006, or 18 of total output. In the Reference Scenario, it rises to 4 970 TWh in 2015 and to over 7 700 TWh in 2030, 23 of total electricity production. Trends in renewable energy are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7.

Global trends in the use of renewable energy

The use of renewable energy sources has been expanding rapidly in recent years and this trend is set to continue over the projection period. Investment in renewable energy sources for electricity, heating and in biofuels has increased considerably. However, if traditional biomass is excluded,1 renewable energy still accounts for a small share of the energy mix. In 2006 it met just 7 of global primary energy needs. The share was around 6 for heat demand (mostly from the direct combustion of biomass) and 1 for transport (biofuels derived from biomass). Renewables accounted for 18 of total electricity generation, the majority of it coming from hydropower plants (16 of total electricity generation). In the Reference Scenario, the share of renewables (including modern biomass) in the global primary energy mix increases from 7 in 2006 to around 10 in 2030. In the electricity sector, the generating costs of coal- and gas-fired power plants remain high, because of both high fuel prices and...

Solar Electricity Photovoltaics

Global Thermal Balance

Enough energy from the sun strikes the earth in 1 hour to provide all the energy consumed by the earth's entire population in 1 year. In most places, sufficient sunlight strikes the earth's surface to power an (energy-efficient) home and support a plug-in hybrid car. Solar energy stands out as an opportunity that overshadows all the other renewable energy sources and fossil fuels combined. Today, only a small fraction of this vast potential has been exploited. Solar cells were developed (by accident) at Bell Labs and have been used to power most satellites launched since the 1950s. The development of terrestrial (earth-based) solar electricity began in response to the oil crisis of the early 1970s. Solar cells, or photovoltaic energy, convert energy from the sun into direct current electricity. There are no moving parts and no greenhouse gas emissions. Photovoltaics are used to power nearly every satellite in orbit and have become a common source of energy for many calculators. It is...

Solar Energy Utilization in Israel

A visitor to Israel will unavoidably notice the urban landscape bursting with solar collectors and hot water storage tanks covering the roofs of buildings. Almost all residences in Israel are equipped with solar water heaters. The most common are the thermosyphonic system, a completely passive, standalone unit consisting of one or two flat plate solar collectors and an insulated storage tank. Large multistory apartment buildings often use a central system with a collector array on the roof and a storage tank in the basement, employing a pump controlled by a differential thermostat. Other arrangements are also available. In most of the country, the solar system will supply the full demand for hot water during 9-10 months per year, with an electric resistance backup employed the rest of the time. Freeze protection is never required, except in some isolated locations. The economics the installed cost of a typical single-family system comprising a 150 l storage tank and 2-3 m2 flat plate...

Renewable Energy and Democracy

In the 1970s, an energy movement arose in Denmark as in many other Western countries. This movement was constituted among others by the antinuclear movement (OOA) and the Danish Organization for Renewable Energy (OVE). When the OOA was created and these energy problems were discussed, the issues of democracy and living conditions in local communities played major roles in the arguments against nuclear and in favor of renewable energy. With regard to nuclear, some were afraid of the consequences of such technology in terms of security and ownership. The question was how to guard the plants and the transport of radioactive waste without having to hire security staff and erecting fences. Who should own and operate these big power stations If ownership was assigned to big companies, it would mean that local communities would lose influence. Also, how should space for nuclear power stations be allocated and radioactive waste be disposed of without impacting the quality of life for the...

Inevitability of Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is favored by national policy in most European nations and in much of the rest of the world, while in the US and Canada there is strong support in many cities and states, but less support expressed by the nation's energy policy. The Bush Administration adopted a policy of force to control oil supplies and a return to nuclear power, offering only a modest commitment to renewable energy and a laudable but also modest program for hydrogen research. The administration's actions come atop efforts initiated in the early 1990s to create a free-market electrical grid, thus allowing utilities to sell and buy power nationally without regard for their historic territories. This newly opened market, coupled with pent-up demand, led to a boom in new coal and natural gas-fired power plants and efforts to restart the long moribund business of nuclear power. Paradoxically, the very nature of renewable energy prevents many people from grasping its extraordinary implications. Millions...

Political Reasons for Renewable Energy

Besides the preceding difference, another important disparity exists between renewable and sustainable. This has to do with the reasons for wishing technological change. Why does society want to implement renewable energy solutions And why does society aim at implementing sustainable energy solutions The reasons for introducing sustainable solutions are mainly if not solely related to an environmental motive. However, several reasons can be found for implementing renewable energy. In the article Choice Awareness (Lund 2000) and in Chapter 23 of the book Tools for Sustainable Development (Lund 2007b), I described the recent history of Danish energy planning and policy since the first oil crisis in 1973. At least three main reasons can be defined for replacing fossil fuels by technologies related to renewable energy systems, including energy conservation and efficiency measures

Economic Limitations of Solar Energy

Today, the major problem facing solar energy - especially for the production of electricity - is its cost, which is still high when compared not only to fossil fuels but also to renewables such as wind or hydropower. Despite the free and inexhaustible solar power source, the up-front cost for the equipment to collect and store solar energy is high. Likewise, due to the diffuse nature of sunshine, the collecting area necessary to produce large amounts of solar energy is by necessity large. The absence of sunlight during night-time and reduced insolation in cloudy conditions also necessitates back-up generators or expensive and limited-energy storage batteries. With continued research and technological improvements however, solar energy will in the long run certainly become an important part of our energy-mix.

Short History Of Solar Technologies

Modern attempts to harvest the sun's energy directly date back to the 1870s, and the first solar motor company was founded in 1900. The first documented design was a concentrating solar power (CSP) device, which focuses the heat of the sun using lenses or mirrors to drive thermal engines or generators. In the 1870s, CSP systems were used to drive steam engines, which in turn were used to do something else, usually to pump water (although they were also used to make ice, in order to impress investors and astonish the public). Probably the most familiar kind of solar equipment to most people is solar hot water systems, which provide domestic hot water, pool heating, and space heating. Solar hot water experienced an explosion of popularity in the 1970s, thanks to generous federal and state incentives made available under the Carter administration. Unfortunately, the flood of money, directed at a less-than-fully-developed technology and market, led to a Wild West atmosphere in much of the...

Opportunities and Challenges of Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation Promotion for Rural Electrification in

Abstract This paper reviews the opportunities Distributed Generation (DG) has to solve electrification problems in Indonesia, especially for rural areas. The main approach used in this paper is comparison, with a focus on other countries who share similar conditions. Renewable energy sources are examined from the perspective of sustainability and environmental friendliness. For rural areas, geographical disadvantages serve to increase the competitiveness of renewable energy and DG. An abundant resources also becomes another strong point for renewable energy utilization. Nevertheless, there are some challenges - technological, financial and social - that DG must face. Lessons from other countries provide insights and suggestions to overcome those challenges. Keywords Distributed generation Renewable energy Remote area Electrification

Opportunities of Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation

In February 2006, the government of Indonesia enacted Presidential Decree No. 5 2006 for National Energy Policy. In this policy, the share of new and renewable energies in energy mix will be increased from around 5 in 2007 to more than 17 in 2025, which are composed of bio-fuel (5 ), geothermal (5 ), coal liquefaction (2 ), and others, including nuclear (5 ). Supporting the policy, abundant resources are already available in Indonesia. Table 1 summarizes the national energy potency of non-fossil energy. The utilization of renewable sources can be increased to diversify the energy supply mix, ensuring both energy security and sustainability. The global concern of climate change also gives strong rationale for renewable energy utilization since it produces little or no emissions. Case studies of different Renewable Energy Systems (RES) involving decentralized power generation systems - DGs - can be differentiated into bio-energy, solar Rural electrification can be started by...

Challenges of Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation

The third factor is government's role. The government must optimally use its authority to maintain the best climate for the development of renewable energy and DG. It can be done by creating incentives for the players in the field and creating policies in favor of renewable energy and DG. Since ensuring all citizens can enjoy electricity is government's responsibility, naturally the government should become the most active player in this field.

The Role for Renewable Energy

The ideal solution to global warming would be a technological one that allows the world to switch quickly from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, biomass, and geo-thermal, which emit zero or low levels of carbon dioxide. Each of these sources, however, has its limitations. According to many experts, wind power is the most promising source of clean energy. Turbines capture the energy of the wind using propeller-like blades positioned on 100-foot-high towers, and the moving blades are connected to turbines to generate electricity. Supporters say even a small wind tower could produce more than half of the electricity used by an average home, but more massive wind farms could contribute a significant share to utility grids. Denmark, for example, already generates 20 percent of its electricity from wind. Unfortunately, the wind does not blow all the time, causing a problem of intermittent and unreliable electricity generation, and many people think large wind...

Solar Energy And The Upper Atmosphere

Reflected Back Radiation

The sun radiates in all directions, and only a tiny fraction of its output is intercepted by the earth, 150 million kilometers away. On average, the solar power received by the earth is 340 watts per square meter of surface2 or, more concisely, 340 W m-2. It is important to be aware of what the averaging entails. First, the averaging is over the whole surface of the earth it allows for the difference between the polar regions where the sun never rises high in the sky and the tropics where the midday sun is not far from the zenith on every day of the year. Second, the 340 W The Solar Energy Budget Now consider the fate of this incoming energy. The first point to notice is that solar energy does not accumulate appreciably. The earth's net gain of solar energy over the year is close to zero, and were it not for global warming it would remain at zero, on average. If we take the long-term view, disregarding slight temporary climatic wanderings caused by atmospheric changes, it is safe to...

Powerful Changes Renewable Energy

You can benefit from renewable energy in your home today l Buy renewable energy directly. You can bring energy straight to your home from an independent power generator, as opposed to the general service provider for your region. Your energy is still delivered through the same electricity grid, but you're bringing renewable energy into the grid to replace non-renewable energy sources. You get total independence from fossil fuels, but you can use this option only if you have a clean energy services provider in your area. l Buy renewable energy indirectly. Renewable energy from clean, emissionsfree sources (such as wind power and low-impact water power) often costs more to produce than other alternatives (see Chapter 13). You can opt to pay a premium for your power to cover the cost of that sustainable energy. Your household energy consumption is still metered, but your payment goes to supporting renewable projects only, rather than the mix of generation sources that feeds into the...

Supporting Clean Renewable Energy

You can support the development of clean, renewable energy in a number of ways, depending on where you live. I Make the energy. You can make energy yourself by using options such as solar energy to produce hot water and generate electricity. Chapter 13 covers other options that you can use to make energy. I Buy the energy. You can purchase energy from a company that uses low-emission energy sources. Green power can be purchased in most provinces in Canada. Companies also cover 30 states in the U.S., with similar companies across the U.K., and in every state in Australia (see Chapter 18 for Web site resources on green energy providers).

What Can We Learn from Photosynthesis About How to Convert Solar Energy into Fuels

Structure Photosystems

Abstract We briefly review the need for construction of novel systems for the production of clean renewable fuels to replace oil and gas. Then the case is made that if it will be possible to gain a sufficient understanding of photosynthesis that it should be possible to use this information to produce artificial leaves . These artificial leaves will be designed to convert solar energy into dense portable fuel. Currently in the developed world we get our energy mainly from fossil fuels. In fact approximately 70-80 of our current energy needs are met by burning coal, oil and gas. Unfortunately oil and gas supplies are predicted to be largely exhausted by the end of this century. Also we have a major problem caused by the increasing rates at which we currently consume fossil fuels, namely global warming caused by elevated levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. As a result of these two imperatives there is an urgent need to develop new, clean, scalable, and renewable sources of fuels. Providing...

Marketing solar energy systems

Market transformation for solar energy systems is gaining increasing importance as we move through the second decade of green building practice (using the formation of the USGBC in 1993 as a starting point). Recent project experience illustrates the opportunities and challenges facing marketers for solar energy products and systems in commercial and institutional projects. The US Navy in San Diego installed one of the largest systems for a commercial or institutional setting, with a nearly 1-megawatt (peak rating) system, as shown in Figure 7.3. The PV system also serves as the canopy for a carport, used for long-term parking of vehicles. Survey of solar power use When asked if they had considered using solar energy in any of their projects, 84 percent said yes, with 73 percent considering PV (including 51 percent with building-integrated PV), 57 percent solar water heating and 19 percent solar pool heating. Of these respondents, 59 percent currently had a project in design, 28...

Technology transfer energy efficiency and renewable energy

Transfer energy-efficient and renewable-energy technology to participating non-Annex I countries. The prospect for such a transfer of technology almost completely diverts attention from business-as-usual in the developed world. For instance, the World Business Council on Sustainable Development outlines key areas for future action on climate change, including efficiency, nuclear energy, government support for energy research and development, and technology transfer to the South, but neglects to mention any measures for phasing out fossil fuels in industrialized countries. The International Emissions Trading Association a corporate lobby group established through the cooperation of UNCTAD and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development obviously has adopted this approach and lists as its members BP and Shell, but also Chevron Texaco, Conoco Philips, and Statoil.25 The IETA in its review of the EU ETS reports its position on the carbon market and promotes a global carbon...

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Regulatory Policy

Do you support, in federal energy legislation, a Renewable Portfolio Standard (aka renewable energy standard) that would require the federal government and the states to ensure that electricity generators provide a portion of their power from renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, incremental hydropower, and biomass (e.g., 20 by 2020) _ YES 2. Do you support, in federal energy legislation, a Renewable Fuels Standard for transportation fuels that would require the federal government and states to ensure that a percentage of transportation fuels is provided by renewable energy sources such as ethanol (e.g., 5 by 2010) 3. Do you support, in federal energy legislation, a small wire charge on everyone's electric bill (e.g., 2-3 ), as previously included in most utility rate bases, to maintain funding of energy efficiency, low-income weather-ization and energy assistance, and renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and deployment programs 4. Do you support...

Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association CREIA

The Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association is an organization that seeks to address environmental issues associated with polluting energy industries in China by promoting the development and use of renewable energy technologies. It provides a collaborative bridge between regulatory agencies and industry and promotes renewable research and development activities. The CREIA Web site provides an overview of the renewable energy industry in China, Chinese energy policies and regulations, and association programs and projects.

The Case for Renewable Energy Processes

My reason for writing this book is to show that the future does not need to be bleak, that we can overcome this planetary emergency. We do have both a free energy source and the know-how to convert today's oil-based economy into an economical, clean, and inexhaustible one in the future. The time for holding conferences and writing articles is over. The Secretary General of the United Nations, on September 24, 2007, put it this way The time for doubt has passed. It is time to build those demonstration plants that will clearly establish the feasibility and costs of the various alternative energy systems. It is time to start to replace fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy sources such as solar-hydrogen. a rate higher* than the supply of fossil fuels. The difference between the curves is being met from nuclear and renewable energy sources. The fossil envelope (dotted line) describes the likely future consumption of fossil energy (coal, oil, and natural gas). The area under this...

Solar Energy and the Hydrogen Economy

Solar energy is a virtually inexhaustible and freely available energy source. More sunlight ( 1.2 X 105 TW) falls on the earth's surface in 1 h than is used by all human activities in 1 year globally. The sun is earth's natural power source, driving the circulation of global wind and ocean currents, the cycle of water evaporation and condensation that creates rivers and lakes, and the biological cycles of photosynthesis and life. It is however a dilute energy source (1 kW m2 at noon, Chapter 2) about 600-1000 TW strikes the earth's terrestrial surfaces at practical sites suitable for solar energy harvesting.27 Covering 0.16 of the land on earth with 10 efficient solar conversion systems would provide 20 TW of power,28 nearly twice the world's consumption rate of fossil energy and an equivalent 20,000 1-GWe nuclear fission plants. Clearly, solar energy is the largest renewable carbon-free resource amongst the other renewable energy options. Consider the total amounts possible for each...

Shining a Light on Solar Power for Your Home

Om a pollution standpoint, solar power is the most energy-efficient invest-ent you can make, hands down. Sunshine will always be free. Solar power equipment, however, can be expensive and isn't suitable for climates that don't get enough sunshine. Government subsidies play a big role in solar power, but they vary with the political winds. The most definitive factor in determining the viability of solar power is local utility rates if yours are high, solar energy may be just what you're looking for because the financial efficiency is good. When all the factors are working for you, an investment in solar energy can be much better than an investment in the stock market. In this chapter, I cover the most popular solar investments, and I present some guidelines on when and where solar power is a worthwhile investment. For more details, consult my book Solar Power Your Home For Dummies (Wiley).

Utility photovoltaic arrays

A utility photovoltaic array is solar cell-based power plant with a generating capacity similar to that of a fossil fuel power plant. Construction of such a plant would involve an enormous number of individual solar cells, mounted in solar panels, and the solar panels themselves mounted in groups, each group having its own support structure.

Investing in a fullscale solar PV system

Say you live in a 3-bedroom, 2-bath house with good roof exposure for solar equipment. Your home is all electric and your average monthly electric bill is 260. Energy consumption is 1,600 kWh per month. You had your home audited and, through making smaller changes, you decreased the bill 15 percent to 1,360 kWh per month, or 221.

Renewable Energy And The Environment

The environmental impact of some clean energy sources is Solar power plants are relatively inefficient and a solar power plant like the Solar Electric Generating Station (SEGS) in Southern California has a large footprint and may be visually offensive to some people (Figure 4-10). Point to Ponder Is the environmental impact of clean energy sources an important consideration A clean energy source emits negligible amounts of greenhouse gases or other pollutants. Even though fossil fuels have serious pollution problems, we have seen that mitigation technologies such as greenhouse gas storage (also known as sequestration) can reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emissions and justify the continued use of fossil fuels as an energy source. In an objective assessment of competing energy sources, we must recognize that clean energy sources such as hydroelectric, solar, and wind energy can have a significant environmental impact that can adversely affect their environmental compatibility. This...

Renewable Energy Electricity Act

Building on the relative success of the Green Power program the Federal government has enacted the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth).78 The 78 Foradetailed discussion of this Act see Adrian Bradbrook and Alexandra S Wawryk, 'Government Initiatives Promoting Renewable Energy for Electricity Generation in Australia' (2002) 25(1) UNSWLaw Journal 124 at 146-53.

Obtain of our Electricity from Renewable Energy Sources

America has virtually limitless potential for the generation of power from natural forces. By ramping up our use of wind power, solar photovoltaic and thermal power, geothermal heat pumps, and other renewable forms of energy and using much of that energy to replace power production at dirty, coal-fired power plants the United States could dramatically reduce global warming emissions from electric power production. Requiring that 20 of our electricity come from renewable sources by 2020 when combined with a strong, mandatory cap on global warming pollution would save more than

Other renewable energy resources

In some countries, such as the Philippines, hydro-electricity is responsible for the majority of the country's electricity resources. In Australia, for climatic reasons the actual and potential use of hydro-electricity is limited to Tasmania, the coastal fringes of northern Queensland and the mountainous region in the country's south-east. In terms of exploitation, hydro-electricity is the oldest of all the renewable energy resources and constitutes the majority of the 9 of electricity generated from renewables in Australia. It is principally exploited in Tasmania and the Snowy Mountains, the latter under an ambitious scheme financed by the Commonwealth government in the 1950s and shared between New South Wales and Victoria.66 The total hydropower capacity in Australia is 7.6GW, of which the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme constitutes 50 and Tasmania 30 .67 While hydro-electricity produces no conventional pollution or atmospheric carbon emissions its continued development has...

The Renewable Energy

TABLE 2.5 Current Renewable Energy Capacity Production and 2010 and 2020 Targets TABLE 2.5 Current Renewable Energy Capacity Production and 2010 and 2020 Targets The new Law, which was developed at the beginning of 2003 and came into force at the beginning of 2006, appears to overcome these difficulties. Implementing regulations have begun to be detailed and already electricity prices for some technologies and a mechanism for sharing incremental costs at a national level have been defined. It should be noted that while the Law follows earlier policies about the importance of renewables and how renewables foster socio-economic development, this Law initiates a more market-oriented approach, addressing financial issues and how the public good of renewable energy use can be cost-shared among all end users. Until this Law, few nationwide financial incentives for renewable energy existed. A notable exception was the reduction in value-added taxes (VAT) and income taxes for some renewables,...

The dollars and sense of solar power

As you can see from this list, not all of the economic benefits of solar power can be enumerated in monetary terms you can't put a price on good sense With solar energy, local jobs are created, and the jobs are stable and sustainable and skilled, meaning high pay and good benefits. Yet, despite these positives, the economics of solar power are not as good as for conventional energy sources (combustion sources) upfront investment costs are high payback may take a long time and the investment is illiquid and fixed. Most people do not want, or cannot, lay out a big investment solely for the purpose of rationalizing their energy consumption.

Indirect Solar Renewable Energy Technologies Possibilities And Problems

In addition to direct collection of solar energy several indirect sources of this important resource exist. They include the wind, powered by differential heating of the earth's surface, ocean currents (produced by a similar mechanism), hydroelectric, powered by solar-powered water evaporation and condensation into rivers, ocean thermal energy conversion (based on solar-heated surface layers of the tropical oceans), and ocean waves, driven by the wind and carrying energy with them as they approach the shoreline.

Renewable Energy Generation

Napier Grass

Farmers are now being offered opportunities not only to produce on their land as they have always done, but now to enter other business ventures on their land by generating renewable energy. Wind power is one of the most rapidly growing renewable energy types in the world today. From 1998 to 2002, its annual growth rate worldwide was 32 percent. The DOE's Wind Powering America initiative has set a goal of producing 5 percent of the nation's electricity from wind by 2020. The DOE projects meant to achieve this goal will provide 60 billion in capital investment to the rural United States, 1.2 billion in new income to farmers and rural landowners, and 80,000 new jobs during the next 20 years. Another form of clean energy that can be used on a farm is solar energy. According to the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), solar energy can be used in agriculture in a number of ways. One of the simplest ways is to design or renovate buildings and barns to use natural daylight instead of...

Solar PV Systems King of the Energy Efficiency Hill

In one fell swoop you can completely offset your electric utility bill and generate zero pollution. Millions of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed all over the world, and the costs are decreasing due to economies of scale. But PV systems are not for everybody because they require a considerable upfront investment.

The ABCs of renewable energy RECs and greenhouse gas offsets

There is much discussion in this book about how RECs should or should not interact with the GHG market. The overarching question in the RECs vs carbon offsets debate is when customers buy renewable energy certificates, under what circumstances should those purchases be considered GHG offsets It is useful to approach this question by carefully breaking it down into three questions Does renewable energy reduce GHG emissions When customers buy RECs as CO2 reductions, under what circumstances are those purchases meaningful How can customers use RECs to offset their organizations' CO2 emissions

Solar Power Supply Chain

To make a solar cell, you need a semiconductor material like silicon or the more exotic compounds that go into next-generation thin films. And you need specialized machines to turn raw materials into intermediate products and then into solar cells. The result is several distinct supply chains, each with its share of public companies. Silicon Solar-grade silicon is made from silica, a ubiquitous material that makes up nearly 26 percent of the earth ' s crust. Before it can become a solar cell, its impurities have to be removed in a complicated refining process. Table 20.5 gives a partial list of the public companies that do this. Renewable Energy Renewable Energy was soaring, the companies in the microchip supply chain tended to periodically overexpand, causing a pattern of booms and busts in which silicon prices would spike and then plunge, taking the earnings and share prices of the various players along for the ride. In this decade, the solar power boom caused by German and Japanese...

Solar photovoltaic costs

The main market for solar photovoltaic technology in 2003 was grid-connected residential and domestic installations. These accounted for 365 MW of total annual production of 744 MW, or roughly 50 .13 The cost of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic system based on silicon can be divided roughly into thirds. One-third is for the actual silicon to make the cell (the module), a further one-third for the manufacture of the solar cell and panel or module, and one-third for installation and ancillary equipment.14 In the USA in 2003, the cost of an installed rooftop system of this type was 6500- 8000 kW (see Table 13.3). This compares with 7000- 9000 kW in 2001 and 12000 kW in 1993. Even so, this makes solar photovoltaic technology one of the most expensive available today for generating electricity. Table 13.3 Solar photovoltaic costs Table 13.3 Solar photovoltaic costs Photovoltaic module ( kW) Source. Renewable Energy World.16 Source. Renewable Energy World.16 The cost of the solar cell...

Renewable Energy and the Terawatt Challenge

1960 1970 Cars Trucks

Currently, renewable energy only constitutes a very small fraction of the total energy mix in the U. S. and in other parts of the world (Figure 2). For example, in 2000, only about 6.6 quads (one quad is about 1018 J) of the primary energy in the U. S. came from renewables out of a total of 98.5 quads.11 Of this small fraction supplied by renewable energy, about 3.3 quads were from biomass, 2.8 from hydroelectric generation, 0.32 from geothermal sources, 0.07 from solar thermal energy and 0.05 quads from wind turbines.8 This profile would have to switch to an energy mix that resembles the right-side panel in Figure 2 if the CO2 emissions are to be capped at environmentally safe levels. This is what the late Professor Rick Smalley, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, referred to as the Terawatt Challenge. Recent analyses12 have posited that researching, developing, and commercializing carbon-free primary power to the required level of 10-30 TW (one terawatt 1012 W) by 2050 will...

On Global Warming The Environment And Carbonfree Energy

Wind Power Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business. Rev. ed. White River Junction, VT Chelsea Green, 2004. The best all-around introduction to wind energy, from one of the leading experts in the field. Hayden, Howard C. The Solar Fraud Why Solar Energy Won't Run the World. 2nd ed. Pueblo West, CO Vales Lakes Publishers, 2004. Rather strident, but a good antidote to the innumerable solar hype books on the market.

Renewable Energy Outline

In the METI renewable energy policy, new energy sources are defined and promoted which include photovoltaic (PV) power generation, wind power generation, solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, waste power generation, waste thermal energy, waste fuel production, biomass power generation, biomass thermal energy, biomass fuel production, cool energy of snow and ice, clean energy vehicles, natural gas cogeneration, and fuel cells 2 . Both R&D and policy measures to introduce renewable energy are strongly promoted because of their effectiveness in realizing sustainable energy systems in the future. In the 2005 METI report Prospect for Supply and Demand in 2030, national targets for introducing various new energy sources by 2010 are presented in Table 2.6. Solar power FIGURE 2.6 Cumulative installed capacity of PV systems in selected IEA countries. (From IEA PVPS Trends in photovoltaic applications in selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004 Hamelinck, C. N. and Faaij, A. P. C....

Renewable Energy Action Agenda

In addition to the measures prescribed by law under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth), the Australian government developed a Renewable Energy Action Agenda in 2000 as a joint initiative with industry. The Agenda is to be implemented by the Renewable Energy Action Agenda Group. In October 2002, the Group released the Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap report4 which reflects the views of industry, research and policy-makers, and participants to provide 'pathways' for the development of Australia's renewable energy industry. The report concluded that five key factors determine renewable energy innovation and technology development international climate change commitments government policies and programs economic and social drivers renewable energy resources and research and development capability. The report suggested that while Australia has acknowledged strength in renewable energy research, greater emphasis is required to complete the innovation cycle to capture...

Differences between the Concepts of Agricultural Renewable Energy and Rural Renewable Energy

Before considering the differences between the concepts of agricultural renewable energy and rural renewable energy, it is necessary first to define agricultural energy. According to the Dictionary of Agriculture and Encyclopedia of China (Agriculture Volume) it is energy developed and used in rural areas in accordance with local conditions including both renewable energies, such as firewood, straw, excrement, small hydropower schemes, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, as well as nonrenewable energies, such as small coal mines4 from energy sources such as animal power, biomass energy, hydro energy, mineral energy, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy.5 2. rural energy includes not only renewable energies (such as straw, excrement, solar energy, and wind energy), but also nonrenewable energies (such as mineral energy or fossil fuel energy) and In light of this understanding of rural energy, it is clear that the term rural renewable energy refers...

Uptake of renewable energy in Australia

In Chapter 2,an in-depth analysis of sustainable energy technologies is provided. Here a simple analysis of the current uptake of renewable energy in Australia is offered. A mix of renewable energy technologies is expected to be developed to meet the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target of sourcing 2 more electricity from renewable sources by 2010 (the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET)), as prescribed by the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth).3 Prior to the enactment of this legislation, Australia's renewable energy sector generated approximately 16,000GWh of electricity representing 10.5 of Australia's electricity market. This was largely electricity generated from hydroelectric sources from Tasmania and the Snowy Mountains scheme. In order to meet the MRET, renewable energy generation from minor sources of energy, 2 Most of the information given in this section is sourced from Renewable Opportunities - A Review of the Operation of the Renewable Energy (Electricity)...

National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy research facility that examines renewable energy technologies and their potential for meeting U.S. energy needs. The NREL serves as the primary research and development facility for renewable energy in the United States. The NREL Web site provides an overview of renewable energy and offers information on U.S. initiatives for renewable research and development and technology dissemination.

Renewable Energy Programs

The following are the renewable energy programs being developed Solar thermal Wind energy Photovoltaic Biomass Geothermal Small hydro power Energy from waste Ocean energy PREGA is an acronym for the Netherlands Cooperation Fund on Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement. The main objective of PREGA is to promote investments in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and greenhouse-gas abatement technologies in developing member countries. Such investments will Increase access to energy services by the poor Realize other strategic development objectives Help reduce greenhouse-gas emissions Develop capacities of national policy makers, technical experts, and staff of financing institutions to promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, and greenhouse-gas abatement Support policy, regulatory, and institutional reforms, including removal of

Other renewable energy systems

In all the scenarios considered in this Outlook, increased deployment of other forms of renewable electricity, heating, cooling and transport fuels is projected. However, the prospect of climate change introduces uncertainties which could affect virtually all forms of renewable energy. Solar radiation levels are subject to reductions of up to 20 in some regions (Bull et al., 2007), due to increased cloud cover, and there is a risk of damage to solar collection facilities from extreme weather conditions, such as hail. In addition, higher ambient temperatures can reduce the output and life of photovoltaic cells.

Building On The New Enthusiasm For Renewable Energy

Renewable energy credits (RECs) are now going from promise to reality. The Texas and California REC markets have been extremely active. Today, 19 states have Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), and we are starting to see real market growth. As more states adopt renewable energy credit programs and renewable portfolio standards, many more trades will occur. Demand is also coming from commercial and industrial customers seeking green energy, with many active green power marketers stepping up to meet this market need. In addition, state governments are making purchases under renewable energy procurement mandates, with some federal agencies also participating. With a new term for the Bush administration, it's time to set the framework to begin a national REC market and promote rapid commercialization of new technology. The nascent, homegrown U.S. renewable energy industry is presently in a state of confusion. The wind-power Production Tax Credit (PTC) went through an on-again-off-again...

Renewable and Solar Energy Technologies Energy and Environmental Issues

Abstract A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace all current 102 quads (quad 1015 BTU) of U.S. energy consumption (USCB 2007). A gross estimate of land and water resources is needed, as these resources will be required to implement the various renewable energy technologies. Keywords Biomass energy conversion systems ethanol geothermal systems hydroelectric power photovoltaic systems renewable energy solar wind power

Strengths And Limitations Of Green Pricing And Green Power Marketing Schemes

Green pricing programs and green power marketing schemes are market-based mechanisms that are used to increase demand by consumers for electricity produced from renewable energy sources. These programs are voluntary and depend upon the willingness of consumers to pay a price premium for the supply of green power to them directly or the investment by a utility in developing renewable energy technologies. As market-based mechanisms, green pricing programs offer a number of benefits but are also subject to a number of limitations.

Relevant Legislative Systems for the Management of Agricultural Renewable Energy at State Levels Are Still Incomplete

A lack of legislation concerning the management of agricultural renewable energy. Not only is there no specific legislation on this issue, there is even a lack of relevant provisions in related legislation. In terms of state legislation, only certain laws, such as the Law of Agriculture and Law of Energy Saving, are concerned with the integrated utilization and management of agricultural renewable energy. There are 59 Wang Gehua, Contributions of Constructions of Rural Renewable Energy Made to Deduction of CO 2 Discharge and Actions (2002) 1 Energy ofJiangxi 1-3. also only two departmental statements formulated by the State Administration of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Agriculture that touch on the issue of agricultural renewable energy substances from the perspective of rural environment protection. It is obvious, therefore, that provisions concerning the management of agricultural renewable energy, in related legislation, do not provide full legislative authority...

Definition of Agricultural Renewable Energy

For the purposes of this chapter, agricultural renewable energy combines the concepts of agriculture and renewable energy. According to the Dictionary of Agriculture, agriculture is a human productive activity combining natural reproduction and economic reproduction for the purpose of obtaining the material goods needed for living and production, through the production of products involving plants, animals, and microorganisms, taking living animals and plants as the main objects of labor, and arable lands as the basic means of such production.1 According to the Huaxia Concise Encyclopedia, renewable energy is recycled energy that has the ability of natural self-recovery in the ecological system and will not be lessened gradually through natural processes or human utilization including solar energy, hydro energy, wind energy, biological energy, tidal energy, wave power and geothermal energy etc. 2 The concept of biomass energy, in the context of renewable energy, is defined in the...

Distinguishing Renewable from Nonrenewable Energy Sources

Renewable Energy Resources and the Services They Provide TABLE 16.2. Renewable Energy Resources and the Services They Provide Solar energy millions of years and exist in fixed quantities. We consume their stock, not their perennial flow, so the more we use, the less remains. Therefore, fossil fuels are neither renewable nor sustainable. High-grade economically exploitable deposits of these fuels will one day be exhausted. A sustainable economy therefore must rely primarily on renewable energy sources (Tables 16.2 16.6). Conventional nuclear power based on atomic fission is not renewable.4

Renewable Energy Certificates

Renewable energy certificates (RECs), also called green certificates or green tags, describe the environmental characteristics of power from renewable energy projects and are sold separately from general electricity. Consumers can buy green certificates whether or not they have access to green power through their local utility. They can also buy green certificates without having to switch electricity suppliers. Today, over 30 organizations sell wholesale or retail green energy certificates. Table 16-1 lists information from the February 2004 green power certificates list (for Washington state) maintained by the Green Power Network, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory project of the U.S. Department of Energy. (Note Some certificates are specific to certain states, while others are available nationwide.) 100 Wind Renewable Energy Certificates *Data on green power options (February 2004) is from the Green Power Network (National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of...

RD Challenges in the Chemical Sciences to Enable Widespread Utilization of Renewable Energy

When looking at the present utilization of primary power and options for future sources of energy, a number of questions can be envisioned. Where do we presently get our power from and what are the costs What is the role for the chemical sciences in renewable energy technology To answer these questions, it is useful to review the present primary power mix how much energy is consumed, from what sources, future constraints imposed by sustainability, and the theoretical and practical energy potential of various renewables. Once these issues have been addressed, it is possible to identify the challenges for the chemical sciences to economically exploit renewables on a scale commensurate with our energy needs. Obviously, this is not an insignificant amount of power. Ten terawatts was the entire global power production from all sources in 1990. In addition, if atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are to be stabilized, there will be an even greater need for renewable energy. For example, if...

The Chinese Governments Efforts In The Management Of Agricultural Renewable Energy

Despite the problems mentioned in Section 2, Chinese governments at all levels since 1990 have established policies and plans, built legal capacity and frameworks, encouraged technical development, and supported projects relating to the management of agricultural renewable energy.

Transition to Renewable Energy

Despite its environmental and economic benefits, the transition to large-scale use of renewable energy presents several difficulties. Renewable energy technologies, all of which require land for collection and production, will compete with agriculture, forestry, and urbanization for land in the United States and world. The United States is at maximum use of its prime cropland for food production per capita today, but the world has less than half the cropland per capita that it needs for a diverse diet (0.5 ha) and adequate supply of essential nutrients (USDA 2004). In fact, more than 3.7 billion people are already malnourished in the world (UN SCN 2004, Bagla 2003). With the world and US populations expected to double in the next 58 and 70 years, respectively, all the available cropland and forestland will be required to provide vital food and forest products (PRB 2006). As the growing U.S. and world populations demand increased electricity and liquid fuels, constraints like land...

Green Pricing and Green Power Marketing Demand Side Mechanisms for Promoting Green Power in Deregulated Electricity

The production and use of electricity generated by fossil fuels is one of the most environmentally damaging human activities on this planet. It is generally acknowledged that increasing the share of electricity generated by renewable energy is vital for reducing the environmental impacts of electricity generated by fossil fuels and achieving sustainable development. Protection of the environment is a key reason for the introduction of government policies encouraging the development of renewable energy through mechanisms such as tax and other financial incentives and the mandatory purchasing by electric utilities of electricity generated from renewable energy sources in developed countries since the 1970s. More recently, the deregulation and or privatization of energy markets in many countries, including the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, various European countries, and the countries of Latin America, has led to concerns about the future of renewable energy resources...

Urban Policies to Promote Renewable Energy

Renewable energy sources are receiving substantial attention in these European cities and are being promoted by local governments in a variety of ways. Stockholm Energi fuels its district heating system in several different ways, including through the use of biofuels, the extraction of heat energy from wastewater using heat pumps, and the extraction of bio-oil from pulp and paper mills, among other sources. The city's energy company has plans to increase the use of these kinds of biofuels (with a target of about 50 percent from renewable sources). A relatively high percentage of the city's electricity production also is provided through hydroelectric sources. Some of the cities are actively pursuing wind energy. The city of Bologna, for example, has invested in a 3.5 MW wind park. The city of Heidelberg has developed several renewable energy projects, including a hydroelectric power plant on the Neckar River and plans to build three wind turbines on a high spot not far from the old...

Solar Energy in Buildings

It has been well known for decades that when passive solar features, such as skylights or masses of heat-absorbing concrete, are coupled with sufficient insulation and advanced windows in a holistic building design, vast reductions in a building's energy need are possible. Energy experts at the Center for Buildings and Thermal Systems at the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory state, The nation today could reduce its energy use by 30 70 percent in buildings by simply incorporating advanced energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies into its buildings. 20 Unfortunately, because of historically low fossil fuel prices (for natural gas in particular), few homes today are outfitted with solar energy space heating or cooling systems.

Renewable Energy Use in India

In the light of global developments, India has taken the decisive policy steps to move ahead and tap the immense potential for renewable energy (RE) sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro, etc., and build the necessary skills and manpower to favourably use these resources. Renewable energy devices and systems have become increasingly more visible during the last two decades, and power generation from renewable sources is also increasing. The estimated potential and the extent of exploitation so far are given in Table 2.4, and efforts have been stepped up to achieve the full potential of the use of renewable energy sources. The medium term goal is to ensure electrification of 25,000 remote and unelectrified villages, and achieves a minimum 10 share or 10,000 MW (of the estimated 100,000 MW),from renewable energy in the power generation capacity by the year 2012 3 . A large domestic manufacturing base has been established for renewable energy systems and products. The annual...

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