Case Study Intel

Intel in particular maintains that corporate responsibility is not an addition to their business operations, but is instead a requisite constant that shapes the foundation of those very operations, forming a crucial component of each element of the business. In keeping with this premise, Intel has attempted to establish CSR in areas such as Government Relations, Investor Relations, Human Resources, Manufacturing, Facilities, and Supply Chain Management & Procurement. In addressing the...

Chapter Costa Rica

Abstract The article begins by exploring the different approaches to CSR between domestic businesses and subsidiaries of large multinational corporations within Costa Rica. The attempt to initiate CSR in Costa Rican businesses is viewed in the context of the pending Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) legislation and the effect it is anticipated to have on smaller businesses. After examining efforts made by the domestic business community, the article examines current practices of...

Differences across Clusters

As we indicate in Table 12.7, we find significant differences across the different clusters in terms of the organizations' age and number of employees. Organizations in the fourth cluster are significantly older - 50.7 of them were established more than 30 years ago, and only 17.4 were established less than 10 years ago. In comparison, 25.5 or more of the organizations in the other clusters had been established less than 10 years ago. In addition, the fourth cluster...

How Do Firms Credibly Demonstrate CSR

Overall, three broad types of CSR activities are examined below. We focus on the three broad sectors business, government, and civil society, and discuss their leadership in various CSR initiatives. Sprint Nextel and Motorola Telecommunications AIDS in Africa Philip morale Great Plains Energy Inc. Utility Pledged to donate 17 from the sale of each RED MOTORAZR V3m phone to the (RED) campaign PM21. a program which - among other things -worked to improve morale by reshaping the company's image...

CSR and External Outreach

Financial Analysts and Institutional Investors. Over the last decade, socially responsible investing has grown exponentially in the US (Social Investment Forum, 2006). According to the Social Investment Forum, as of 2005 almost 1 in every 10 dollars under professional management was involved in socially responsible investing. Calvert is one of the nation's largest socially responsible mutual fund firms with approximately 14 billion in assets under management. Companies participate in CSR to...

Why CSR Moving beyond the Business Case

CSR discussions in America have been traditionally and predominantly focused on the financial returns of CSR initiatives. While three decades of research suggests no clear-cut answer on a direct and unassailable link between profitability and CSR initiatives (Griffin, 1997 Margolis, 2001 Orlitzsky et al., 2003 Barnett, 2007), the range of corporate CSR initiatives continues to expand and penetrate deeper into organizational routines (Bies et al., 2007 Fort, 2007). The business case for the CSR...

Summary and Conclusion

The purpose of this study was to increase the general understanding on the issues regarding corporate donations. Corporate donations will never become an exact science, but they are inherently an act of judgment and faith in the pursuit of long-term goals. Specifically, the goals of this study were to examine whether investors perceive corporate donations when they determine the value of the firm and to test empirically the determinants of corporate donations made by 774 Malaysian Public Listed...

Corporate Donations and Market Value

To test whether the market, especially investors perceive corporate donations as an important variable in the determination of the value of a company, a multiple regression analysis was undertaken on SPSS. Table 10.6 presents the results of the regression analysis for the year 2003 and 2005, which have defined the market value of shareholders' equity (MVE) as the share price at year-end times the total number of shares. As mentioned, i and 2 are the slope coefficients for book value of net...

Corporate Donations Model

Table 10.6 reports correlation coefficients for variables used in a logit regression model for the year 2003 and 2005. Table 10.9 shows the overall correlations of corporate donations and the independent variables, which are leverage (LEV), firm's size (InSIZE), and profitability (PROF). As expected, there is a significant correlation between corporate donations with the leverage (LEV), company size (InSIZE), and the profitability (PROF). Table 10.7 reveals statistically significant r...

Data Analysis and Findings

A summary of the final sample used in this study is presented in Table 10.3. The table also outlines the number of companies making corporate donations and those not making corporate donations. The final sample of this study is 774 firm-years. The corporate donations model is estimated on the basis of the dichotomous dependent variable whereby firms making donations are coded as 1, otherwise coded 0. Table 4.1 shows that only 31.27 , which is equivalent to 242 companies, of the total sample...

Leverage

The agency theory suggests that companies with high corporate leverage (high debt to equity ratio) are regularly associated with increased contracting cost including liquidity and bankruptcy cost. For example, debt contracts could impose liquidity tests, unscheduled audit, investment restrictions, and sinking-fund requirement, in addition to establishing the pre-emptive claims of debt holders in the event of bankruptcy (Booth 1992). Creditors, including debt holders and those individuals and...

The Environment

Pollution in China is amongst the worst in the world. Air pollution continues to damage health, at least a third of all water resources are severely polluted, energy use is highly inefficient, desertification continues and biodiversity loss is alarming (Liu and Diamond 2005). China is building a new coal-fired power station every 12 days. In 2006, alone it added 70,000 megawatts of new power generation. The pollution, energy, water and material intensities of the Chinese economy remain high....

Discussion and Conclusion

From the above analysis we see that 90 of the Russian companies included in this study have disclosed information in either employees or ethical or environmental matters within their annual reports. This percentage appears to be high as compared to the Singaporean study by Tsang (1998) where only 52 of the companies disclosed social and environmental information and to the Singaporean and Malaysian study by Andrew et al. (1989) where only 26 of the companies made CSD. There are several reasons...

Greece A Comparative Study of CSR Reports

Panayiotou, Konstantinos G. Aravossis, and Peggy Moschou Abstract The last few decades have witnessed an increase in the awareness on the part of corporate entities in Western democracies that they are morally obliged to give something back to the society. To demonstrate that they care about people and the environment they operate in, organizations have taken different courses of action. The corporate social responsibility (CSR) reports which are annually published, in addition to...

Three Examples of the Practice of Corporate Social Responsibility in Sweden

Sweden, like many of its counterparts around the world, has not been left behind in the practice CSR. Increasingly, a large number of companies in the country have paid serious attention to CSR and how they communicate information on their activities in the field. In this section we present three Swedish corporate cases in order to illustrate how different industries have chosen to take cognisance of their CSR issues. Each case describes on one hand how these companies communicate information...

CSR at the Managerial Level

The questions related to CSR are placed at different departments in the corporations, which also demonstrate that CSR is interpreted rather differently. Out of the 82 companies - listed on Large Cap stock exchange - which communicate social responsibility information, 70 belong to the Swedish stock exchange. Thirty-nine of these 70 companies communicate information about their CSR activities on their Web pages. Out of these 39 companies, 30 have someone employed with either the title of CSR...

CSR in Swedish Corporations

Up until the late 1990s, CSR was still not widely practiced by Swedish corporate entities. The number of organizations and individuals that were contributing to the propagation of CSR ideology in Sweden has increased dramatically only in the last decade. In this way, CSR has also become a widespread management idea within the Swedish business community. The number of corporations working with CSR issues in Sweden has radically increased. It is no longer those corporations that have received a...

Criticized Industries Take up the Cudgels for CSR

It is difficult to outline one general argument or a common motive for Swedish companies' revived interest in CSR. However, in Sweden, criticized industries initially took up the cudgels for social responsibility. Corporations that significantly ran the risk of damaging the environment or had production in third-world countries with controversial working conditions often took the lead and started to work on CSR from its outset in Sweden. These developments are similar to those in other...

Governmental Initiatives in Enforcing CSR

Government ministries are important to the business community because of their role as rule makers by imposing coercive regulations and directives, they set the boarders for corporate business activities. They are also influential through their mobilization and encouragement of other actors in society to advance ideas that have an impact on the business community. The Swedish government took a broad approach to CSR, having demonstrated its interest in these questions in 2001 when the Ministry...

The Arrival of CSR in Sweden

Although CSR has come into vogue during the last decade, the notion that businesses should behave responsibly has a long historical root (Carroll 1999 Carroll 2004 De Bakker et al. 2005 Windell 2006). Indeed, in broad terms, the topic of social responsibility of business has a long root in Swedish society. The emergence of the industrial community in Sweden between the mid-seventeenth century and the mid-nineteenth century was a period in which Swedish corporations played a prominent role in...

References

Regulating business the emergence of an economic crime control programme in Finland. Selected Proceedings of the British Criminology Conference Vol. 4, Leicester, July 2000. Brady, J. 2002. Corruption in Finland - nearly none at all. Virtual Finland. September 2002. Broadhurst, A.I. 2000. Corporations and the ethics of social responsibility an emerging regime of expansion and compliance. Business Ethics A European Review Vol. 9, No. 2. Blackwell Publishers Ltd.,...

Important Aspects of CSR in Finland

This chapter discusses the main findings from a study about the experience of Finnish companies as they focus their attention, allocate resources, and implement CSR programs. The presentation of four different themes is based on the development of the study that started from a roadmapping study. From the roadmap, cultural issues and supply chain issues emerged as important aspects of CSR in Finland, hence, the proceeding themes on the influence of national culture on CSR and implementing CSR...

Introduction An Exploratory Study of the Social Dimension of Corporate Responsibility in Finland

During the last decade, a growing number of companies worldwide have acknowledged the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in doing business (Cramer 2003). Today, CSR is an important item on the corporate boardroom agenda for many companies worldwide (Grayson and Hodges 2004). Many companies around the world, including many of the largest multinationals, have voluntarily decided to start examining their social behaviors, articulating the types of commitment they want to make, and...

Corporate Responsibility from a Companys Perspective and Some CSR Practices in Germany

Although the theory discussed in the earlier sections of this chapter drew a distinction between corporate sustainability and corporate social responsibility, for corporate practice in Germany, the difference - as also seen elsewhere - appears irrelevant (Loew and Braun 2006). Companies talk either about CS or CSR, often using these terms interchangeably. There are of course differences in interpretations, and this state of affairs is also seen in Germany. Some companies see their role in...

Corporate Social Responsibility from a German Perspective

Corporate strategies for sustainable development have, for some time now, been acknowledged as an emerging field (Banerjee 2001, 2002). Bansal and Roth (2000) have analyzed how companies adopt green policies, under what Hart (1995) defines as a natural-resource-based view, in line with what Christoff (1996) describes as ecological modernization. Doppelt (2003) has listed the various challenges that need to be met in leading such complex change processes as part of what Gladwin et al. (1995) see...

The Role of Local Authorities becomes More Significant

Changes that have occurred in the French administrative landscape as a result of decentralization legislation and State regional development policies and in 14 In terms of demand, and not of offers present in France. conjunction with regional and structural European policies have in turn altered local actor networks and relations between local authorities and other economic and social actors. At the same time, local authorities confirm that they too want to promote SD in their areas. The vital...

The Recent Emergence of Responsible Savings and Changes that are Tending to Follow the Anglo American Model

Socially responsible investment (SRI) has developed in France rather later than in Anglo-American countries. The first mutual fund, Faim et Developpement (Hunger and Development) dates back to the beginning of the 1980s and was on the initiative of the Comite Catholique contre la Faim (CCFD Catholic Committee against Hunger) together with a banking sector cooperative in the shape of the Credit Cooperatif. At the same time, the first common ethical investment fund was born, initiated by a...

More Widespread Reporting

A study of the mandatory reports9 required by the NRE law from the last 4 years seems to show that this reporting obligation is being respected more and more, since average compliance in 2005 was around 85 compared with 60 in 2002 Alpha Etudes (2006). So reporting appears to be more generalized and more professional. The study shows a distinct and continuing improvement in the social information published by top companies, most of which had set a reporting system in motion even before the NRE...

When CSR becomes a Constraint Target and Entrant Companies

Many French companies are slowly taking sustainable development into account simply because they have no choice. Rather later than other companies, they are gradually integrating it into their strategic position, and for the larger companies at least, it is now difficult to avoid. Under this heading are, first of all, companies that to some extent constitute ideal targets in relation to environmental and social issues. Sustainable development can become a real constraint that companies must...

Substantial Body of Legislation

The first laws to cover the notions incorporated in CSR, though without this term being explicitly mentioned, appeared in France in the middle of the 1970s with a law on social reporting 1977.1 Without referring specifically to CSR as such, this law already required that the social reports that were compulsory for companies with more than 300 employees should apply 134 specific measures and indicators, and these reflected notions are now commonly used in relation to CSR. Thus the social report...

The Lexical Ambiguity of the Expression Corporate Social Responsibility

In fact, the term social in the expression corporate social responsibility poses a lexical and conceptual problem in French. The word social as used in the expression in English is commonly translated into French using the same word, whereas in fact social in French has a more restricted meaning, as it is limited for the most part to the social dimension of sustainable development. Thus the three dimensions inherent to this notion, economic efficiency, social equity, and control of resources,...

The Future of CSR in the UK

The field of CSR has a long history in the UK several entities - the government, companies, charities, NGOs etc. - appear to have embraced the concept and all that it stands for, and there is considerable activity to promote CSR and to facilitate its growth from strength to strength both in the UK and across the world. The UK is a world-acknowledged leader of the field. The question that this section of Chap. 1 Table 1.5 Differences in companies' reporting practices Table 1.5 Differences in...

Exploring the Contents of CSR Reports of UK Companies

The last few years have seen an increasing number of UK companies reporting on their CSR activities by issuing annual CSR reports either on a standalone basis or embedding the report in their annual reports. In 2002 a MORI (Market and Opinion Research International) survey notes that in the UK 61 of small and medium sized companies were either involved a great deal or a fair amount in local community matters (DTI 2002). Maignon and Ralston (2002) and Chambers et al. (2003) have both noted an...

How do UK Companies Demonstrate that they are CSR Conscious

Over the last few years, UK companies, as a result of some of the factors noted above, have taken a conscious decision to ensure that they are perceived by their stakeholders as being socially responsible. They are all aware of the enormous benefits that could be derived from taking this course of action (Idowu and Towler 2004). Each of them has identified those issues that are of concern to society in the industry in which they operate. Most of these organizations are prepared to draw the...

The ACCA Best Practices for Sustainability Reporting

The Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) (a UK-based professional accountancy body), one of the largest professional accountancy bodies in the world, launched the 'ACCA Sustainability Reporting Awards' in 1990. The ACCA website states that the aim of the awards is 'to promote greater transparency in the reporting of organizations' social and environmental impacts' and the objective is 'to identify and reward innovative attempts to communicate corporate performance but not the...

Global Practices of CSR in Context

Idowu and Walter Leal Filho Events around the world over the last few decades have emphasised the need for corporate entities, their stakeholders, governments and international organizations to take the issue of corporate social responsibility seriously. Incidents such as the explosion at Union Carbide in Bhopal, India in 1984, the oil spillage at Prince William Sound, Alaska USA in 1989, a few corporate scandals for example the Mirror Group UK 1991, Bank of Credit and Commerce...

CSR Reporting

Companies have realized that they need to respond to the stakeholders not only by changing their practices, but also by reporting on what kind of actions they take in terms of their corporate social responsibility. Over the last years, we have noticed an increasing number of companies that make some efforts in CSR reporting. Also, in Belgium, the emphasis on CSR reporting has increased in the last 5 years, especially in the larger firms. In this section, we will address how CSR is reported by...

Investor Awareness

A significant component of the business strategy for any publicly traded multinational corporation is not only the ability to sell their product, but also the ability to sell their stock. Green or socially responsible investing (SRI) focuses on portfolios consisting only of companies which have been evaluated as having sustainable practices. SRI has yet to gain enough momentum in the investment market to force an overhaul in corporate behavior by itself, making up less than 10 of mutual funds...

United States of America A Snapshot of US Practices

Adam Lindgreen, Valerie Swaen, and Wesley J. Johnston Abstract Organizations increasingly are embracing the concept of corporate social responsibility CSR . In this study CSR refers to actions that further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law McWilliams et al., 2006 . Specifically, CSR consists of economic citizenship, legal citizenship, ethical citizenship, and discretionary citizenship Maignan, 1997 Maignan and Fer-rell, 2001 Maignan et al.,...

Brazil CSR Under Construction

Mariana Lima Bandeira and Fernando Lopez Parra Abstract The discourse of social responsibility invades and becomes institutionalized in contemporary society - and not only in Brazil - creating different forms and instruments through which the negative effects of modernity and capitalism can be minimized. One of these instruments legitimizes itself by its legal character -a group of laws, norms, and juridical means that regulate corporate responsibility. Within this perspective, the concept of...

Finnish Culture and CSR

Interestingly, some distinct aspects of Finnish culture also influence the views and management of CSR. From roadmapping study Theme 1 , some similar concepts with CSR are reflective of the Finnish culture and attitude. The assumption that CSR has long been a part of the Finnish culture and business practices is very strong. Hence most CSR principles are, not surprisingly, often taken for granted because it is a self-evident mindset for the Finns. Strongly put, CSR thinking has been in Finland...

Russia Corporate Social Disclosures

Ataur Rahman Belal amp Vasily Lubinin Abstract This chapter aims to expand the existing CSD literature by providing insights from current Russian CSD practice, which is believed to be an under researched area. The main objective here is to examine the extent of CSD in Russia. For this purpose content analysis of 2004 annual reports of 20 large companies which are listed on the Russian stock exchange was undertaken. The key findings show that 18 90 out of the 20 companies included in the study...

Egypt Social Responsibility Disclosure Practices

Abstract This paper offers updated evidence on social disclosure trends in Egypt. It examines whether Egyptian companies care about the community as an important stakeholder in their Internet social reporting. In doing so, the paper employs content analysis to measure and explore the social responsibility self-disclosure practices of major Egyptian companies in their online annual reports and or Websites. The analysis shows that although there are good examples of corporate social...

List of Contributors

Aravossis is a Lecturer in the School of Mechanical Engineering in Section of Industrial Management and Operational Research, NTU Athens. He has completed many scientific projects and publications in his research interest areas and was president of the Greek Association of Environmental Protection Companies 2001-2006 . His academic interests are Environmental Management, Environmental Economics, Investment Assessment, and Technology Economics. Dr S. Burak Arzova is an...

General Analysis

The key findings of the content analysis of corporate social disclosures on the Internet along with the industry membership and total assets of each company are presented in Table 16.3. The analysis of Table 16.3 reveals that nine companies chose not to disclose social responsibility information on their Web Sites or in their online annual reports. Only seven companies about 44 of the final sample disclosed a total of 231 social responsibility sentences, representing an average of 33 sentences...

CSR in the Supply Chain

Another important aspect of the CSR roadmap was the implementation of CSR policies and strategies in the supply chain. This was the focus of Theme 3, highlighting a good case of proactive and progressive CSR management in the supply chain. On the basis of the experience, it was positively acknowledged that implementing CSR policies and strategies in the supply chain is favorable although associated with some problems and challenges. For this theme, experiences of five companies are presented...

Chapter Belgium

Celine Louche, Luc Van Liedekerke, Patricia Everaert, Dirk LeRoy, Ans Rossy and Marie d'Huart Abstract Corporate Social Responsibility is a relatively recent concept in Belgium but there has been a significant increase in its awareness since 1995. In May 1997, a legal framework for sustainable development was set up in the country. In April 2006, the government adopted a Reference Framework for CSR which was followed in 2007 by the CSR action plan. In addition to governmental initiatives, the...

CSR Roadmap in Finnish Companies

Csr Roadmap

This section gives a general picture or roadmap of CSR as it is defined, managed, and practiced in selected Finnish companies. The derived roadmap did not give an exact definition of CSR, but instead reveals various concepts ascribed to be a part of, if not actually CSR Table 4.1 . Despite the variations, some generally favored conceptual connotations of CSR relate to compliance with laws and regulations, integral to all operations of a company, hinged on environmental responsibilities,...

HM the Clothing Retail Company

H amp M is a clothing company with 60,000 employees and is active in 28 countries around the world. H amp M does not own any factories, but production processes of their clothing involve about 2,000 factories with more than 700,000 employees. H amp M is actively creating an image for themselves as a responsible company, and they present their products using the label CSR. It has chosen to use CSR instead of other similar labels and concepts, such as sustainability and corporate citizenship,...

Malaysian Scenario

Traditionally, the main concern of Malaysian businesses is to make profit. Their main objective is to serve the shareholders by maximizing the shareholders wealth. To achieve this they exercise whatever means and ways they can for as long as they are within the ambit of the law. In the last several decades, companies are forced to reconsider their objectives. This is in response to issues such as the oil crisis, environmental degradation, human rights, labor issues, and natural disasters....

Adult consumers at Retail Stores

As observed in Table 13.6, 243 adult consumers were interviewed, only 19 out of the total claimed to know the concept of corporate social responsibility, but 28 of them are unaware of corporations with social responsibility activities. Seventy percent out of the adult consumers claimed to know the concept but are unsure of corporate social responsibility programmes. Table 13.7 shows that only 48 of the adult consumers know the concept and would prefer to buy products from corporations, which...

SCR Survey

After the researchers had identified CSR programmes in Mexico, they were interested in knowing Mexican-consumers' perceptions these programmes. For that reason, an interviewee-administered questionnaire was developed for analyzing the consumers' perceptions. The questionnaire was made up of eight questions divided on three categories, see Appendix. The first part aims at collecting information about interviewers' knowledge of CSR in Mexico. The second part asks about interviewees' support of...

Example of a strategist company Lafarge

World leader in construction materials and cement, internationalized to a high degree particularly in emerging markets and developing countries, Lafarge was one of the first signatories of the Global Compact and one of the first members of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development WBCSD . The group's activities do have a strong impact on the environment. Accidents in the workplace and the hard working conditions constitute real risks for the company in terms of cost and likewise of...

The Role of UK Governments Since the s

Organisation Chart Lafarge

UK governments have been involved in different aspects of the field of CSR either directly or indirectly. Moon 2004 notes that the two ostensibly very different governments of Thatcher Conservative, 1979-1991 and Blair Labour 19972007 have helped the growth and institutionalization of CSR in the UK. Idowu and Towler 2004 argue that initially it was the rights of employees that were first recognized as needing government attention. Acts of Parliament have been passed including the Equal Pay Act...

Motivation for Issuing CSR Reports by UK Companies

It is perhaps appropriate at this point once again to remember Adam Smith's 1776 argument that 'the butcher and the others do not set out to meet their customers' requirements merely because of their deep love for those customers who buy from them but because of the butcher's etc self-love'. Adam Smith's 1776 statement was one of the driving forces behind an empirical study that was carried out in 2005 by this author with the objective of establishing the motivation behind corporate entities'...

Sample Specification

In order to carry out this study, the 2003 and 2005 annual reports were obtained for the sample from Public Listed Companies of the Main Board of Bursa Malaysia. The 2003 sample consisted of companies with year-end between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2003. Similarly, the 2005 sample consisted of companies with year-end between January 1,2005 and December 31, 2005. The annual reports were downloaded primarily from the Bursa Malaysia Website.4 Table 10.2 Description of the sampling...

Studies in Value Relevance

Accounting numbers are defined as value relevant if they have a predicted association with equity market values. One way in which accounting numbers can be assessed is to see how they relate to stock returns. Accounting numbers that update the market's beliefs will generate a change in returns. The technique for measuring the market impact of accounting numbers was developed primarily by Ball and Brown 1968 and was called the Abnormal Performance Index. Basically, there are three objectives of...

Disclosing Companies Examples of Good Practice OTHs Internet Disclosures

Social disclosures were noticed in only one occasion in the 2006's online corporate annual report under Corporate Social Responsibility section Stemming from its belief of its role in society, Masrawy.com proudly declares its sole and exclusive online responsibility towards the Children Risk Program initiated by Cilantro Nahdet El Mahrousa. Masrawy.com is taking the responsibility of spreading online awareness of the program through covering all issues of concern related to the problem of...

Turkey Civil Society Practices

Abstract This chapter discusses the evolution of the concept and practice of CSR in Turkey. It addresses the political, economic and social developments of CSR from Turkish's perspective. It provides an overview on the roles of public and private sector organizations and non-governmental organizations NGOs as well as the way in which Turkish culture in terms of philanthropy compliments the practice of CSR. The chapter also provides some concrete examples of the practice of CSR in corporate...

Conceptual Papers On Ethics N Corporate Social Responsibility

Bloom, P.N. and Gundlach, G.T. 2001 , Handbook of Marketing and Society, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage. Carroll, A.B. 1991 , The pyramid of corporate social responsibility towards the moral management of organizational stakeholders, Business Horizons, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 39-48. Carroll, A.B. 1999 , Corporate social responsibility evolution of a definitional construct, Business and Society, Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 268-295. Carroll, A.B. and Buchholtz, A.K. 2003 , Business and Society Ethics and...