Do It Yourself Solar Energy

Solar Power Design Manual

This manual is meant for anyone who wants to build their own solar power system. It is one of the most comprehensive solar power books in the market backed by the immense knowledge and experience of the author Richard Stubbs. The manual also comes with little freebie named Solar Sizing Excel spreadsheet template to help you have a smooth operation in building your solar power plant. Once you download the manual and extras, you will be given an option to receive future updates for free. I really recommend you buy this manual because of it different from all the solar power books you have ever come across. Read more...

Solar Power Design Manual Summary


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Solar Power Design Manual

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I usually find books written on this category hard to understand and full of jargon. But the author was capable of presenting advanced techniques in an extremely easy to understand language.

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Renewable Energy Outline

In the METI renewable energy policy, new energy sources are defined and promoted which include photovoltaic (PV) power generation, wind power generation, solar thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, waste power generation, waste thermal energy, waste fuel production, biomass power generation, biomass thermal energy, biomass fuel production, cool energy of snow and ice, clean energy vehicles, natural gas cogeneration, and fuel cells 2 . Both R&D and policy measures to introduce renewable energy are strongly promoted because of their effectiveness in realizing sustainable energy systems in the future. In the 2005 METI report Prospect for Supply and Demand in 2030, national targets for introducing various new energy sources by 2010 are presented in Table 2.6. Solar power FIGURE 2.6 Cumulative installed capacity of PV systems in selected IEA countries. (From IEA PVPS Trends in photovoltaic applications in selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2004 Hamelinck, C. N. and Faaij, A. P. C....

Renewable Energy Action Agenda

In addition to the measures prescribed by law under the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth), the Australian government developed a Renewable Energy Action Agenda in 2000 as a joint initiative with industry. The Agenda is to be implemented by the Renewable Energy Action Agenda Group. In October 2002, the Group released the Renewable Energy Technology Roadmap report4 which reflects the views of industry, research and policy-makers, and participants to provide 'pathways' for the development of Australia's renewable energy industry. The report concluded that five key factors determine renewable energy innovation and technology development international climate change commitments government policies and programs economic and social drivers renewable energy resources and research and development capability. The report suggested that while Australia has acknowledged strength in renewable energy research, greater emphasis is required to complete the innovation cycle to capture...

Differences between the Concepts of Agricultural Renewable Energy and Rural Renewable Energy

Before considering the differences between the concepts of agricultural renewable energy and rural renewable energy, it is necessary first to define agricultural energy. According to the Dictionary of Agriculture and Encyclopedia of China (Agriculture Volume) it is energy developed and used in rural areas in accordance with local conditions including both renewable energies, such as firewood, straw, excrement, small hydropower schemes, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, as well as nonrenewable energies, such as small coal mines4 from energy sources such as animal power, biomass energy, hydro energy, mineral energy, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy and tidal energy.5 2. rural energy includes not only renewable energies (such as straw, excrement, solar energy, and wind energy), but also nonrenewable energies (such as mineral energy or fossil fuel energy) and In light of this understanding of rural energy, it is clear that the term rural renewable energy refers...

Uptake of renewable energy in Australia

In Chapter 2,an in-depth analysis of sustainable energy technologies is provided. Here a simple analysis of the current uptake of renewable energy in Australia is offered. A mix of renewable energy technologies is expected to be developed to meet the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target of sourcing 2 more electricity from renewable sources by 2010 (the Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET)), as prescribed by the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth).3 Prior to the enactment of this legislation, Australia's renewable energy sector generated approximately 16,000GWh of electricity representing 10.5 of Australia's electricity market. This was largely electricity generated from hydroelectric sources from Tasmania and the Snowy Mountains scheme. In order to meet the MRET, renewable energy generation from minor sources of energy, 2 Most of the information given in this section is sourced from Renewable Opportunities - A Review of the Operation of the Renewable Energy (Electricity)...

National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy research facility that examines renewable energy technologies and their potential for meeting U.S. energy needs. The NREL serves as the primary research and development facility for renewable energy in the United States. The NREL Web site provides an overview of renewable energy and offers information on U.S. initiatives for renewable research and development and technology dissemination.

Renewable Energy Programs

The following are the renewable energy programs being developed Solar thermal Wind energy Photovoltaic Biomass Geothermal Small hydro power Energy from waste Ocean energy PREGA is an acronym for the Netherlands Cooperation Fund on Promotion of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Abatement. The main objective of PREGA is to promote investments in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and greenhouse-gas abatement technologies in developing member countries. Such investments will Develop capacities of national policy makers, technical experts, and staff of financing institutions to promote renewable energy, energy efficiency, and greenhouse-gas abatement Support policy, regulatory, and institutional reforms, including removal of

Other renewable energy systems

In all the scenarios considered in this Outlook, increased deployment of other forms of renewable electricity, heating, cooling and transport fuels is projected. However, the prospect of climate change introduces uncertainties which could affect virtually all forms of renewable energy. Solar radiation levels are subject to reductions of up to 20 in some regions (Bull et al., 2007), due to increased cloud cover, and there is a risk of damage to solar collection facilities from extreme weather conditions, such as hail. In addition, higher ambient temperatures can reduce the output and life of photovoltaic cells.

Building On The New Enthusiasm For Renewable Energy

Renewable energy credits (RECs) are now going from promise to reality. The Texas and California REC markets have been extremely active. Today, 19 states have Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS), and we are starting to see real market growth. As more states adopt renewable energy credit programs and renewable portfolio standards, many more trades will occur. Demand is also coming from commercial and industrial customers seeking green energy, with many active green power marketers stepping up to meet this market need. In addition, state governments are making purchases under renewable energy procurement mandates, with some federal agencies also participating. With a new term for the Bush administration, it's time to set the framework to begin a national REC market and promote rapid commercialization of new technology. The nascent, homegrown U.S. renewable energy industry is presently in a state of confusion. The wind-power Production Tax Credit (PTC) went through an on-again-off-again...

Renewable and Solar Energy Technologies Energy and Environmental Issues

Abstract A critical need exists to investigate various renewable and solar energy technologies and examine the energy and environmental issues associated with these various technologies. The various renewable energy technologies will not be able to replace all current 102 quads (quad 1015 BTU) of U.S. energy consumption (USCB 2007). A gross estimate of land and water resources is needed, as these resources will be required to implement the various renewable energy technologies. Keywords Biomass energy conversion systems ethanol geothermal systems hydroelectric power photovoltaic systems renewable energy solar wind power

Relevant Legislative Systems for the Management of Agricultural Renewable Energy at State Levels Are Still Incomplete

A lack of legislation concerning the management of agricultural renewable energy. Not only is there no specific legislation on this issue, there is even a lack of relevant provisions in related legislation. In terms of state legislation, only certain laws, such as the Law of Agriculture and Law of Energy Saving, are concerned with the integrated utilization and management of agricultural renewable energy. There are 59 Wang Gehua, Contributions of Constructions of Rural Renewable Energy Made to Deduction of CO 2 Discharge and Actions (2002) 1 Energy ofJiangxi 1-3. also only two departmental statements formulated by the State Administration of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Agriculture that touch on the issue of agricultural renewable energy substances from the perspective of rural environment protection. It is obvious, therefore, that provisions concerning the management of agricultural renewable energy, in related legislation, do not provide full legislative authority...

Definition of Agricultural Renewable Energy

For the purposes of this chapter, agricultural renewable energy combines the concepts of agriculture and renewable energy. According to the Dictionary of Agriculture, agriculture is a human productive activity combining natural reproduction and economic reproduction for the purpose of obtaining the material goods needed for living and production, through the production of products involving plants, animals, and microorganisms, taking living animals and plants as the main objects of labor, and arable lands as the basic means of such production.1 According to the Huaxia Concise Encyclopedia, renewable energy is recycled energy that has the ability of natural self-recovery in the ecological system and will not be lessened gradually through natural processes or human utilization including solar energy, hydro energy, wind energy, biological energy, tidal energy, wave power and geothermal energy etc. 2 The concept of biomass energy, in the context of renewable energy, is defined in the...

Distinguishing Renewable from Nonrenewable Energy Sources

Renewable Energy Resources and the Services They Provide TABLE 16.2. Renewable Energy Resources and the Services They Provide Solar energy millions of years and exist in fixed quantities. We consume their stock, not their perennial flow, so the more we use, the less remains. Therefore, fossil fuels are neither renewable nor sustainable. High-grade economically exploitable deposits of these fuels will one day be exhausted. A sustainable economy therefore must rely primarily on renewable energy sources (Tables 16.2 16.6). Conventional nuclear power based on atomic fission is not renewable.4

Renewable energy sources

The following energy sources are 'eligible renewable energy sources' 79 Eligible renewable energy sources are defined in s 16 of the Renewable Energy (Electricity) Act 2000 (Cth). (o) photovoltaic and photovoltaic Renewable Stand Alone Power Supply systems However, the following energy sources are not eligible renewable energy sources Liable entities are required to achieve individual renewable energy targets based on their projected market share of consumption, which can be projected 3 years in advance.88 A liable entity calculates its target with reference to the renewable power percentage (RPP) that must be achieved in any given year. The RPP should be set by Regulation before 31 March each year and must relate to the required gigawatt hours (GWh), or mandatory renewable energy target (MRET), as set out in the Act (see table 4.1).89 A liable entity must surrender RECs to the Renewable Energy Regulator in discharge of its renewable energy liabilities under the Act.90 So, if a liable...

Renewable Energy Certificates

Renewable energy certificates (RECs), also called green certificates or green tags, describe the environmental characteristics of power from renewable energy projects and are sold separately from general electricity. Consumers can buy green certificates whether or not they have access to green power through their local utility. They can also buy green certificates without having to switch electricity suppliers. Today, over 30 organizations sell wholesale or retail green energy certificates. Table 16-1 lists information from the February 2004 green power certificates list (for Washington state) maintained by the Green Power Network, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory project of the U.S. Department of Energy. (Note Some certificates are specific to certain states, while others are available nationwide.) 100 Wind Renewable Energy Certificates *Data on green power options (February 2004) is from the Green Power Network (National Renewable Energy Laboratory for the U.S. Department of...

The ABCs of renewable energy RECs and greenhouse gas offsets

There is much discussion in this book about how RECs should or should not interact with the GHG market. The overarching question in the RECs vs carbon offsets debate is when customers buy renewable energy certificates, under what circumstances should those purchases be considered GHG offsets It is useful to approach this question by carefully breaking it down into three questions Does renewable energy reduce GHG emissions When customers buy RECs as CO2 reductions, under what circumstances are those purchases meaningful How can customers use RECs to offset their organizations' CO2 emissions

RD Challenges in the Chemical Sciences to Enable Widespread Utilization of Renewable Energy

When looking at the present utilization of primary power and options for future sources of energy, a number of questions can be envisioned. Where do we presently get our power from and what are the costs What is the role for the chemical sciences in renewable energy technology To answer these questions, it is useful to review the present primary power mix how much energy is consumed, from what sources, future constraints imposed by sustainability, and the theoretical and practical energy potential of various renewables. Once these issues have been addressed, it is possible to identify the challenges for the chemical sciences to economically exploit renewables on a scale commensurate with our energy needs. Obviously, this is not an insignificant amount of power. Ten terawatts was the entire global power production from all sources in 1990. In addition, if atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are to be stabilized, there will be an even greater need for renewable energy. For example, if...

The Chinese Governments Efforts In The Management Of Agricultural Renewable Energy

Despite the problems mentioned in Section 2, Chinese governments at all levels since 1990 have established policies and plans, built legal capacity and frameworks, encouraged technical development, and supported projects relating to the management of agricultural renewable energy.

Transition to Renewable Energy

Despite its environmental and economic benefits, the transition to large-scale use of renewable energy presents several difficulties. Renewable energy technologies, all of which require land for collection and production, will compete with agriculture, forestry, and urbanization for land in the United States and world. The United States is at maximum use of its prime cropland for food production per capita today, but the world has less than half the cropland per capita that it needs for a diverse diet (0.5 ha) and adequate supply of essential nutrients (USDA 2004). In fact, more than 3.7 billion people are already malnourished in the world (UN SCN 2004, Bagla 2003). With the world and US populations expected to double in the next 58 and 70 years, respectively, all the available cropland and forestland will be required to provide vital food and forest products (PRB 2006). As the growing U.S. and world populations demand increased electricity and liquid fuels, constraints like land...

Urban Policies to Promote Renewable Energy

Renewable energy sources are receiving substantial attention in these European cities and are being promoted by local governments in a variety of ways. Stockholm Energi fuels its district heating system in several different ways, including through the use of biofuels, the extraction of heat energy from wastewater using heat pumps, and the extraction of bio-oil from pulp and paper mills, among other sources. The city's energy company has plans to increase the use of these kinds of biofuels (with a target of about 50 percent from renewable sources). A relatively high percentage of the city's electricity production also is provided through hydroelectric sources. Some of the cities are actively pursuing wind energy. The city of Bologna, for example, has invested in a 3.5 MW wind park. The city of Heidelberg has developed several renewable energy projects, including a hydroelectric power plant on the Neckar River and plans to build three wind turbines on a high spot not far from the old...

Solar Energy in Buildings

It has been well known for decades that when passive solar features, such as skylights or masses of heat-absorbing concrete, are coupled with sufficient insulation and advanced windows in a holistic building design, vast reductions in a building's energy need are possible. Energy experts at the Center for Buildings and Thermal Systems at the DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory state, The nation today could reduce its energy use by 30 70 percent in buildings by simply incorporating advanced energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies into its buildings. 20 Unfortunately, because of historically low fossil fuel prices (for natural gas in particular), few homes today are outfitted with solar energy space heating or cooling systems.

Renewable Energy Use in India

In the light of global developments, India has taken the decisive policy steps to move ahead and tap the immense potential for renewable energy (RE) sources such as solar, wind, biomass, small hydro, etc., and build the necessary skills and manpower to favourably use these resources. Renewable energy devices and systems have become increasingly more visible during the last two decades, and power generation from renewable sources is also increasing. The estimated potential and the extent of exploitation so far are given in Table 2.4, and efforts have been stepped up to achieve the full potential of the use of renewable energy sources. The medium term goal is to ensure electrification of 25,000 remote and unelectrified villages, and achieves a minimum 10 share or 10,000 MW (of the estimated 100,000 MW),from renewable energy in the power generation capacity by the year 2012 3 . A large domestic manufacturing base has been established for renewable energy systems and products. The annual...

Characteristics of Renewable Energy Technologies

There are many renewable energy technologies. This chapter does not provide a basic summary description of each of the technologies themselves. Such information can be found in Cassedy (2000), Johansson et al. (1993), and on the Internet at 80 . We will focus here on the characteristics of the technologies that relate to their potential to address climate change. This includes summarizing their cost and performance, looking at the breadth of technologies and applications, and reviewing the size and characteristics of the renewable resources.

Creating Renewable Energy Certificates

Under the Act accredited power stations will be given a 1997 eligible renewable power baseline. Power stations will create renewable energy certificates (RECs) when they generate power using renewable energy sources79 that exceed the 1997 baseline.80 Certificates can also be created by installations of solar hot water heaters that are installed after January 2001 and which replace non-renewable heaters.81 A generator needs to be registered and accredited before a certificate can be issued in relation to the power generated by it. If an application for accreditation is approved, the power station must be allocated a unique identification code and it must be advised of the code.82 Certificates must be created electronically containing a unique identification code, the electronic signature of the person who created the certificate, the date on which the electricity was generated and the date on which the certificate was created. Certificates must be registered with theRegulator. It is an...

Cost of renewable energy

Some forms of renewable energy, like hydroelectricity and biomass, have been cost-competitive for many years in certain applications and provide a substantial energy supply worldwide. Others, like passive solar building design, are cost competitive, but haven't yet overcome all the market factors that currently preclude their widespread use. Technologies like wind and geothermal are currently cost competitive at their best resource sites, but need further improvements and support to reach their full market potential. A few, like photovoltaics, have identified niche off-grid electric markets that the industry is building to the point where it can competitively address retail power markets. Still others, like ethanol from biomass, are evolving both in the laboratory and the marketplace to the point where they will be competitive without price supports. Table 5.1 provides a summary of the general renewable energy technologies and their economics. In reality, there are a large variety of...

Renewable Energy Sources and Atomic Energy

As discussed in the earlier chapters, we rely today for a significant part of our energy needs and related hydrocarbon fuels and products primarily on non-renewable fossil fuel sources. In pre-industrial times, as is still the case today in some developing countries, energy supply was based primarily on renewable sources. The power of watermills and windmills was used to grind grain, press oil or to pump water, while wind energy at sea moved ships, and biomass energy sources such as wood and dung warmed us and cooked our food. With industrialization, however, the role of renewable energy in the global energy supply was gradually taken over by fossil fuels - first coal, and later oil and natural gas. During the past two centuries - which is a relatively short time in human history - our energy needs have relied predominantly on fossil fuels. While the reserves of these fossil fuels are still significant, they are nevertheless limited and diminishing, and they cannot sustain our...

Problems Concerning The Utilization Of Agricultural Renewable Energy In China

As the output of agricultural products grew considerably, the output of organic wastes used directly or used after treatment as energy substances or resource substances, such as straw, animal excrement, residues of crops after treatment, also grew significantly. China has abundant biomass resources, for example, the annual output of animal excrement is about 2 billion tonnes, and the output of crop straws and other agricultural wastes also reaches 0.7 billion tonnes.7 Using units of standard coal as the basis for calculation, the resource content of agricultural wastes such as crop straw, is the equivalent of approximately 0.31 billion tonnes of standard coal and firewood resources are the equivalent of approximately 0.13 billion tonnes of standard coal.8 The annual resource content of both agricultural wastes and firewood totals 0.44 billion tonnes of standard coal, equal to more than one-third of China's average annual output (approximately 1.25 billion tonnes of standard coal9) of...

Environmentally Friendly Renewable Energy

Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible, unlike hydrocarbon-based fossil fuels, which are in finite supply. Types of renewable energy currently available in the United States include solar, wind, geothermal (heat energy extracted from reservoirs in the earth's interior), and biomass (organic materials, such as wood byproducts and agricultural wastes that can be burned to produce energy or converted into a gas and used for fuel). Renewable energy (along with conservation) stands as a viable alternative to generating power with fossil fuels or nuclear technology. Mainly because of their perceived environmental friendliness or less intrusive nature, these technologies present an attractive method to meet power demand, on a limited basis. The current structure of electric power markets and the limitations inherent in each type of alternative fuel dictate that dramatic changes in the pattern of consumption or use of alternatives remains limited....

Transforming Production Using Renewable Energy Sources

There are already a number of new technologies available, which use renewable energy sources for heat and energy production. As a society, we need to define an optimal mix of such energy technologies, which could be used as a guideline for a large-scale transformation and implementation project. We already possess a number of technologies, which will be briefly discussed below, and a number of ideas for other technologies, that we could probably develop for large-scale implementation in the near future. The technologies that will be discussed are - solar thermal energy and photovoltaics,

Energy Options Solar Energy

Renewable energy is energy obtained from sources at a rate that is less than or equal to the rate at which the source is replenished. In the case of solar energy, we can only use the energy that is provided by the Sun. Since the remaining lifetime of the Sun is measured in millions of years, many people consider solar energy an inexhaustible supply of energy. In fact, solar energy from the Sun is finite, but should be available for use by many generations of people. Solar energy is therefore considered renewable. Energy sources that are associated with solar energy, such as wind and biomass, are also considered renewable. Solar radiation may be converted to other forms of energy by several conversion processes. Thermal conversion relies on the absorption of solar energy to heat a cool surface. Biological conversion of solar energy relies on photo synthesis. Photovoltaic conversion generates electrical power by the generation of an electrical current. Wind power and ocean energy...

The promise of solar energy

Solar energy is the main renewable energy resource throughout the world. Other renewable energy sources, e.g. biomass energy and wind energy, are derived directly from it. It is an abundant energy source. Our planet receives from the sun the equivalent of 15 000 times the energy consumed in the world, but this energy is diffuse and intermittent. Solar energy can be captured as either heat or electricity using the photovoltaic effect. There is considerable scope for the development of low-temperature thermal solar energy in the short term. Heat is supplied by solar sensors consisting of a black absorbent surface which transfers the heat to a heat exchange fluid, generally a mixture of water and glycol to prevent the possibility of freezing. A glazed surface is fitted over the absorbent surface to block the infrared radiation re-emitted. In the housing sector, thermal solar energy is used mainly to provide sanitary hot water. It may also be used to cater for a certain proportion of...

Policy for All Round Development of Renewable Energy

Fiscal incentives are being offered to increase the viability of RE projects the main incentive is 60 accelerated depreciation. Other incentives include a tax holiday, lower customs duty, sales tax, and excise tax exemption for RE projects. The Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency is the main financing institution for renewable energy projects. It offers financing of the renewable projects with lower interest rates, which vary with the technology, depending on its commercial viability. Though interest rates are falling in India, they are not in the renewables sector for various reasons, but mainly due to perceived high risk. The interest rates vary from 11 (for biomass cogeneration) to 14.5 (for wind). The Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol has started offering additional stream of revenue making renewable energy projects more attractive.

Harvesting Renewable Energy Sources

Many renewable sources are used to supply only Point of Use heat. For renewable sources that are configured to supply electrical energy, electrolyzer technology can be applied to improve the harvesting of these renewable energy sources. Electrolyzers can be designed to be relatively insensitive to the power input level. When driven at high power levels the efficiency decreases, but with proper cooling the cell continues to operate without problem. The electrolyzer's ability to operate with reasonable efficiency over broad input power levels greatly increases the practicality of harvesting intermittent energy sources such as solar and wind. Figure 6.5 show an electrolysis unit developed by Stuart Energy Systems to convert solar power into hydrogen for use as fuel for a fuel cell powered bus. This Project Demonstrated Coupling Solar Energy to Bus Transportation This Project Demonstrated Coupling Solar Energy to Bus Transportation

Stimulating a Clean Energy Revolution

The 'perfect storm' of climate change, political instability in key energy regions, and high oil prices has created a demand for a new energy path. The advent of promising new technologies capable of turning abundant domestic energy sources - including solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, biomass and ocean energy - into transportation fuels, electricity and heat offer a path to an unprecedented energy revolution. Renewable energy technologies, combined with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, have the potential to rapidly and economically transform the world's energy system.

Chinese Governments Have Made Significant Progress in the Development and Utilization of Agricultural Renewable Energy

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Chinese governments at all levels have continuously devoted significant manpower, material resources, and financial resources to the research, application, promotion, and popularization of technology for developing and utilizing agricultural renewable energy. After ten years of such government efforts, more rural areas in China have changed their traditional lifestyle and energy structures, while the quality of ecological environments in such regions has also gradually improved. First, in terms of the development and integrated utilization of agricultural renewable energy and its engineering construction, according to the data provided in Statistical Information of China Agriculture (2001), in 2001, the total amount of capital invested in China for rural energy construction was 703,000,000 yuan, of which 523,000,000 yuan was directly funded by the government through its annual budget and construction loans totalled 180,000,000 yuan. By the end of...

US potential for renewable energy

In contrast those in Europe, US renewable energy policies over the past two decades have been an uneven and ever-changing patchwork of regulations and subsidies. Abrupt changes in direction at both the state and federal levels have deterred investors and led dozens of companies into bankruptcy. Embracing the path of renewable energy is not only an environmental necessity, it also makes good economic sense, allowing both companies and individuals to save money, and generating high-wage jobs in a rapidly growing technological industry. Renewable resources are sometimes dismissed as serious options because it is argued their growth will be constrained by the underlying resource base. In fact, statistics show that the US has a very large resource base for wind, solar, geothermal and other renewables, and the land area required would be modest (see Figure 19.4). Recent studies show that if wind energy technology were to be fully implemented in only three states, it would generate enough...

Present Status and Potential of Renewable Energy RE

FIGURE 1.8 2003 resource shares in world renewable energy supply. (Data from IEA, World Energy Outlook, IEA, Paris, 2004. With permission.) FIGURE 1.8 2003 resource shares in world renewable energy supply. (Data from IEA, World Energy Outlook, IEA, Paris, 2004. With permission.) TABLE 1.4 Share of Renewable Energy (RE)

Solar photovoltaic costs

The main market for solar photovoltaic technology in 2003 was grid-connected residential and domestic installations. These accounted for 365 MW of total annual production of 744 MW, or roughly 50 .13 The cost of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic system based on silicon can be divided roughly into thirds. One-third is for the actual silicon to make the cell (the module), a further one-third for the manufacture of the solar cell and panel or module, and one-third for installation and ancillary equipment.14 In the USA in 2003, the cost of an installed rooftop system of this type was 6500- 8000 kW (see Table 13.3). This compares with 7000- 9000 kW in 2001 and 12000 kW in 1993. Even so, this makes solar photovoltaic technology one of the most expensive available today for generating electricity. Table 13.3 Solar photovoltaic costs Table 13.3 Solar photovoltaic costs Photovoltaic module ( kW) Source. Renewable Energy World.16 Source. Renewable Energy World.16 Apart from the introduction...

Renewable energy prospects

Out of this total, biomass and waste accounted for 1186 Mtoe and hydraulic power 261 Mtoe. These two energy sources, which make the largest contribution to the renewable energy balance, have already been used for many years. The main development hopes concern wind and solar power, which still only represent a minor proportion of energy production respectively, 0.34 and 0.09Mtoe in France in 2007). The disadvantage with these

Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy Budget and Tax Policy

Do you support increasing, maintaining, or reducing the funding levels for the U.S. Department of Energy's energy efficiency and renewable energy programs (likely to be funded at approximately 1 billion in fiscal Year 2004) 5. Do you support increasing, decreasing, or maintaining the current level of federal tax incentives and or federal budget outlays to promote the use of solar energy technologies

Energy Conservation and Renewable Energy in India

This has brought the focus on new and renewable sources of energy that have emerged as a viable option to supplement energy demand in various sectors. The Government of India has been making concerted efforts to develop and promote renewable energy applications, ranging from power generation to meeting cooking energy needs of the people through biogas plants. The Government of India has set up an agenda of electrifying all villages by 2007 and providing power to all by 2012. It is following a comprehensive and holistic approach to power sector development envisaging a six level intervention strategy at the National, State, Electricity Boards, Feeder, and Consumer levels. It is proposed to electrify all the unelectrified villages through grid connectivity and the remaining 25,000 remote villages through the use of renewable energy technologies. The importance of optimum and economic utilization of power has been realized lately, and the present capacity of 8,000 MW for interregional...

Windphotovoltaic And Battery Backup Power Supply

David's house combines wind and solar power to compensate for seasonal variances and to produce a consistent and steady supply of renewable energy. 28 BP Solarex photovoltaic panels, which provide a 2.1 kW peak rating, are mounted on a simple garden timber trellis permitting optimal solar orientation without relying on the house orientation. This also prevents excess heat build-up on the panels and allows them to be cleaned without the need for roof ladders. It also allows the system to be upgraded easily in the future. When the wind is blowing more than the sun is shining, then the 2.5 kW Scottish-made Proven wind turbine provides supplemental power. To ensure a backup electrical supply if the sun is not shining and the wind is not blowing, a battery store is provided. Both the wind turbine and the photovoltaic array supply to the battery and the power is converted to 230 V AC for running normal domestic appliances in the house. However, all appliances have been carefully considered...

Integrated distributed energy supplies using renewable energy

Fig. 1.1 The advantages of an integrated, distributed and renewable energy based supply model (bottom) when compared with that of the conventional, segregated and hierarchical system as it historically developed through the age of industrialisation to become currently prevalent (top), and the more integrated and highly hierachical model presently advanced by the conventional energy industry (center). Fig. 1.1 The advantages of an integrated, distributed and renewable energy based supply model (bottom) when compared with that of the conventional, segregated and hierarchical system as it historically developed through the age of industrialisation to become currently prevalent (top), and the more integrated and highly hierachical model presently advanced by the conventional energy industry (center). Today we are at the beginning of the third phase when the system, after a period of convergence, is diversifying again, leading on the one hand to a gradually declining number of energy users...

Renewable Energy and the Terawatt Challenge

Currently, renewable energy only constitutes a very small fraction of the total energy mix in the U. S. and in other parts of the world (Figure 2). For example, in 2000, only about 6.6 quads (one quad is about 1018 J) of the primary energy in the U. S. came from renewables out of a total of 98.5 quads.11 Of this small fraction supplied by renewable energy, about 3.3 quads were from biomass, 2.8 from hydroelectric generation, 0.32 from geothermal sources, 0.07 from solar thermal energy and 0.05 quads from wind turbines.8 This profile would have to switch to an energy mix that resembles the right-side panel in Figure 2 if the CO2 emissions are to be capped at environmentally safe levels. This is what the late Professor Rick Smalley, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, referred to as the Terawatt Challenge. Recent analyses12 have posited that researching, developing, and commercializing carbon-free primary power to the required level of 10-30 TW (one terawatt 1012 W) by 2050 will...

On Global Warming The Environment And Carbonfree Energy

Wind Power Renewable Energy for Home, Farm, and Business. Rev. ed. White River Junction, VT Chelsea Green, 2004. The best all-around introduction to wind energy, from one of the leading experts in the field. Hayden, Howard C. The Solar Fraud Why Solar Energy Won't Run the World. 2nd ed. Pueblo West, CO Vales Lakes Publishers, 2004. Rather strident, but a good antidote to the innumerable solar hype books on the market.

Solar Power Supply Chain

Renewable Energy Renewable Energy was soaring, the companies in the microchip supply chain tended to periodically overexpand, causing a pattern of booms and busts in which silicon prices would spike and then plunge, taking the earnings and share prices of the various players along for the ride. In this decade, the solar power boom caused by German and Japanese subsidies amplified the wave, sending silicon demand far beyond suppliers' capacity. The shortage caused solar-grade silicon prices to soar, which sent the profits of the silicon makers through the roof. This in turn caused everyone in the business to add capacity, and now a glut is projected for the final two years of the decade. Solar Cell Machinery Turning silicon into solar cells is a lot like turning silicon into microchips, so for microchip equipment makers, solar is a natural growth path. California-based Applied Materials, for instance, makes equipment that deposits thin layers of various materials onto microchip wafers...

Renewable Energy Sources Solar Energy

An enormous amount of solar energy is available and it has been used for centuries.76 Because of the history and great availability, harvesting solar energy has again attracted much attention. 77 The contiguous 48 states have a total area of 8,018,880 square kilometers (8.019xl016 cm2). As described earlier, the sun provides 8.38 Joules cm2 min. There are 525,600 minutes per year. On the average, the sun shines V2 the time. Thus, the 48 states receive 1.766x 1023 Joules per year. From the Table 2.1 the 1999 United States energy use is 1.019 x 1020 Joules per year thus, the sun provides 1,733 times more energy than we use in the United States. Calculations indicate that if we can harvest solar energy at 5 efficiency then 1.12 of the area of United States could provide all the energy we need. At first glance, 1.12 does not sound like a large area. Expressing this area in other ways provides a feel for the immense scale of the collectors needed if we are to supply all our energy needs...

Major Types of Renewable Energy Sources

Hydropower, produced from flowing water passing through hydroelectric turbines, is the leading renewable energy source, contributing to approximately 9 percent of the electricity generated in the United States. Most hydropower is produced at large dams, although there are many small systems operating around the world, such as the small hydropower plant in Namche Bazar, Nepal, which provides power for the tourist and market town near Mt. Everest. The production of hydroelectricity from year to year varies with precipitation. Solar energy systems. The simplest uses of solar energy are for drying crops, and heating buildings and water. Solar-heated homes and solar water heaters can be found in nearly every country around the world. Crops can be simply laid in the sun to dry, or more sophisticated collectors can be used to heat air to dry food stored on drying racks. Solar water heaters use collectors Photovoltaic (PV) systems are based on solar electric cells, which convert...

Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaics

The available solar energy on Earth amounts to a total of 10,000 times the current consumption of energy from fossil and nuclear fuels. Despite this abundance, a high share of the world's production of photovoltaic power until recently came from one plant in the Mojave Desert in California. In the case of solar thermal energy, the use is more widespread, and solar panels for the heating of houses and hot water tanks are increasingly installed on rooftops in regions with temperate to warm climates. All forms of solar energy generation require the use of solar collectors, which require a certain area for their application. These collectors are becoming increasingly complex and efficient using mirrors to reflect and concentrate light for improved efficiency and reduced cost. Regardless of these improvements, the cost per unit of photovoltaic power is currently four times as expensive as that of wind power. Because of the fact that land is expensive, the advantages of solar energy could...

Solar photovoltaics and thermal panels on roofs

Most places are sunnier than the UK, so solar panels would deliver more power in continental Europe. 10 m2 of roof-mounted photovoltaic panels would deliver about 7kWh d in all places south of the UK. Similarly, 2 m2 of water-heating panels could deliver on average 3.6 kWh d of low-grade thermal heat. (I don't see much point in suggesting having more than 2 m2 per person of water-heating panels, since this capacity would already be enough to saturate typical demand for hot water.)

Utilityscale photovoltaic PV plants

Utility-scale PV plants are large arrays of photovoltaic systems set up by the utilities. A combined 1 MW of peak power is now being generated by these plants worldwide, with Germany leading in capacity, followed by the U.S. The largest system of all is located in Prescott, Arizona, with a capacity of 5 MW peak. Costs for these plants are coming in at around 5 per watt, but some plants are more expensive, and produce less net annual production. The economics are not competitive with fossil fuels, but because of government mandates stating that utilities must produce a certain minimum amount of their total power with renewable resources, these large plants fulfill an increasing need. With decreases in the cost per watt for solar panels, these plants will become much more common.

Point to Ponder Why arent solar power plants more popular in sunny deserted areas

One of the major advantages of solar power plants is that the energy is free. There are, however, several issues to consider that impact cost and social acceptability. The free energy from the Sun has to be collected and transformed into commercially useful energy. Solar power plants to date cover the area of several football fields and produce approximately 1 of the power associated with a fossil fuel fired power plant. This means that solar power plants will cover relatively large areas and may be considered eyesores by some people. In addition, the technology of maintaining the collectors, and collecting, transforming, and transmitting solar energy is still relatively expensive. Fanchi, 2004, Exercises 7-11 and 7-12 Solar electric technologies are designed to convert light from the Sun directly into electrical energy. Some of the most important solar electric processes are the photoelectric effect and photovoltaics. We shall briefly discuss these topics below.

Harnessing the Sun with Solar Power

Battling the challenges to and economics of widespread solar power use Looking through present and future solar power options 7he sun sends over 35,000 times more energy to earth than humans use in all of their energy consumption endeavors. To put it another way, people use less energy in 27 years than the earth receives from the sun in a single day. That's a lot of solar energy for all practical purposes it's an infinite supply, and renewable to boot. Best of all, it's the cleanest source of energy the world has ever known. The problem, of course, is turning all those free-for-all photons into useable energy, or ordered, energy. While humankind has been inventing creative ways to do just that for thousands of years, solar still affords a very limited applicability in the grand scheme of things. Only 0.03 percent of the world's ordered energy production comes from solar, and even though the industry is growing by over 33 percent per year, there's a long road ahead.

Current and future efficiency ratings of solar panels

Overall, the typical efficiency rating for a solar panel is around 16 percent, which means that of all the sunlight energy that is collected by a PV panel, only 16 percent of that energy is available as electrical power. Because there is a maximum amount of sunlight power of around 1 kW per square meter, a square meter of PV panel can only put out around 0.18 kW. There have been increases in this value, but the costs are prohibitive. At sea level, on a clear day, around 1 kW of solar energy is incident on a one square meter surface (to put this in perspective, a pool pump uses around 1.5 kW's of power, and this is a lot of power). In the mountains, where the air is thinner, even more radiation is measured because much more of it gets through the thin atmosphere. However, as we all know, the sun's intensity varies over the course of a day, so it's of interest to calculate just how much solar radiation falls on a one square meter surface over the course of a day. Monocrystalline solar...

The Economics of Solar Power

Although a number of studies have shown a net positive impact of solar energy, particularly in communities dedicated to large-scale development of solar power, the most basic reality of solar power is that it is viable only in sunshine rich climates, particularly the Southwest and Pacific coastal areas. Even with government subsidies, solar is not now, nor will it likely ever be, viable in cloudy, rainy climates. However, if the price of solar decreases enough, this may change, although the vehicle of change will be investment capital, and when solar lags so far behind other alternative energy sources, investment capital also lags behind. The following sections provide you with info on the economical impacts of large-scale solar power use, including the benefits as well as the economical challenges solar power faces.

Turning to Renewable Energy Sources

There are also many options for cutting carbon emissions by harnessing renewable sources of energy, including wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, and biomass. Each of these can be developed in many ways. On the solar front, there are solar electric cells, solar thermal power plants, and the direct use of solar energy for water and space heating. The most immediately promising short-term source of new energy is wind. It is a vast resource, one that could meet all the world's electricity needs. As this chapter aims simply to give a sense of the possibilities for cutting carbon emissions, the discussion here will focus only on wind as a renewable source of energy. on coal, a nineteenth-century energy source, for much of its electricity at a time when European countries are replacing coal with wind. Europe is not only leading the world into the wind age, it is also leading the world into the post-fossil-fuel age the age of renewable energy and climate stabilization. By...

Modelling the Earths solar energy balance

The Earth and all its surface ecosystems rely on energy from the sun. Much of this energy for atmospheric motions comes indirectly through radiative, sensible and latent heat transfers from the Earth's surface. As noted above the mixture of greenhouse gases that makes up the Earth's atmosphere is, therefore, central to our understanding of short-term climatic change. This solar derived energy drives the biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon, nitrogen and hydrological cycles. Solar energy also provides one of the vital inputs to the photosynthetic process. Without the inputs of solar energy life as we know it would not exist on planet Earth. The solar energy flux just above the Earth's atmosphere is estimated as 1,372 W m2 where 1 Watt 1 Joule second. This energy flow varies because of solar activity (sun spots), the Earth's distance from the sun and other variables. Nevertheless, despite these changes it is convenient to represent this input of energy as the solar constant In 24...

Solar Energy Photovoltaic and Thermal

The Sun is an enormous, effective, and far-away (some 150 million km from Earth) nuclear fusion reactor that can supply the Earth with energy now, and for several billions of years to come. Sunlight, or solar energy, emitted from the Sun is the most abundant energy source. At any given time, sunshine delivers to Earth as light and heat about 10 000 times more energy than the entire world is consuming. Solar radiation, before entering the Earth's atmosphere, has a power density of 1370 W m-2 4 . Of all the sunlight that passes through the atmosphere annually, only about half reaches the Earth's surface the other half is scattered or reflected back to space by clouds and the atmosphere, or absorbed by atmospheric gases such as CO2 and water vapor, the atmosphere, and clouds. As 71 of our planet is covered with water, most of that energy that makes it to the surface is absorbed by the oceans. On a clear day, the radiation received on the Earth's surface around noon is about 1000 W m-2 5...

Point to Ponder Can distributed generation increase the usefulness of wind and solar energy

We can use sunlight 24 hours per day if we can collect sunlight at different locations around the globe. Similarly, the wind does not usually blow all the time at a particular location, but wind is always blowing somewhere. Distributed generation can be used to harvest both wind energy and solar energy. Improved power distribution and transmission systems could be used to produce energy from wind and sunshine in different parts of the world and transmit it to places where it is needed. A global energy distribution system would have to be developed and maintained to achieve this capability.

Ga applications in solar energy systems

Genetic algorithms were used by the author in a number of optimization problems the optimal design of flat-plate solar collectors (Kalogirou, 2003c), predicting the optimal sizing coefficient of photovoltaic supply systems (Mellit and Kalogirou, 2006a), and the optimum selection of the fenestration openings in buildings (Kalogirou, 2007). They have also been used to optimize solar energy systems, in combination with TRNSYS and ANNs (Kalogirou, 2004a). In this, the system is modeled using the TRNSYS computer program and the climatic conditions of Cyprus. An artificial neural network was trained, using the results of a small number of TRNSYS simulations, to learn the correlation of collector area and storage tank size on the auxiliary energy required by the system, from which the life cycle savings can be estimated. Subsequently, a genetic algorithm was employed to estimate the optimum size of these two parameters, for maximizing life cycle savings thus, the design time is reduced...

Source of Solar Energy

Solar energy is energy emitted by a star. Figure 4-1 shows the anatomy of a star. Energy emitted by a star is generated by nuclear fusion. The fusion process occurs in the core, or center, of the star. Energy released by the fusion process propagates away from the core by radiating from one atom to another in the radiation zone of the star. As the energy moves away from the core and passes through the radiation zone, it reaches the part of the star where energy continues its journey towards the surface of the star as heat associated with thermal gradients. This part of the star is called the convection zone. The surface of the star, called the photosphere, emits light in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The star is engulfed in a stellar atmosphere called the chromosphere. The chromosphere is a layer of hot gases surrounding the photosphere.

Solar heaters solar photovoltaics and concentrating solar power

Solar photovoltaics were technically feasible for Europe, but I judged them too expensive. I hope I'm wrong, obviously. It will be wonderful if the cost of photovoltaic power drops in the same way that the cost of computer power has dropped over the last forty years. My guess is that in many regions, the best solar technology for electricity production will be the concentrating solar power that we discussed on pages 178 and 236. On those pages we already established that one billion people in Europe and North Africa could be sustained by country-sized solar power facilities in deserts near the Mediterranean and that half a billion in North America could be sustained by Arizona-sized facilities in the deserts of the USA and Mexico. I'll leave it as an exercise for the reader to identify appropriate deserts to help out the other 4.5 billion people in the world.

Nuclear Hydro Wind Geothermal And Solar Power

Nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, geothermal, and solar power have all been offered as solutions to the energy problem. These all have various issues associated with them. However, the bottom line is that discussion of these technologies misses the point. It is true that, to the extent they can be done economically, these technologies can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by replacing coal or natural gas for electricity generation. But the central issue of energy independence is not electricity. The United States has plenty of coal, and if necessary it could generate all of its electric power in this way. There is no prospect whatsoever of the large-scale economic generation of liquid fuels from nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, geothermal, or solar power sources in the near future. Thus the discussion of these technologies is largely irrelevant to the immediate strategic problem we face. In the long run, however, when combined with the switch to alcohol fuels, they can play a key role in...

Free Energy or Helmholtz Potential

Where F ( U -TS) is called the 'Free energy', a term first introduced by Helmholtz. For this reason, F is also sometimes called the Helmholtz potential. (3.7.3) simply states that at constant temperature, the decrease of free energy gives the maximum external work obtainable from a reversible system. In the general case, For such a system, therefore, the free energy available for doing external work has its minimum value. This value is 0 at equilibrium.

Residential photovoltaic arrays

The third category of photovoltaic applications, residential photovoltaic arrays, forms the most significant area of photovoltaic expansion as a result of major national programmes, particularly in Japan, Germany and the USA, to install solar cells on the roofs of homes. As the solar panel will only generate power during daylight hours, grid connection is essential to provide supply at nighttime. For this reason building arrays, although designated residential arrays, are actually most effective on commercial buildings where the daily cycle matches closely that of the sun.

Point to Ponder What are some current uses of photovoltaics

There are many applications of photovoltaics. They include solar powered calculators, solar powered camping equipment, solar powered satellites, the International Space Station, and solar powered cars. A solar powered traffic Figure 4-11. Solar Powered Traffic Control, Golden, Colorado Figure 4-11. Solar Powered Traffic Control, Golden, Colorado

Heat Reuse From Photovoltaic Cells And Thermal Solar Hot Water

A heat core is created at the centre of the house comprising the vertical hot air ducts from the solar collectors, the wood burning fireplace and a high-thermal-mass structure. Landscaped ceilings will collect and recover heat via a central distribution exchange unit (part of OM Solar system, see House at Hamamatsu case study). A strip of photovoltaic panels will be placed at the lower end of the solar air roof. As photovoltaic cells have a tendency to overheat this location will benefit from the cooling effect of the berm-directed wind while utilizing the heat generated to initiate convection in the solar air roof. Waste heat will migrate towards the centre of the house by means of natural convection. A heat exchanger will recover the heat for reuse. A separate thermal solar collector of 4 m2 and linked to the dual coil mains pressure AquaSol Duo cylinder will provide some 70 per cent of the annual hot water demand.

Photovoltaic PV Collectors

Photovoltaic (PV) cells are almost always arranged on a panel to form a solar module. Modules are then linked in series to form what is known as a solar array. The size of a solar module or array is given in terms of its peak power production (Wp) under standard condition (STC). This condition is also referred to as one sun, and this STC condition is defined as a solar irradiation of 1.0 kW m2 on a clear summer day with the sun approximately overhead, the cells facing directly toward the sun and the cell being at 25 C. Therefore, a 100 Wp module will generate 0.1 kW hr m2 under STC conditions so it is 10 efficient, and a 150 Wp module under STC conditions will generate 0.150 kW hr m2 and therefore it is 15 efficient. The cost of installed PV systems is in the range of 3 to 7 per Wp with 5 Wp or 4,000 kWp being typical for larger systems. For the same system capacity, the required collector area drops as the collector efficiency rises but the system cost in units of Wp remains...

Fuzzy systems applications in solar energy systems

The applications of fuzzy systems in solar applications are much fewer. They concern the design of a fuzzy single-axis tracking mechanism controller (Kalogirou, 2002) and a neuro-fuzzy based model for photovoltaic power supply system (Mellit and Kalogirou, 2006b). In fact, the membership functions shown in Figures 11.24 and 11.25 and the rule basis, given previously, are from the first application, whereas the latter is a hybrid system described in the next section.

Understanding the basic parts of every solar PV system

An intertie solar PV system, shown in Figure 16-4, is actually very simple, despite its high cost. The collectors collect sunlight and convert it into a raw electrical signal. Wires transmit this signal down to the inverter, which converts (why it isn't called a converter is beyond me) the power to 110VAC that is useable in your home. The meter is used so the power company can ding you, of course. And switches are there for safety purposes. The following sections explain the important parts of a solar PV system.

Solar Energy References

Solar Energy Fundamentals in Building Design. McGraw-Hill, New York. Baldacci, A., Burgassi, P.D., Dickson, M.H., Fanelli, M., 1998. Non-electric utilization of geothermal energy in Italy. In Proceedings of World Renewable Energy Congress V, Part I, September 20-25, Florence, Italy, p. 2795, Pergamon, UK. Baum, V.A. , 1960. Technical characteristics of solar stills of the greenhouse type (in Russian). In Thermal Power Engineering, Utilization of Solar Energy, vol. 2. Academy of Science, USSR Moscow, pp. 122-132. Baum, V.A., Bairamov, R., 1966. Prospects of solar stills in Turkmenia. Solar Energy 10 (1), 38-40. Delyannis, A., 1968. The Patmos solar distillation plant. Solar Energy 11, 113-115. Delyannis, E., 2003. Historic background of desalination and renewable energies. Solar Energy 75 (5), 357-366. Johanson, T.B., Kelly, H., Reddy, A.K.N., Williams, R.H., 1993. Renewable fuels and electricity for a growing world economy defining and achieving the potential. In...

Thermal Analysis Of Solar Power Plants

Net Analysis Solar Power Plant

Thermal solar power plants are similar to the conventional ones with the exception that a field of concentrating solar collectors replaces the conventional steam boiler. In hybrid plants, a conventional boiler is also present, operating on conventional fuel, usually natural gas, whenever there is a need. Therefore, the thermal analysis of solar power plants is similar to that of any other plant and the same thermodynamic relations are applied. The analysis is greatly facilitated by drafting the cycle on a T-s diagram. In these cases, the inefficiencies of pump and steam turbine should be considered. In this section, the equations of the basic Rankine power cycle are given and two of the more practical cycles, the reheat and the regenerative Rankine cycles, are analyzed through two examples. To solve the problems of these cycles, steam tables are required. Alternatively, the curve fits shown in Appendix 5 can be used. The problems that follow were solved by using steam tables.

Schrodinger entropy and free energy

In his book Schrodinger (1948, p. 71) famously described the process by which an organism survives as continually drawing negative entropy from the environment. In fact on thermodynamical considerations this is not strictly true, as pointed out by Franz Simon soon after the book was first published. In the 1948 edition of his book Schrodinger added a note to this effect, admitting that it might be better to consider organisms as drawing on free energy rather than negative entropy. These niceties of thermodynamic theory are not crucial for the concerns of this book. However, what Schrodinger was describing in thermodynamic terms is an important concept in ecology namely that to survive all organisms must acquire energy from their environment and in so doing produce waste products which they release back into their surroundings. Indeed this is so fundamental that it could be considered the basic concept of ecology. Schrodinger, entropy, and free energy 19 To a (very) naive physicist,...

Stirling Solar Power Generators

Stirling Plant Engine

In addition to SEGS, ISCCS, PV, and updraft tower methods for collecting solar energy, Stirling solar dish systems are also used (Figure 1.38). These units focus the Sun's energy onto H2 in sealed Stirling engines. As the H2 is heated to 732 C (1,350 F), it expands and drives the pistons of the engine. Stirling engines are used on submarines because they are quiet (no combustion takes place). In solar applications, their main advantage is their high efficiency (30 ), which is nearly double that of the best PV collectors. These closed systems do not need to be refilled, only their mirrors need washing every couple of weeks. The operation can be fully automated including start-up in the morning, shutdown in the evening, tracking the Sun, and remote monitoring over the Internet. The displacer piston on the cooling end on the left controls the direction in which the pistons move. It determines if most of the gas is in the piston on the right or left. In phase 4 of the cycle, the displacer...

Solar Power Paris Expositions

Solar Thermal Turbine Diagram

As was seen in Chapter 1, Section 1.5, solar thermal power systems were among the very first applications of solar energy. During the 18th century, solar furnaces capable of melting iron, copper, and other metals were constructed of polished iron, glass lenses, and mirrors. The furnaces were in use throughout Europe and the Middle East. The most notable examples are the solar furnace built by the well-known French chemist Lavoisier in 1774, various concentrators built by the French naturalist Bouffon (1747-1748), and a steam-powered printing press exhibited at the Paris Exposition by Mouchot in 1872. This last application utilized a concentrating collector to supply steam to a heat engine. As was discussed Chapter 9, the direct conversion of solar to electrical energy can be done with photovoltaics, which are solid-state devices. Electricity can also be produced with geothermal energy and wind power. However, with concentrating solar power systems, there are no complicated silicon...

Renewable Energy Questions

1 Are we allowing for future solar installations on the building (in terms of designing roof surfaces and roof pitch) Can we integrate photovoltaics into the south-facing shading of the building 4 Are green power sources available from the local electric utility, or will we be able to buy green power from a third-party provider Are these programs Green-E certified by the Center for Resource Solutions or another acceptable independent third-party Can we acquire Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) for this project 6 If mechanical equipment will be placed on the roof, will there still be room for photovoltaic solar panels Why can't the mechanical equipment be put in the basement instead 7 Can we design our electrical systems to allow for future solar energy retrofits, by bringing wiring to the roof and allowing room for an appropriately sized inverter in the electrical room

Review Of Renewable Energy Desalination Systems

Renewable energy systems offer alternative solutions to decrease the dependence on fossil fuels. The total worldwide renewable energy desalination installations amount to capacities of less than 1 of that of conventional fossil-fueled desalination plants (Delyannis, 2003). This is mainly due to the high capital and maintenance costs required by renewable energy, making these desalination plants non-competitive with conventional fuel desalination plants. Solar desalination plants coupled with conventional desalination systems have been installed in various locations in the world. The majority of these plants are experimental or demonstration scale. A comprehensive review of renewable energy desalination systems is given by the author in Kalogirou (2005). This section presents examples of desalination plants powered by renewable energy systems they comprise systems not included in this book, such as wind energy and geothermal energy systems. Solar thermal energy is one of the most...

A Brief HiStory Of Solar Energy

John Ericsson Parabolic

Solar energy is the oldest energy source ever used. The sun was adored by many ancient civilizations as a powerful god. The first known practical application was in drying for preserving food (Kalogirou, 2004). Amazingly, the very first applications of solar energy refer to the use of concentrating collectors, which are, by their nature (accurate shape construction) and the requirement to follow the sun, more difficult to apply. During the 18th century, solar furnaces capable of melting iron, copper, and other metals were being constructed of polished iron, glass lenses, and mirrors. The furnaces were in use throughout Europe and the Middle East. One of the first large-scale applications was the solar furnace built by the well-known French chemist Lavoisier, who, around 1774, constructed powerful lenses to concentrate solar radiation (see Figure 1.4). This attained the remarkable temperature of 1750 C. The furnace used a 1.32 m lens plus a secondary 0.2 m lens to obtain such...

Opportunities for Renewable Energy

Integrating electrolyzers with renewable energy system can present challenges as well as unique benefits. Currently most renewable energy systems produce power and interconnect with thte electrical grid via some form of power electronics (PE). To use electrical grid power, today's commercial electrolyzers also have some type of power electronics interface that can represent a significant portion of the overall system cost.43 The power electronics convert alternating current (AC) from the grid to direct current (DC) power required by the electrolysis cell stack. In addition to the DC requirements of the stack, the system also consumes additional AC power for the balance of plant or ancillary loads. At least one electrolyzer manufacturer offers a version of an electrolyzer that can accommodate a connection to photovoltaic (PV) panels in addition to having the standard AC to DC converter for utility operation.44 The additional power electronics, incorporating maximum power point tracking...

Related Authorities Establish Development Schemes Action Plans and Development Programs for Agricultural Renewable

Since the Chinese government formulated China's Agenda 21 - White Paper of China's Population, Environment and Development in 21st Century (China's Agenda 21) in 1994, related authorities under the State Council established future development schemes, action plans, or near-term and long- and mid-term development programs related to the integrated utilization and technical development of agricultural renewable energy. The Development Program of New Energy and Renewable Energy (1996-2010) established by the State Development Planning Commission in January 1995, prescribed energy development objectives, including hastening technical improvements in utilization techniques for rural biomass energy the development of woodfuel forests and firewood-saving stoves and the comprehensive utilization of waste residues of crop processing and wastes from animal husbandry.24 In the Ninth Five-Year Work Plan for Resources Saving and Integrated Utilization established in July 1996, the State Economic...

What Are Photovoltaics

Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight directly into electrical energy. The electricity they produce is DC (direct current) and can either be The basic element of a photovoltaic system is the solar cell that is made of a semiconductor material, typically silicon. There are no moving parts in a solar cell, its operation is environmentally benign and, if the device is correctly encapsulated against the environment, there is nothing that will wear out. Because sunlight is universally available, photovoltaic devices have many additional benefits that make them not only usable, but of great value, to people around the world. They are the future and by 2020, when the conventional oil supplies begin to really dry up, they will be everywhere. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are modular and so their electrical power output can be engineered for virtually any application, from low-powered wristwatches, calculators, remote telecommunications systems and small battery-chargers to huge centralized power...

Electricity from Photovoltaic Conversion

The conversion of daylight into electricity, called the photovoltaic effect, was first discovered by the French scientist Edmond Becquerel in 1839. The explanation for this effect was later provided by Albert Einstein who received for this work (and not the theory of relativity) the Nobel Prize in physics. However, the development of the first practical photovoltaic cell occurred only in 1954 at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, with the production of a silicon-based cell with 6 efficiency in converting light into electricity. The technology that was originally developed for space applications in the 1960s to power military and later commercial satellites, has since been given much attention as a potential energy source for civilian uses. Photovoltaic (PV) systems that convert the energy of photons from sunlight directly into electricity using semiconductor devices are commonly known as solar cells. When photons enter the cell, electrons in the semiconducting material are freed,...

Photovoltaic applications

Mont Cenis Academy Complex Germany

Photovoltaic cells, Jubilee Campus, Nottingham University The PV market is growing dramatically - 43.8 per cent in 2002 with most going to grid connected supply in Japan, Germany and California. This is a technology which is seen to have enormous potential and therefore is attracting considerable research effort. The Sunpower Corporation is manufacturing a solar cell which achieves an efficiency of over 20 per cent as verified by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This laboratory has also verified the bench efficiency of 36.9 per cent achieved by Spectrolab's Improved Triple Junction solar cell. Efficiencies of over 40 per cent are confidently predicted. As economies of scale also bring down costs, the impact on the electricity market could be dramatic with the potential for every home to become a micro-power station. Before these developments had occurred, Hermann Scheer calculated that Germany's aggregate demand of 500TWh year could be met by installing PVs on 10 per cent...

Beaufort court renewable energy centre zero emissions building Studio E Architects

Beaufort Court Wind Turbine

Solar design aspects of the renewable energy centre and interim findings The Renewable Energy Centre at Kings Langley in the UK is the new headquarters and visitors' centre for Renewable Energy Systems Ltd, a company whose business is developing wind farms on a global basis. The original buildings on the site housed chickens to provide eggs for the nearby Ovaltine malt drink plant. These buildings, derelict for 10 years, have now been converted and extended to provide for the office and visitors' centre accommodation. A sustainable approach was taken, particularly in respect to energy supply and use. The design was based on the comprehensive application of passive and active solar measures and is believed to be the first commercial net zero carbon dioxide emissions building in the UK. The project was completed in December 2003 and the energy systems, weather and internal comfort are being monitored over a 2 year period. An EC Framework 5 grant contributed to the cost of a hybrid PV...

Investment in renewable energy

In the Reference Scenario, total cumulative investment in modern forms of renewable energy in the period 2007 to 2030 amounts to 5.5 trillion (in year-2007 dollars). Most of the investment in renewables - 60 of the total - is for electricity generation, followed by investment in renewables for heat and biofuels, which account for 36 and 4 of the total, respectively. Total investment in renewables for electricity generation in the Reference Scenario from 2007 to 2030 amounts to 3.3 trillion this provides 1 617 GW of additional capacity, mainly from an increase in hydro and wind capacity.

Queries On Solar Power Generated Stirling Engine

Stirling Engine

I'm confused In Chapter 6, you said that the best photovoltaic panels deliver 20 W m2 on average, in a place with British sunniness. Presumably in the desert the same panels would deliver 40 W m2. So how come the concentrating solar power stations deliver only 15-20 W m2 Surely concentrating power should be even better than plain flat panels Good question. The short answer is no. Concentrating solar power does not achieve a better power per unit land area than flat panels. The concentrating contraption has to track the sun, otherwise the sunlight won't be focused right once you start packing land with sun-tracking contraptions, you have to leave gaps between them lots of sunlight falls through the gaps and is lost. The reason that people nevertheless make concentrating solar power systems is that, today, flat photovoltaic panels are very expensive, and concentrating systems are cheaper. The concentrating people's goal is not to make systems with big power per unit land area. Land area...

Renewable Energy Technologies

Renewable energy technologies produce marketable energy by converting natural phenomena into useful forms of energy. These technologies use the sun's energy and its direct and indirect effects on the earth (solar radiation, wind, falling water, and various plants i.e., biomass), gravitational forces (tides), and the heat of the earth's core (geothermal) as the resources from which energy is produced. These resources have massive energy potential however, they are generally diffused and not fully accessible, and most of them are intermittent and have distinct regional variabilities. These characteristics give rise to difficult, but solvable, technical and economical challenges. Nowadays, significant progress is made by improving the collection and conversion efficiencies, lowering the initial and maintenance costs, and increasing the reliability and applicability of renewable energy systems. Worldwide research and development in the field of renewable energy resources and systems has...

Ann applications in solar energy Systems

Artificial neural networks have been used by the author in the field of solar energy, for modeling the heat-up response of a solar steam generating plant (Kalogirou et al., 1998), the estimation of a parabolic trough collector intercept factor (Kalogirou et al., 1996), the estimation of a parabolic trough collector local concentration ratio (Kalogirou, 1996a), the design of a solar steam generation system (Kalogirou, 1996b), the performance prediction of a thermosiphon solar water heater (Kalogirou et al., 1999a), modeling solar domestic water heating systems (Kalogirou et al., 1999b), the long-term performance prediction of forced circulation solar domestic water heating systems (Kalogirou, 2000), and the thermosiphon solar domestic water heating system's long-term performance prediction (Kalogirou and Panteliou, 2000). A review of these models, together with other applications in the field of renewable energy, is given in an article by Kalogirou (2001). In most of those models, the...

Operating and New Solar Power Plants

The first concentrating trough-type solar power plant in the United States was built in 1988. It is the 1 mW Saguaro plant located north of Tucson, Arizona, and was built for Arizona Public Service (APS). It covers 1 km2 and has parabolic trough-shaped mirrors. Today, the largest solar power plant in the United States is the 22-year-old thermal plant in California's Mojave Desert, which has a combined total capacity of 354 mW. At Kramer Junction, California, nine solar power plants, each 30 mW or larger, have been in operation for two decades. The yearly insolation in the area is 2,940 kWh m2. Plant efficiencies range from 10 to 17 , and their capital costs range from 2,500 to 3,500 per kWp.* The cost of generated electricity from these plants drops as their size increases, and ranges from 10 to 17 kWh. A number of new solar power plants are under construction. In 2007, First Solar signed a contract to produce 685 mW of solar collectors over 5 years for 1.28 billion, or at a unit cost...

Figure The Role of Renewable Energy Consumption in the US Energy Supply

Completeness, timeliness, and quality of the data. However, the data on capacity included here help to illustrate some of the key trends in renewable energy. Renewable fuel use is growing because of government support and increasing private sector investment. Global investment in renewable energy hit a record 30 billion in 2004, accounting for 20 to 25 percent of all investment in the power industry, with solar power the fastest-growing energy technology, according to the nonprofit group, Worldwatch Institute. Technologies such as wind, solar, biofuel, and geothermal now provide up to 6 percent of the world's total energy, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. That's still very small, but it's a step in the right direction. On the frontlines of the alternative energy industry, business has been brisk lately. See Figure 3.1.

Types Of Renewable Fuels Solar Energy

This is the energy radiated to the earth from the sun. Solar thermal devices use direct heat from the sun, concentrating it in some manner to produce heat at useful temperatures. The amount of energy that reaches the earth and can be tapped for our use depends very much on time and geography. What that means is that there'll be more solar energy during the day than during the night, and also that the tropics such as Africa The modern solar industry has a long history, but began in earnest with the OPEC oil embargo of 1973 to 1974 and was strengthened in 1979 during the Iranian revolution, which took out of the market about six million barrels per day of oil from Iran. The growth of the U.S. solar industry during this period of fuel shortages and high prices (1974 to 1984) soared from 45 solar collector manufacturing firms to 225 firms, according to the U.S. Department of Energy. The solar market was helped during this period by federal and state government assistance. Currently, solar...

Dual Nature of Agricultural Renewable Energy Substances as Energies and Resources

Agricultural renewable energy refers to certain biological substances generated in the course of agricultural production or labor, including rural firewood, crop straw, animal excrement, and waste residues of agricultural products. They provide energy for economic production and household uses. Rural firewood includes reeds, Mao bamboo, shrubs, weeds, and tree branches. Crop straw includes the stem, leaf, vine, root, core, Biomass energy, produced using traditional and modern methods, can be used as fuel in rural China for the daily ordinary activities of rural people. Firewood, straw, and animal excrement could be used directly for such activities. Alternatively, renewable energy substances could be used indirectly as fuels in the context of activities of urban and rural people after being processed into marsh gas, liquefied gas, or solid fuels. For instance, substances such as straw, animal excrement, and waste residues of agricultural products could be processed into refined fuels....

Energy Demand And Renewable Energy

Many alternative energy sources can be used instead of fossil fuels. The decision as to what type of energy source should be utilized in each case must be made on the basis of economic, environmental, and safety considerations. Because of the desirable environmental and safety aspects it is widely believed that solar energy should be utilized instead of other alternative energy forms because it can be provided sustainably without harming the environment. If the world economy expands to meet the expectations of countries around the globe, energy demand is likely to increase, even if laborious efforts are made to increase the energy use efficiency. It is now generally believed that renewable energy technologies can meet much of the growing demand at prices that are equal to or lower than those usually forecast for conventional energy. By the middle of the 21st century, renewable sources of energy could account for three fifths of the world's electricity market and two fifths of the...

Solar energy in building design

Solar Stirling Engine Electricity

All buildings benefit from unplanned gains of solar energy through windows and, to a lesser extent, through the warming of walls and roofs. This is called 'passive solar gain' for a typical house in the UK it will contribute about 15 of the annual space heating requirements. With 'passive solar design' this can relatively easily and inexpensively be increased to around 30 while increasing the overall degree of comfort and amenity. The main features of such design are to place, so far as is possible, the principal living rooms with their large windows on the south side of the house in the Northern hemisphere, with the cooler areas such as corridors, stairs, cupboards and garages with the minimum of window area arranged to provide a States could be generated from the solar energy falling on PV cells over an area of 400 km square or on CSP installations covering a somewhat smaller area. However, at the present time for large-scale electricity provision, neither is competitive in cost...

The Future for Renewable Energy

Renewable energy has many advantages that will help to maintain and expand its place in world energy supply Renewable energy resources are enormous hundreds of times beyond the needs of world energy consumption in 2000. Negative environmental and health impacts of renewable energy use are much fewer than those of fossil fuels and nuclear power. Many renewable energy technologies can produce energy at the point of use, allowing homeowners, businesses, and industry to produce their own power. There is strong support for renewable energy from people around the world. Many governments have programs that support renewable energy use to limit the emission of greenhouse gases and thereby reduce the threat of global warming. U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2001). Renewable Energy Annual 2000, with Data for 1999. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Energy. Renewable Energy World. London James & James Science Publishers. Available from http U.S. Department of Energy,...

Energy And Atmosphere Credit Onsite Renewable Energy

Now let's take a look at installing renewable energy measures for our hypothetical project. In this case, we are almost always faced with considerably higher capital costs, relative to annual savings. However, an important mitigating factor may be the incentives available. Many states and utilities, along with the federal government, offer tax credits, and direct payments that can reduce the effective capital cost of such measures by 50 percent or more. Table 8.7 shows the EVA analysis for two options a solar electric (photovoltaic) system or a wind power turbine, while Fig. 8.6 shows the cumulative cash flow from both project elements. Many projects are beginning to TABLE 8.7 ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE CREDIT 2 ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY TABLE 8.7 ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE CREDIT 2 ONSITE RENEWABLE ENERGY Cumulative cash flow EA Credit 2 onsite renewable energy. Cumulative cash flow EA Credit 2 onsite renewable energy.

Renewable Energy Systems

Now is the time to get serious about including renewable energy systems in the project. These questions focus our attention on the technical, economic, and financial feasibility of solar and wind power especially, as strong project components. 1 How might the use of photovoltaic systems impact daily energy supply patterns and potential economics of various energy use systems 2 Have we considered the use of building-integrated photovoltaics in the project Because we can integrate the PV systems in several different ways, there needs to be time for these studies to be made. 3 If there are going to be spandrel panels in the curtain wall, for example, can photo-voltaics be incorporated on the south face of the building Are there economic benefits that would override the loss of power generation from having vertical solar panels

The photovoltaic solar cell

The silicon photovoltaic (PV) solar cell51 consists of a thin slice of silicon into which appropriate impurities have been introduced to create what is known as a p-n junction. The most efficient cells are sophisticated constructions using crystalline silicon as the basic material they possess efficiencies for conversion of solar energy into electricity typically of 15 to 20 experimental cells have been produced with efficiencies well over 20 . Single crystal silicon is less convenient for mass production than amorphous silicon (for which the conversion efficiency is around 10 ), which can be deposited in a continuous process onto thin films. Other alloys (such as cadmium telluride and copper indium diselenide) with similar photovoltaic properties can also be deposited in this way and, because they have higher efficiencies than amorphous silicon, are likely to compete with silicon for the thin-film mar-ket.52 However, since typically about half the cost of a solar PV installation is...

Direct Use of Solar Energy

All direct uses of solar energy for electricity generation suffer from the dilute nature of the solar source. The average flux of solar energy at the surface of the Earth is about 200 W m2. Thus, it requires about 5 km2 to collect 1 GW of incident solar energy. The area required for electricity generation depends on the efficiency of conversion from solar energy to electricity. One potential source of electricity is biomass, used as a fuel in a steam turbine plant. The main source of biomass now used in electricity generation is wastes, including wastes from the forest product industry. However, the amounts of such wastes are limited. A major increase in biomass use for electricity generation would require dedicated biomass plantations and adequate supplies of water and fertilizer. As estimated by David Hall and colleagues, the practical maximum yields of biomass in temperate climates corresponds to an annual average efficiency of about 1 for conversion from solar energy to chemical...

Solar panels and inverters

For grid-connected applications, more cells are necessary. Typical units are designed to provide up to 200 W. The individual cells are normally mounted behind a glass protective barrier similar to a vehicle windscreen. The whole assembly is then encapsulated to protect it from the weather and framed with aluminium extrusions. Such assemblies are called solar panels. A solar panel provides a stable direct current output. If this is to form a part of a grid-connected solar power system, perhaps on the roof of a household, it must be converted to AC at the grid voltage. This is carried out by an inverter. A typical household system will require a 2 kW inverter.

Trends in renewable energy

Higher fossil-fuel prices and increasing concerns over energy security and climate change are expected to encourage the development of renewable energy for electricity production in many parts of the world, particularly where incentives are already in place. Electricity generated from renewable energy sources worldwide amounted to 3 470 TWh in 2006, or 18 of total output. In the Reference Scenario, it rises to 4 970 TWh in 2015 and to over 7 700 TWh in 2030, 23 of total electricity production. Trends in renewable energy are discussed in more detail in Chapter 7.

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