Supporting smokers to stop smoking

How to Quit Smoking Cigarette

Mike Avery is the author of the quit smoking magic program. He is an ex-smoker (20 year habit) and a researcher who has carried out lots of tests on this topic for many years. He used himself as a test subject, after trying everything you can think of to stop smoking. He then tested his quit smoking magic theory on himself and got the results needed. Mike Avery's program of quit smoking magic has successfully helped hundreds of people all over the world quit smoking, including his family members and co- workers. He should be trusted because he has been in the shoes of being a smoker and has cured himself from smoking addiction. So if you are planning on doing the same, you should go to the one person who understands what you are going through. This program will provide you with information about smoking in general and ways on how to stop the smoking addiction from eating you up. Its contents are based on real-life experiences rather than theories that were imagined by someone. It is an e-book program on the subject of quitting smoking and comes with three different bonus e-books on the following topics; how to whiten your teeth, end bad breath and how to clean your lungs. Purchasing this program does not require you to have any technical skill to be able to use it, it only requires you to read and understand. More here...

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Joan Chionilos is the person behind the smoke free in one hour program. She has been a hypnotherapist for more than 18 years. She has been certified by the National Guild of Hypnotherapists, which is the oldest and largest association of hypnotherapists you can find in the world, so she can be trusted. She has dedicated her entire career to helping people quit smoking for good with the use of hypnosis. With her expertise in hypnotherapy, you should expect nothing but results when you purchase her product. Her methods has helped lots of people all around the world quit smoking for good, your case will not be different. This is a digital product that contains one hour of professional hypnosis recording. Smoke free in one hour is an effective one-hour stop smoking hypnosis session. This hypnosis session works to eliminate your cigarette cravings at the same time it increases your willpower. It is available online for download for you to use at home. It is very easy to use. This program has been designed for anyone who is ready to quit smoking once and for all. All you need to do is to get comfortable, sit back, relax and listen to this recording. You will not regret your decision. More here...

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Industry causes lung cancer would you be happy with that headline

National newspapers did not cover publication of the TEES Report. However, the environmental health trade press did, echoing the differences shown in local news reports. 'Teesside health study links lung cancer with air pollution' was the headline in the ENDS Report (December 1995). 'Teesside health study takes the blame off industry' was the contrasting emphasis in the Environment Information Bulletin (February 1996). The following month (March 1996) the Bulletin returned to the topic following a letter sent by three of us involved, under the headline 'Teesside study misinterpreted say researchers'. Prior to publication of the TEES Report, several clues suggest considerable unease about the findings and possible public responses. A draft version of the report was leaked anonymously to a group representing industry interests by 'a concerned doctor' two months in advance. When members of this group received advance briefing of the findings of the study, the presentation met with this...

Lung Cancer

Pollution Causes Cancer

Cancer can be caused by carcinogens, which are chemical or physical substances that can cause cells to grow uncontrollably. Chemical carcinogens include chemical emissions from industry pollutants from cars, homes, and factories and tobacco smoke. Physical carcinogens include UV radiation from sunlight and ionizing radiation from X-rays and radioactive materials. A number of viruses Lung cancer is the main respiratory cancer, and its primary cause is smoking. Studies have also found a strong link between the disease and long-term exposure to air pollution, primarily from fine particu-lates. A 2002 study by Brigham Young University, located in Provo, Utah, tracked 500,000 people in over 100 U.S. cities for 15 years and showed that the risk of a nonsmoker dying from lung cancer rose with increasing pollution and concluded that no level of air pollution could be considered safe. The study found that the long-term effects of breathing heavily polluted air are the same as breathing...

Hazards of Plutonium and Other Transuranic Elements

Studies on dogs indicate that breathing airborne plutonium can be serious very small amounts administered to beagles consistently caused lung cancer. However, these studies do not seem to apply to humans. lung cancer than the rest of the population. Twenty-six men inhaled plutonium (or absorbed it through cuts) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the mid-1940s. At their last examination in the early 1990s, seven of the 26 had died this is less than the 13 deaths that would be expected normally. Plutonium still shows up in the urine of the 19 survivors and always will. Eighteen seriously ill hospital patients were injected with small doses of plutonium in the 1945-1947 period five of the subjects were still alive almost 30 years later, and no ill effects of the plutonium were observed. Thus, plutonium in large quantities will surely cause some cancer deaths just as radium does however, there has never been a known case of death resulting from plutonium.

The Role of Research in Environmental Toxicology

The chloromethyl ethers such as BCME are chemicals that were once used in many industrial processes. The identification of these compounds as human carcinogens made use of several scientific approaches, all of which were followed at roughly the same time. In a factory that produced BCME, an epidemiological study found that chemical workers showed an increased risk of lung cancer. The longer and higher the exposure to BCME, the greater was the risk. Meanwhile, several animal studies also showed that BCME was carcinogenic when applied to the skin of mice or when rats or

Denaturalising risk politics

In Chapter 6, Peter Phillimore and Suzanne Moffatt's ' Industry causes lung cancer would you be happy with that headline Environmental health and local politics' similarly engages with the cultural politics of environmental risks at the level of the local. Environmental pollution, they point out, has long been a sensitive public issue in Teesside (a conurbation of over 400,000 people in north-east England), one of western Europe's main centres of steel and chemical production. Industry and local government alike have made strenuous efforts, however, to constrain and guide public debate about air pollution and its implications for human health.

Living Downwind Why Regulations Alone Cant Protect Us

This is really important, continued Froines, his hair somewhat grayer than in his rabble-rousing days, but he was still fit and impish. It has implications for lung cancer, implications for respiratory disease and implications especially for cardiovascular disease. Such discoveries make it difficult for government regulators to agree on pollution controls and standards that will genuinely protect public health because the goal post seems to move farther away with each new discovery and because not everyone's exposure is equal.

The Case for Sharply Cutting US Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Hurricane Katrina, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana coasts in September 2005, flooding 80 percent of New Orleans, provided a vivid demonstration of what's at stake. Of course, no one event can be attributed to global warming, any more than a person's dying from lung cancer can be directly attributed to smoking or air pollution. The relationship is strictly statistical, a matter of probability. But there's little doubt that global warming makes events like Katrina more likely, and when they occur, the costs are staggering. Reconstruction and restoration of New Orleans and neighboring areas will cost the United States hundreds of billions of dollars.

Objections from industry and its supporters

A more organised opposition to the IPCC's conclusions began in the USA on Earth Day (22 April 1996), with a message distributed widely, including to every member of the US Congress, and with the first issue of the State of the Climate Report attached in which the IPCC conclusions were challenged.3 However, just as this report was about to be published, the Union of Concerned Scientists denounced it in a press release, based on earlier contributions to the media debate about global warming by the man in charge, Patrick Michaels 'The forthcoming climate change report sponsored by the Western Fuels Association is like a lung cancer study funded by the tobacco industry.' Rather than using such language my responses on a few of Michaels' contributions in this first issue of the report were as follows. He had written

Estimating the Value of Nonmarket Goods

Respiratory illnesses to estimate the value of air pollution control. Researchers used a variation of this method to estimate the medical cost imposed on all of us from smokers inhaling cigarette smoke. Or consider the water purification benefits of a watershed area. One study suggests that an investment of 660 million in development rights would protect the Catskills watershed and would allow New York City to avoid the 4 billion cost of building and operating new water purification plants over the next decade.6

Alternative readings of the epidemiological evidence

The latest phase of concern with environmental health in Teesside coincided with evidence that mortality in poorer areas was unexpectedly high (Phillimore and Morris 1991). The new study concentrated on the poorest neighbourhoods, which were grouped into zones based on differential proximity to the main industries (Bhopal et al. 1998 Pless-Mulloli et al. 1998 TEES 1995). The slim possibility that pollution effects might be apparent across Teesside led us to include several comparably poor neighbourhoods in Sunderland, twenty-five miles to the north. We examined mortality and morbidity. The strongest evidence for a link between industrial air pollution and health proved to be in relation to deaths from lung cancer and other respiratory diseases. While analysis of deaths appears to offer less scope for ambiguity than analysis of illness and morbidity, several paradoxes were nonetheless evident. For example Why was the gradient across zones from female lung cancer and respiratory disease...

Pictures Of Fire Basf Wilton Teeside Ici 1995

A year after publication of the TEES Report, it would have been easy to surmise that the epidemiological research had made little impression upon the place it investigated, either in local government or among local residents. The comments of industry representatives quoted earlier reflect the satisfaction at that outcome. Yet ironically, events elsewhere led to the first attention in the national press, and drew renewed attention to the work in Teesside itself. After ICI had been criticised by the Environment Agency, the new national regulatory authority, for contravening discharge standards at a site in northwest England, the Sunday Times ran a report under the headline, 'Revealed the chemical giants polluting Britain'. Reference was made to death rates from lung cancer among women in Teesside being four times the national level in areas close to industry, and Suzanne Moffatt was quoted as saying 'We concluded that the most plausible explanation was exposure to industrial pollution'...

Indoor Environmental Quality Questions

Stack Effect Building

16 Does our design intent for mechanical systems explicitly deal with the goal of having no exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, through separate ventilation of any designated smoking areas and through placement of air intakes away from places where people might be smoking outside the building

Smoking Guns The Surprising Similarities of Tobacco and

Of the constituents in secondhand petroleum smoke, lead is the only one that isn't also found in tobacco smoke. The health damage caused by both tobacco and petroleum are also similar in many ways. Table 1.1 lists the most common and the most toxic constituents that are found in both tobacco smoke and vehicle exhaust. Whether you inhale from a cigarette, breathe in secondhand tobacco smoke, or simply breathe the air in most parts of the industrialized world, you Table 1.1. Human Health Toxins Found in Both Tobacco Smoke and Vehicle Exhaust Source How Do Tobacco Smoke and Car Exhaust Compare Energy Independence Now, 2003. Available online at Given these facts, it is not surprising that researchers have determined that living in a place with as much petroleum air pollution as Los Angeles is a lot like living with a smoker.22 Living in Madrid, Spain, is the equivalent of smoking half a pack of cigarettes a day, and a third of Spain's entire population lives...

Landfills and the Environment

When ingested by humans in polluted air or water, cadmium can build up in the human body over years, damaging the lungs, kidneys, nervous system, and stomach. It is classified by the EPA as a probable human carcinogen (cancer-causing agent) and has been associated with the development of lung cancer.

Pathways Forward for the New Climate Movement

In such a context, anglers, academics, the American Baptist Church, the American Heart Association, or the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, for example, can all be involved. Framing the issue in terms of human health and community concerns for a safe, clean, and prosperous future makes sense of and links together for all Pennsylvanians some simple and startling statistics. In Pennsylvania, fine-particle pollution from power plants alone is responsible each year for 35,405 asthma attacks, 3,329 heart attacks, 194 lung cancer deaths, and 200,100 lost workdays.3

Chemical Composition and Health Effects

Tobacco smoke from cigarettes, cigars, and pipes is composed of more than 4,000 different chemicals including carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. More than forty of these compounds are known to cause cancer in humans or animals, and many of them are strong irritants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has concluded that exposure to tobacco smoke in the United States poses a serious and significant public health threat. New long-term studies estimate that about half of all regular cigarette smokers die of smoking-related diseases. However, controversy still surrounds the exact extent of such health effects. Attempts have been made to study the effect of tobacco smoke on individuals exposed to other toxic chemicals. The risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos workers grows when they smoke an increasing number of cigarettes per day and their cumulative asbestos exposure increases. Cigarette-smoking asbestos workers tend to develop both restrictive lung disease (decreased...

Characterizing Toxicity

Types Dose Response Curves

Of toxicants, those measurements are more difficult to quantify because the responses are often less absolute and more complex. For example, chronic benzene toxicity causes lung cancer, but it may be years before that benzene-induced cancer appears, and many other factors may retard the development of that cancer (antagonistic effect), contribute to its development (synergistic effect), or independently cause lung cancer (e.g., smoking cigarettes).

Risk Assessment Whose Quantification Problem Is It

Cigarette smoking Nuclear waste Motor vehicle accidents When cigarettes, alcohol, and drug abuse presently cost hundreds of thousands of lives, billions of dollars, and tremendous human suffering, trying to eliminate environmental risks might appear wasteful and unjustified (Finucane, in press). Yet relative to drugs and alcohol, people who are harmed from environmental toxins and contaminated food are not informed, or presented with a choice. They are also unequally distributed among the population Environmental risks are incurred more often by lower income groups, minorities, and children (Bullard & Johnson, 2000 Laituri & Kirby, 1994 Opotow & Clayton, 1994). Yet, matters of observability, voluntariness, equitability, and knowledge are much more difficult to quantify than are number of deaths per year. Some critics of risk assessment suggest that we will never be able to quantify them adequately, and so should not use risk assessment to make major policy decisions. For example, it...

Control of Indoor Air Pollution

Or otherwise irritated eyes at least once a week. In the best buildings of the same study group, 6 percent of occupants experienced unusual fatigue or drowsiness. Under these circumstances, the possibility of complaints filed in relationship to indoor air quality will not become remote in coming years. see also Asbestos Asthma Household Pollutants Lead Mold Pollution Pesticides Radon Tobacco Smoke.

Studies of Health Effects of TMI

In a broader study of cancer rates near Three Mile Island, investigators found a statistically significant increase in cancer incidence, compared to rates at greater distances, during 1982 and 1983 16 .10 However, this excess did not persist, and in 1985, the cancer incidence rate was slightly lower for the near-TMI group than for the more distant group. Further, the increase was seen only in cancer incidence, not in cancer fatalities. This lack of increase was commented on particularly for lung cancer, which progresses rapidly from incidence to fatality, as pointing to possible screening bias. The authors concluded

Epidemiologic Studies

We learn, for example, from a pooled analysis of eight prospective studies that included 430,281 men and women followed for up to 6-16 years across studies, that elevated consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a modest reduction in lung cancer risk, mostly attributable to fruit, not vegetable intake. But the 20 researchers from five countries who participated in this substantial study tell us that, The modest inverse association observed for fruit intake, and the absence of a reduction with vegetable intake, reinforces the public health message that the primary focus for reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality should be in smoking prevention and cessation 20 . What can we glean from published studies specifically concerned with antioxidant supplementation and its effects on chronic medical illnesses A recent trial, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention study (ATBC), assessed the effects of supplemental a-tocopherol only, P-carotene only,...

Energy and the environment

In addition to the chemical effects of ozone and smog formation, there is increasing interest in the health effects of particulate emissions, which are primarily a feature of coal combustion and diesel engine exhaust. The particles are formed through a complex process involving unburned hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, and NOx, primarily in fuel-rich flames such as those inherent in diesel engines and the pulverized coal combustion systems used in power stations. The particles formed have a wide size range, but the ones that have come under the most scrutiny for health reasons, and have been the subject of environmental legislation to limit their production, are those under 10 microns (1 micron 10 3 mm) in diameter. This so-called PM10 matter can enter deep into the lungs and there is growing scientific consensus that these can then cause serious heart and lung complaints, including asthma, bronchitis, and even lung cancer and premature death. Recently there has been increasing concern...

Radon Exposures from Uranium Mining and Mill Tailings

In the early days of uranium mining, little attention was paid to radiation safety. In the Middle Ages, long before uranium had been identified as an element, metal miners in southern Germany and Czechoslovakia contracted lung ailments, called Bergkrankheit ( mountain sickness ). Modern scientists have attributed the ailment to lung cancer caused by a high uranium concentration that, by chance, was in the rock formations being mined. The decay of the radionuclides in the uranium series proceeds from 238U through several steps to 226Ra and then to radon gas (222Rn) and its radioactive progeny. Inhalation of these radon daughters can lead to lung cancer (see Section 3.5.1). As one would expect, the problem of radon exposure is more extreme in uranium mines than in other sorts of mine. It became a particularly serious problem in a number of countries for example, in the United States, Czechoslovakia, and Canada when large-scale uranium mining was begun in the 1940s to meet the demands of...

Environmental policy in China

The cumulative effect of this resource-intensive growth strategy pursued in the decades after 1949 - and the increasing reliance on indigenous coal that this precipitated - had important environmental ramifications for China beyond those of global warming. China has experienced water shortages, exacerbated by extensive water pollution, and degraded land resources resulting from deforestation and soil erosion but among the most serious environmental problems - and the one most directly related to China's pattern of energy consumption - is atmospheric pollution. As a consequence of the millions of inefficient boilers, stoves and furnaces burning coal - approximately 80 percent of it unprocessed - air pollution in China's urban areas now rivals the worst in the world, with the attendant increases in respiratory disease and lung cancer. In addition to the impact on human health, growing levels of acid rain from extensive coal use has resulted in serious damage to crops, forests and...

Other Sources of Radiation Consumer Products

Another large but uncertain source of exposure is tobacco. Tobacco leaves collect lead-210 (210Pb) from the air and this radionuclide and its immediate decay product, polonium-210 (210Pb), are inhaled with the tobacco smoke.26 One estimate placed the average resulting effective dose for 50,000,000 U.S. smokers at 13 mSv yr, corresponding to an average U.S. population dose of roughly 2.5 mSv yr 21, p. 310 . Although this dose is larger than any of the individual doses listed in Table 3.5, it is omitted from most dose summaries presumably because the dose is unevenly distributed, the calculation is un certain, and other effects of tobacco smoke are thought to be more important than the radiation effects. It is to be noted that the radionuclides in the water supply, building materials, and tobacco are natural radionuclides, although in the case of building materials and tobacco, they are technologically enhanced (i.e, the doses are greater than they would be without houses and...

Risk Models Absolute and Relative Risk

As suggested earlier, the cancer risk from a given exposure depends on a variety of factors other than the dose itself. For instance, the BEIR V report cites sex, attained age, age-at-exposure, and time-since-exposure as relevant parameters in determining risk 11, p. 166 . Further, the risk varies from organ to organ. The risk can be related to dose using either an absolute or relative risk model. In the absolute risk model, the risk depends on the dose. In the relative risk model, the risk depends on both the dose and the underlying natural risk for the group being considered. For example, lung cancer is more common among old people than among young people, and radon creates a higher risk of fatal lung cancer for exposure at age 55 than at age 25.

Radon Radiation Doses from Radon

Studies of lung cancer incidence among uranium miners have unequivocally demonstrated that inhalation of radon and radon progeny at high concentrations causes lung cancer fatalities. These studies also established a risk factor relating lung cancer to radon concentration. It is possible to calculate the impact of indoor radon on the general population in two ways

Effects of Radon Exposure in the General Population

The discrepancy discussed in the previous subsection is of lesser immediate importance than the disagreement between the results of two approaches to relating lung cancer rates in the general population to residential radon concentrations. One method for studying the relationship is through case-control epidemiological studies. A case group, composed of people who have been diagnosed as having lung cancer, is compared to a control group of randomly selected people from the same general area. The radon concentrations in the homes of the two groups are compared, with adjustments for demographic factors, including age, gender, and smoking history. Individual studies of this type generally have too few subjects to be statistically conclusive, but an A meta-analysis of eight studies reported a significant exposure-response relationship with quantitative results that were in general agreement with an extrapolation made from studies of lung cancer in miners 43 . However, the statistical...

Depicting and moralising Teessides air pollution

Yet as wider national and international concerns about environmental pollution have grown since the 1970s, Teesside's image as a place beset by abnormally severe air pollution has dogged it. Several disparate examples will illustrate the point. The first relates to the tobacco industry's own interest in Teesside's air pollution. For instance, in the 1950s the tobacco industry was not slow in spotting that Teesside offered a useful laboratory which might assist its efforts to deflect attention from the rising tide of evidence linking tobacco consumption with lung cancer and respiratory illness. Accordingly, research started in the 1950s, funded by the Tobacco Research Council, to examine 'environmental factors associated with lung cancer and bronchitis mortality' (Wicken and Buck 1964). A follow-up study continued this work through the 1960s (Dean and Lee 1977). The conclusions of these studies need not concern us here. The relevant point is that Teesside was seen to provide a suitable...

The Particle Size Controversy

Sistema Respiratorio Para

However, studies have indicated that the most damage to human lungs is done by particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (1 10,000 of an inch, less than 1 40th the width of a human hair). These are the particles that penetrate deepest into the lungs and cause the most damage. They appear to be responsible for most of lung-cancer deaths among nonsmokers. So in 1997 the EPA changed the law to emphasize the amount of particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. Industry objects to this change because most of these tiny particles result from the combustion of coal and oil (soot). The larger particles tend to be road dust and soil clay. The change from 10 to 2.5 micrometers cost industry a lot of money in new pollution controls.

Box Household Use of Biomass and Coal

China's stove industry sells more than 10 million improved stoves per year, is worth about 30 million to the economy and is growing at a rate of 10 per year. From the 1990s onwards, however, there was significant switching away from biomass to coal. As a result, 90 of manufacturers' revenue comes from coal stoves rather than biomass stoves (Spautz et al., 2006). While both biomass and coal can give rise to respiratory illness, coal can also contain large quantities of arsenic, lead, mercury, other poisonous metals and fluorine. Exposure to indoor air pollution from coal fires is associated with a two-fold increased risk of lung cancer among women (WHO, 2006). Further improvements in indoor air quality will require both greater take-up of efficient cooking equipment and better ventilation, as well as faster switching to electricity (via grid connection, but also solar panels and micro-hydropower), piped gas, biogas, modern biomass fuels, such as ethanol gel, and alternative fossil...

The Cost Of Air Pollution And Pollution Control

Scientists do know that air pollution is related to a number of respiratory diseases, including bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, lung cancer, bronchial asthma, eye irritation, weakened immune system, and premature lung tissue aging. In addition, lead contamination causes neurological and kidney disease and can be responsible for impaired fetal and mental development. The American Lung Association estimates the annual health costs of exposure to the most serious air pollutants at 40 to 50 billion.

Controlling The Message

Sites as well as litigation in the years to come. There is legislation in Congress at this very minute that would prevent anyone exposed to WTC dust from ever collecting any compensation after contracting asbestos induced mesothelioma or lung cancer, because their exposures were not work place related. Jenkins 2003


Asbestos is a naturally occurring mineral whose crystals form long, thin fibers. Its pliability and heat-resistance made it a popular insulation and fireproofing material. But the same fibers that make it a good insulator also make it deadly Inhaling these fibers, especially over a long period of time, damages the lungs and causes lung cancer.

Premature Deaths

Premature deaths, from a variety of causes, can be attributed to air pollution. The World Health Organization estimates that bad air kills 600,000 people worldwide each year. Air pollution has also been linked to spontaneous abortions (miscarriages) and increased infant mortality. A 2000 study by the Ontario Medical Association, in Ontario, Canada, a city with about 12 million people, showed that air pollution causes approximately 2,000 premature deaths in that city annually. A 1999 study of 11 Canadian cities by the Canadian Air Health Effects Division found that approximately 5,000 preventable premature deaths (about 8 of the total) could be attributed to air pollutants. The study estimated that in 1995 the Greater Toronto area had experienced just slightly more deaths from lung cancer than from air pollution.

Holy Smoke

Then there is holy smoke, and its perils. According to researchers at the University of Maastrict, The Netherlands, public health can be adversely affected by burning candles and incense in churches, and to test their idea, they sampled the air in a Dutch church. Before the church service began, levels of PM10 were 3-5 times higher than normal roadside levels. After 9 hours of continuous candle-burning, and several puffs of incense, PM10 levels increased 13-20 times roadside levels. At its peak, the PM10 level in the church's chapel was over a mg m3 of air more than 20 times the European Union's recommended 24-hour limit for outdoor air. In addition, they found that in both the basilica and the chapel, PAH levels were higher than outdoor levels, and increased by a factor of 4 and 10 after burning incense and candles, respectively 30 . Professor de Kok, the lead author of this study, informs us that it cannot be excluded that regular exposure to candle or incense- derived particulate...

Cigarette Smoke

Continuous involuntary smoking increases your risk of lung cancer, high blood pressure, rheumatoid arthritis,28 heart disease (by 20-70 percent),29 respiratory infections, and other health maladies known to be associated with the cigarette smoker. The National Research Council and Surgeon General of the United States have both come out strongly against cigarette smoke, no matter how you encounter it. As stated by the World Health Organization in an unusual worldwide release, Passive smoking does cause lung cancer. Don't let them the cigarette companies fool you. 30 As former Surgeon General Charles Everett Koop said, The cigarette is the only product in the world that kills if you use it according to the manufacturer's instructions. The risk of being affected by secondhand cigarette smoke is particularly high for children, house pets, spouses of smokers, pop musicians, and bartenders, people continually exposed to high levels of air pollution. The unborn children of pregnant women are...

Toxic Dose

At the high end of the exposure scale, one finds the phenomenon of saturation (see figure 4-ib). This means that when the exposure level reaches a certain value, the risk is so high that any further increase in exposure has no effect. To illustrate this, suppose you give someone a gram of cyanide. Death is virtually certain at this dose. If you increase the dose to 10 grams or 100 grams, there is no increase in the risk of death, which was already at the maximum level. Saturation can occur at levels of risk below certainty. There is probably a saturation effect of cigarette smoking, so that smoking three packs a day or six packs a day both result in about a 25 percent chance of getting lung cancer. It is very important to understand that saturation occurs only at very high levels of exposure, where further increases in exposure do not produce any further increases in risk.

Health Hazards

Exposure to some indoor air pollutants is directly linked to severe health problems and even death. The dangers of asbestos, lead, pesticides, and radon have already been discussed. The potentially deadly effects of secondhand tobacco smoke are also well known. Another indoor pollutant known to be life threatening is carbon monoxide.

Normative statements

There are several important differences between positive claims or positive questions, and normative ones.1 First, if a positive question is sufficiently well posed - meaning all the terms in it are defined clearly and precisely enough -it has right and wrong answers. Similarly, well-posed positive claims are either true or false. Second, the answer to a positive question, or the truth or falsity of a positive claim, does not depend on who you are it does not depend on what you like or value, your culture, your political ideology, or your religious beliefs. Finally, arguments over positive claims can often be resolved by looking at evidence. If you and I disagree over whether it is raining, we can look outside. If we disagree over whether winters are getting warmer, we can look at the records of past and present winter temperatures. If we disagree over whether smoking causes cancer, we can look at the health records of a large group of smokers and non-smokers (who are otherwise...

Indoor Air Pollution

Bronchitis, lung cancer, flu-like tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust Environmental tobacco smoke Cigarettes, cigars, pipes Stop smoking Isolate smokers outdoors infections in children. Lung cancer Lung cancer, possibility of stomach Cancer and lung diseases (smokers Paints, automobiles, tobacco smoke,


(cigarettes), which had long been a feature of life in the Western frontier. The rate of smoking grew exponentially, with a brief decrease during the Depression. The average per capita consumption of about fifty cigarettes per year in 1900 rose to over 1,000 by the 1930s. But this was only the beginning. The real boom in cigarette sales came with World War II and its aftermath. By 1945 the number of cigarettes smoked per person per year was over 3,500. The peak consumption of cigarettes in the United States reached over 4,300 per person per year in 1964. Women began smoking in large numbers in the 1940s, and the rate of smoking continued to increase until around 1975. Many women associated smoking with freedom and new rights. The tobacco industry saw women as a new market, using brands targeted to women such as Virginia Slims. Some biological factors that appear to make it harder for women to quit, as well as the issue of weight gain after quitting, have had tragic consequences for...


Risk analysis is conducted for individual pollutants, but people can be exposed to multiple pollutants simultaneously, such as pesticides, heavy metals, dioxins, and PCBs. Even though a person's exposure to individual chemicals may fall within regulated limits, the pollutants may interact to cause as yet unknown adverse health effects. It is known, for instance, that exposure to both asbestos and tobacco smoke geometrically increases the risk of cancer. Because there are so many potentially harmful chemicals in the environment scientists cannot predict all their possible interactions and consequent health effects on the body. see also Air Pollution Arsenic Dioxin Greenhouse Gases Heavy Metals Lead Mercury Ozone PCBs (Poly-chlorinated Biphenyls) Pesticides Risk Vehicular Pollution VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) Water Treatment.

Coalbed Methane

Unfortunately, it has been found that long-term, high-level exposure to asbestos can cause asbestosis and lung cancer. It was also determined that exposure to asbestos may cause mesothelioma, a rare form of cancer. Workers can be exposed to asbestos during mining, milling, and handling of ores containing asbestos or during the manufacture, installation, repair, and removal of commercial products that contain asbestos. One of the more recent controversies involving asbestos is the exposure of workers and the local residents to asbestos found in vermiculite ore mined in Libby, Montana. The vermiculite ore was shipped nationwide for processing and was used for insulation, as a lightweight aggregate, in potting soils, and for agricultural applications. Mining of the Libby deposit ended around 1991 but elevated levels of asbestos-related disease have been found in the miners, millers, and the local population. Another major area of concern is naturally occurring asbestos found in rock...

Heavy Metals

It is possible to be deficient in these metals, or to have an optimal or a damaging or lethal intake. However, nonessential elements such as chromium, lead, and mercury have little or no beneficial role in the human body, and the daily intake of these metals is often toxic or lethal. Many heavy metals cause nervous-system damage, with resulting learning disorders in children. Ingestion of mercury can cause the severe breakdown of the nervous system, and metals such as lead and nickel can cause autoimmune reactions. Chromium occurs in a relatively harmless form and a much more dangerous, oxidized hexavalent form. Several studies have shown that chromium (VI) compounds can increase the risk of lung cancer and that ingesting large amounts of chromium (VI) can cause stomach upsets and ulcers, convulsions, kidney and liver damage, and even death, according to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The dangers of hexavalent chromium in drinking water were...

Tradeoff Analyses

Regulatory measures aimed at protecting the environment sometimes involve reductions in personal freedoms. Ordinances that restrict smoking in workplaces or public buildings limit the freedom of smokers to smoke wherever they wish. The imposition of such limitations is defended on the grounds that it is necessary to protect the rights of others. This is but one of many examples in which the rights, or at least desires, of different groups conflict and compromises involving trade-offs must be struck.


Lung Cancer Due Climate Change

The Chinese scholar who said a good picture is worth 10,000 words, would be pleased with Figures 1.2 and 1.3, which convey literally gobs of information. In seven distinct trendlines, representing major cancer sites, Figure 1.2 conveys the cancer death rates for men over the 72 years 1930-2001. Of the seven major sites, lung cancer makes the most powerful statement. Not only did it rocket upward between 1940 to a peak in 1990, taking many lives with it, but also clearly evident is its decline since 1990. Antismoking campaigns can take well-deserved credit. The stomach cancer trendline tells another wonderful story. If there is a cancer epidemic across the country, stomach cancer surely hasn't contributed, as it has been dropping steadily for 70 years by 2000 it had the lowest death rates of the seven trendlines. Colorectal cancer, holding steady for 30 years between 1950 and 1980, has also been declining. After a 5-year blip upward, when new screening tests for prostate cancer...

Indoor Radon

Studies of the effects of indoor radon are important in their own right, as a guide to establishing sensible protective measures against the possible hazards of the source of most of the collective human dose from natural radiation sources. Because the doses vary substantially from place to place, it might be expected that studies of the relation between indoor radon and lung cancer levels would shed light on the general question of the effects of low-dose exposures. However, as discussed further in Section 4.5.2, the leading studies have produced a high-profile dispute, not consensus.

Air Pollution

Air pollution, like all exposures to any toxic substance, can result in two profoundly different categories of ill health. At high levels of exposure, people become sensitive to chronic illnesses such as asthma, lung cancer, or other respiratory diseases. At very high levels, people can die from the exposure. Of course, humans are quite variable in their responses to any negative exposure, and not everyone in an exposed community will show the same symptoms. At a particular level of pollution, some people will feel just fine others will cough, rub their eyes, and feel lousy others will get really sick and some will actually die. There is good evidence that even during the worst pollution episodes, those who die are the weaker, sicker, and older (or much

How To Quit Smoking

How To Quit Smoking

Did You Ever Thought You Could Quit Smoking And Live A Healthy Life? Here Are Some Life Saving Tips On How To Do It. Have you ever thought about quitting smoking, but either thought it was impossible or just simply wasn’t that important? Research shows that most smokers do want to quit smoking and they are waiting for that auspicious day eagerly.

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