Schematic Diagrams and Service Manuals
A schematic diagram of a solar-operated absorption refrigeration system is shown in Figure 6.28. The refrigeration cycle is the same as the ones described in Section 6.4.2. The difference between this system and the traditional fossil fuel-fired units is that the energy supplied to the generator is from the solar collector system shown on the left side of Figure 6.28. Due to the intermittent nature of available solar energy, a hot water storage tank is needed thus the collected energy is first stored in the tank and used as an energy source in the generator to heat the strong solution when needed. The storage tank of the solar heating system is used for this purpose. When the storage tank temperature is low, the auxiliary heater is used to top it off to the required generator temperature. Again, the same auxiliary heater of the space heating system can be used, at a different set temperature. If the storage tank is completely depleted, the storage is bypassed, as in the space heating...
A schematic diagram of a direct circulation system is shown in Figure 5.9. In this system, a pump is used to circulate potable water from storage to the collectors when there is enough available solar energy to increase its temperature and then return the heated water to the storage tank until it is needed. Because a pump is used to circulate the water, the collectors can be mounted either above or below the storage tank. Direct circulation systems often use a single storage tank equipped with an auxiliary water heater, but two-tank storage systems can also be used. An important feature of this configuration is the spring-loaded
A schematic diagram of indirect water heating systems is shown in Figure 5.11. In this system, a heat transfer fluid is circulated through the closed collector loop to a heat exchanger, where its heat is transferred to the potable water. The most commonly used heat transfer fluids are water-ethylene glycol solutions, although other heat transfer fluids such as silicone oils and refrigerants can be used. When fluids that are non-potable or toxic are used, double-wall heat exchangers should be employed this can be two heat exchangers in series. The heat exchanger can be located inside the storage tank, around the storage tank (tank mantle), or external to the storage tank (see Section 5.3). It should be noted that the collector loop is closed therefore, an expansion tank and a pressure relief valve are required. Additional over-temperature protection may be needed to prevent the collector heat-transfer fluid from decomposing or becoming corrosive.
The main requirements for gravel storage are good insulation, low air leakage, and low pressure drop. Many different designs can fulfill these requirements. The container is usually constructed from concrete, masonry, wood, or a combination of these materials. Airflow can be vertical or horizontal. A schematic diagram of a vertical flow bed is shown in Figure 5.15. In this arrangement, the solar-heated air enters at the top and exits from the bottom. This tank can work as effectively as a horizontal flow bed. In these systems, it is important to heat the bed with the hot air flow in one direction and to retrieve the heat with airflow in the opposite direction. In this way, pebble beds perform as effective counter-flow heat exchangers.
In the fifty-year history of nuclear reactor operations, one finds that most accidents in nuclear power plants or nuclear-powered submarines are of a non-nuclear nature and do not breach nuclear safety features. The most common accidents which cause a reactor to be shut down are malfunctions in electronic circuitry, electrical systems, and human error. Because reactor operating procedures require that all main reactor electronics be fully functional all the time, a temporary reactor shutdown is sometimes necessary for electronics repair. Such shutdowns cause a costly temporary loss of electric power generation, so in modern reactors, two or more parallel or redundant electronic systems are provided which can take over from each other should one system fall out. This allows quick modular repair of a failing component without disruption of power plant operations.
FIGURE 3.18 schematic diagram of a downward-facing receiver illuminated from an LFR field. FIGURE 3.18 schematic diagram of a downward-facing receiver illuminated from an LFR field. FiGURE 3.19 schematic diagram showing interleaving of mirrors in a CLFR with reduced shading between mirrors. FiGURE 3.19 schematic diagram showing interleaving of mirrors in a CLFR with reduced shading between mirrors. FIGURE 3.20 Parabolic dish collector. (a) schematic diagram. (b) Photo of a Eurodish collector (from FIGURE 3.20 Parabolic dish collector. (a) schematic diagram. (b) Photo of a Eurodish collector (from
Schematic diagram of diurnal variations of convection during the disturbed (upper panel) and undisturbed (lower panel) periods. The dashed curve in the lower panel indicates the time rate of change of the saturation columnar water vapor amount, dW* dt, corresponding to the diurnal cycle of temperature distribution. This quantity represents a direct effect of the radiative cooling heating cycle on available precipitable water (APW), or a change of APW in the first step. The convective response to the direct forcing can induce further changes in temperature and moisture that lead to a corresponding change of APW in the second step. Since observed and simulated diurnal variations of convection are evidently in phase with the idealized cycle, the curve is regarded as a good theoretical limit for diurnal rainfall. The dashed curve in the lower panel indicates the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of diurnal variations of convection during the...
FIGURE 2.14 Schematic diagram illustrating climatic fluctuations at timescales ranging from decadal (the last 100 yr, lowest panel) to centennial (the last 1000 yr, second panel) to millennial (the last 10,000 yr), and so on, to the last million yr (top panel). Each successive panel, from the back to the front, is an expanded version (expanded by a factor of 10) of one-tenth of the previous column.Thus, higher-frequency climatic variations are nested within lower-frequency changes. Note that the temperature scale (representing global mean annual temperature) is the same on all panels.This demonstrates that temperature changes over the last 100 yr (lower panel) have been minor compared to changes over long periods of time. Such changes have occurred throughout history, but they are lost in the noise of the longer-term climatic record only the larger amplitude changes are detectable as we look far back in time.
FIGURE 6.32 Schematic diagram illustrating selective dissolution of planktonic foraminiferal species at depth, due to undersaturation of the water with respect to calcium carbonate. Dark circles represent the resistant species Globoratalia tumida. Open circles represent Globigerinoides ruber, that is dissolved relatively easily. Qobigerina bulloides (open circle with a line) is intermediate in resistance. Dissolution alters the species composition of the sediment so it may not be representative of species in the overlying water column. At depths below the compensation depth only the occasional Globoratalia tumida may survive. Changes in the depth of the lysodine and compensation depth through time may offset the sediment species composition, due to differential dissolution (Be, 1977). FIGURE 6.32 Schematic diagram illustrating selective dissolution of planktonic foraminiferal species at depth, due to undersaturation of the water with respect to calcium carbonate. Dark circles...
In the fuel cell, only the hardware is placed within the package. The chemicals used to generate the electric current are stored outside the package and the reaction products are vented to the atmosphere. Fuel cells cannot become discharged. As long as fuel is available, a fuel cell can continue to provide power. It never needs replacing or recharging to continue operation. Refer back to Figure 6.7 for a schematic diagram of a fuel cell and Figure 6.8 and 6.9 for a picture of the Ballard automotive fuel cell. Fuel cells built for the space program using an acidic solid polymer electrolyte. Because the electrolyte is a solid, it can be used in any position including zero gravity. Automotive air-hydrogen fuel cells will likely use solid polymer electrolytes. Figure 6.7 showed a highly simplified schematic diagram of a single cell of a solid polymer fuel cell. Figure 6.8 shows multi-celled solid polymer fuel cell developed by Ballard Ltd with solid polymer technology.
Figure 1.2 Schematic diagram of the earth atmosphere system Figure 1.3a Schematic diagram of a natural subsystem a lake basin Figure 1.3a Schematic diagram of a natural subsystem a lake basin Figure 1.3 b Schematic diagram of a subsystem of anthropogenic origin a thermal electric power plant
Central to any understanding of how the Earth system operates and how it changes on timescales of greatest relevance to future human welfare, are the processes that control changes in the fluxes of energy within the atmosphere and between atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and biosphere. These in turn largely control climate. Figure 1.3 is a schematic representation of the main processes driving change in the climate system. Even at this level of generalisation, many processes and transformations are involved. Several questions arise from this schematic diagram. What modulates changes through time in the external input of energy through solar radiation What are the main ways in which the various processes shown in Figure 1.3 can be changed How do the most important mechanisms redistributing incoming energy around the globe vary through time Figure 1.3 Schematic diagram of the main components of the climate system, showing many of the linkages and exchanges that play an important role...
Figure 2.4 Schematic diagram of an extratropical cyclone in the Northern Hemisphere. At sea level the pressure chart shows a low central pressure with cold and warm fronts on either side of a 'warm sector'. A cool air mass behind the cold front is pushing under the warm-sector air mass. At the warm front, warm-sector air is moving up over the cooler air mass ahead of the front. In both cases the rising warm air produces cloud and rain. At upper levels the polar front jet stream (PFf) is shown meandering round ridges of high pressure and a trough of low pressure, with a region of divergence (Div) helping remove rising air faster than it converges at the surface, thus intensifying the storm. Similarly, a region of convergence (Conv) in the PFJ helps to build a nearby anticyclone at the surface. (Reproduced from Atmospheric Processes and Systems by Russell D. Thompson, 1998 with permission from Routledge)
Fig. 7.15 shows a simplified schematic diagram of soil water budget, which components include precipitation, runoff, percolation, evapotranspiration, horizontal drainage from unsaturated flow, and vertical drainage through the lower scheme boundary. Soil moisture at surface layer is mainly controlled by precipitation and evaporation (bare soil) or evapotranspiration (vegetable covered ground) (Manabe et al., 1981). A Soil Moisture Retrieving Scheme must have the ability to represent these two processes correctly. Taking this into consideration, Surface Humidity Index will be constructed which can combine the effects of two parameters.
The linear or toroidal magnetic confinement machines are the fusion reactor system most nearly ready for implementation. Researchers from the primary developers of these machines have written that a machine of appropriate size can be designed that would produce useful power. With current understanding, engineering skill and materials they estimate the power output of a full-scale operational plant will be in the range of 30,000 to 50,000 Megawatts electric (100,000 to 150,000 Megawatts thermal). A simplified schematic diagram of such a reactor was shown in Figure 3.1. This output level is 15 to 25 times larger than the current largest power plants. The developers see this large power output as a barrier to the use of fusion energy and are directing their efforts at achieving fusion reactions in smaller reactors. Chapter 6 will show large size is not a barrier, but will be an advantage in the construction of the energy systems needed for the future.
FIGURE 10.4 A schematic diagram showing how low precipitation and high temperature during the growing season may lead to the formation of a narrow tree ring in arid-site trees. Arrows indicate the net effects and include various processes and their interactions. It is implied that the effects of high precipitation and low temperature are the opposite and may lead to an increase in ring widths (Fritts, 1971 ).
FIGURE 1.2 A schematic diagram of atmospheric motions. As the air in the Hadley cell moves toward the equator, the spin of the Earth about its axis moves the surface toward the right in the figure. An observer on the surface then feels a component of the wind coming from the east. Similarly, in the Ferrel cell in midlatitudes, the air tends to flow away from the equator and as the Earth's surface spins toward the right, there is a wind component from the west. FIGURE 1.2 A schematic diagram of atmospheric motions. As the air in the Hadley cell moves toward the equator, the spin of the Earth about its axis moves the surface toward the right in the figure. An observer on the surface then feels a component of the wind coming from the east. Similarly, in the Ferrel cell in midlatitudes, the air tends to flow away from the equator and as the Earth's surface spins toward the right, there is a wind component from the west.
Figure 12 provides a simple schematic diagram of an industrial process. Like the service system depicted in Figure 9, the industrial process is represented in Figure 12 as a kind of black box. The main difference between Figure 9 and Figure 12 is that the functional output in Figure 12 is a material product rather than a service. These material products are manufactured from raw material inputs to the process. Only a proportion of the total material input is turned into useful product. The balance appears in the form of material wastes. Some materials are emitted to the air others to the water and some materials end up in the solid waste stream.
Air systems are indirect water heating systems because air, circulated through air collectors and via ductworks, is directed to an air-to-water heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, heat is transferred to the potable water, which is also circulated through the heat exchanger and returned to the storage tank. Figure 5.14 shows a schematic diagram of a double storage tank system. This type of system is used most often because air systems are generally used for preheating domestic hot water and hence the auxiliary heater is used in only one tank, as shown.
Schematic diagram of the upper respiratory system in humans showing the depth of penetration of different particle sizes of foreign objects that are inhaled. Source Earth and Mineral Resources, vol. 59, no 7 (1990) 7. Schematic diagram of the upper respiratory system in humans showing the depth of penetration of different particle sizes of foreign objects that are inhaled. Source Earth and Mineral Resources, vol. 59, no 7 (1990) 7.
Figure 6.8 A schematic diagram of the feedbacks in the climate system involved in the hypothesis of iron fertilisation activating the 'biological pump' in the oceans. At the onset of glaciation, lower sea-levels, drier climatic conditions and reduced plant cover all contribute to increased dust supply, which serves to fertilise areas of the ocean where productivity has been limited by iron. Increased productivity leads to a draw-down of carbon to the deep ocean and a reduction in atmospheric CO2. During deglaciation, the reverse suite of interactions lead to higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Modified from Ridgwell, 2003.)
In the fan pressurisation method, the pressures are generated artificially by a fan which blows air into (or extracts air from) the building. The fan is connected to a convenient opening, usually a door, and the flow rate increased up to a maximum and then allowed to decrease. The fan assembly itself is either pre-calibrated, so that the flow rate is known for any given fan speed, or the fan assembly is fitted with pressure tappings or a restrictor plate from which the flow rate can be measured. The resulting internal to external pressure differences are measured with suitable pressure sensors inside and outside the building. The result is a graph of flow rate against pressure difference which, because it is a power law, is a curve. Figure 14.1 is a schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement, and shows the type of graph that is produced. Because the air flow is under direct control, and because both air flows and pressure differences are measured directly, this is a...
FIGURE 9.12 Schematic diagram of particles and fluid motion around a cylinder. Streamlines are shown as solid lines, while the dashed lines are aerosol paths. FIGURE 9.12 Schematic diagram of particles and fluid motion around a cylinder. Streamlines are shown as solid lines, while the dashed lines are aerosol paths.
FIGURE 12.18 Schematic diagram illustrating the circulation pattern for 18 ka B.P. in January, based on a GCM experiment with thick Laurentide and European ice sheets (shaded).The main jet stream is split around the ice sheets the dashed lines along the southern jet stream show the zone of increased precipitation. Surface wind systems are shown by open arrows.This result is from the NCAR GCM not all GCMs show this bifurcation of upper air winds In LGM simulations (Kutzbach and Wright, 1985).
The Asian monsoon system may best be considered as a physical-biological-chemical-social coupled system, which could be named the General Monsoon System, in order to describe the integrated behavior of environmental and human changes in the Asia (Fu, 1997, 2001). Based on above concept, RIEMS (Regional Integrated Environmental Model System) aiming to provide a numerical tool for the integrated study of the Asian monsoon system was developed as a schematic diagram of Fig. 9.1 (Fu et al, 2001). Fig. 9.1 The schematic diagram of RIEMS Fig. 9.1 The schematic diagram of RIEMS
FIGURE 12.2 Schematic diagram illustrating how the atmosphere and ocean are divided into columns in a typical coupled general circulation model experiment. Ocean and atmospheric grid sizes are commonly different. Computations take place simultaneously for all grid boxes at all specified levels (McGuffie and Henderson-Sellers, 1997).
FIGURE 9.1 Schematic diagrams of energy bands for typical materials. (a) Insulator. (b) Conductor (metal.) (c) Semiconductor. FIGURE 9.2 Schematic diagrams of n- and p-type semiconductors. (a) n-type, with excess electrons. (b) p-type, with excess positive holes. FiGURE 9.3 Schematic diagram of a p-n junction. A schematic diagram of the energy bands of the n- and p-type semiconductors is shown in Figure 9.4. In the n-type semiconductor, because the doped impurity donates additional electrons for the conduction of current, it is called the donor and its energy level is called the donor level. The n-type energy band diagram is shown in Figure 9.4a, and as can be seen, the donor level is located within the forbidden band. In the p-type semiconductor, the doped impurity accepts additional electrons therefore, it is called the acceptor and its energy FIGuRE 9.11 Schematic diagram of a PV module consisting of NPM parallel branches, each with NSM cells in series. FIGuRE 9.11 Schematic...
A schematic diagram of a solar heating and hot water system is shown in Figure 6.13. Control of the solar heating system is based on two thermostats the collector-storage temperature differential and the room temperature. The collector operates with a differential thermostat, as explained in Chapter 5, Section 5.5. When the room thermostat senses a low temperature, the load pump is activated, drawing heated water from the main storage tank to meet the demand. If the energy stored in the tank cannot meet the load demand, the thermostat activates the auxiliary heater to supply the balance of the heating requirements. Usually, the controller also modifies the three-way valves shown in Figure 6.13 so that the flow is entirely through the auxiliary heater whenever the storage tank is depleted. FIGURE 6.13 Schematic diagram of a solar space heating and hot water system. FIGURE 6.13 Schematic diagram of a solar space heating and hot water system. FIGURE 6.14 Detailed schematic diagram of a...
FIGURE 6.16 schematic diagram of a domestic water-to-air heat pump system (series arrangement). FIGURE 6.16 schematic diagram of a domestic water-to-air heat pump system (series arrangement). FIGURE 6.17 schematic diagram of a domestic water-to-water heat pump system (parallel arrangement). FIGURE 6.17 schematic diagram of a domestic water-to-water heat pump system (parallel arrangement).
Figure 6.3. (a) View of Three Mile Island with its twin cooling towers and reactor building off to the left (courtesy of TMI) (b) the major components of a pressurized-water reactor (courtesy of the Nuclear Energy Institute) (c) schematic diagram showing greater detail within the reactor and the piping leading to the turbine, generator, and cooling towers (courtesy of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
1.2 Schematic diagram of the earth atmosphere system 6 1.3a Schematic diagram of a natural subsystem a lake basin 7 1.3b Schematic diagram of a subsystem of anthropogenic origin a thermal electric 2.12 Schematic diagram of the vertical circulation of the atmosphere and the location
FIGURE 10.5 A schematic diagram showing how low precipitation and high temperature before the growing season may lead to a narrow tree ring in arid-site trees (Fritts, 1971). FIGURE 10.7 Schematic diagram illustrating the potential difficulty presented by the formation of a partial ring (in 1847). In the lowest two sections the ring might not be sampled by an increment borer, which removes only a narrow wood sample. In the upper section the ring is thin, but present all around the tree circumference. Such missing or partially absent rings are identified by careful cross-dating of multiple samples (Glock, 1937). FIGURE 10.7 Schematic diagram illustrating the potential difficulty presented by the formation of a partial ring (in 1847). In the lowest two sections the ring might not be sampled by an increment borer, which removes only a narrow wood sample. In the upper section the ring is thin, but present all around the tree circumference. Such missing or partially absent rings are...
What is a model A model might be defined as a simplified representation or 'abstraction of reality'. By this broadest of definitions, models would encompass everything from physical analogues and scale models to conceptual, box-and-arrow schematic diagrams and various forms of (typically computer-based) mathematical modelling. Insofar as a model is a model of something else rather than the thing itself, modelling demands that geographers make analytical choices about what to concentrate on modelling and what can be simplified or even ignored altogether. Furthermore, insofar as the practice of modelling typically involves the use of highly formalized and widely understood procedures of abstraction, such as formal logic and mathematics, it can also help facilitate the integration of multi-disciplinary research, such as on global climate change (USGCRP, 2000).
Schematic diagram of major issues addressed by this report. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) contribute to ozone depletion and climate change, while hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) contribute only to climate change and are among possible non-ozone depleting alternatives for ODSs. Red denotes gases included under the Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments4 while green denotes those included under the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol. Options considered in this report for reducing halocarbon emissions include improved containment, recovery, recycling, destruction of byproducts and existing banks5, and use of alternative processes, or substances with reduced or negligible global warming potentials.
A conceptual model is an abstract representation designed to articulate the processes operating in a system of interest. A conceptual model may take narrative form and use words to describe the system at hand, but with their long spatial science tradition, geographers have frequently drawn on geometry and graphical forms of visual representation to render their conceptual models. For instance, Figure 12.1 provides a schematic diagram of the physical processes involved in maintaining the earth's radiation balance, popularly known as 'the greenhouse effect'. While the phrase 'greenhouse effect' relies on the physical analogy between the earth's atmosphere and a glass greenhouse, this schematic diagram doesn't work by positing an analogy to something else, as Hesse's definition of modelling as analogy building suggests. Rather, it
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