Hell Really Exists

Hell Really Exists

Koonika Miidu is the author and the creator of this helpful program. The author of this program wants to show you that the Hell really exists and no one can change that reality. Though, he believes there's a way you can be saved from it and that is exactly what this program is all about. The program contains a lot of information to help you discover the confirmed facts about hell. There are testimonies from people that have visited hell and come back. Those are the people that want to show you the reality and also advise you to stop gambling with your soul. It is very easy to be convinced that this program is for Christians only. Hell is not for a specific religion. As a matter of fact, every person regardless of their religious background should take caution. The Hell Really Exists program is available in downloadable PDF formats. This means you need an Adobe Acrobat reader so you will be able to download and read it. As a matter of fact, you will get some other DVD format programs with testimonies from over 70 people that wishes to help you along the way. Continue reading...

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Dust Devils

If you live in an arid region, you have seen little vortices form and dissipate on hot, windy days. The dust begins to stir, and within a few seconds the rotating nature of the mini storm is apparent. Leaves, loose papers, and other light objects are picked up and carried along. If the whirlwind strikes you directly, you get dust in your eyes. Wind speeds may reach 50 to 60 kt for a moment. These are dust devils. In the desert, large dust devils can form. This type of vortex is most likely to occur on blistering hot afternoons. The weather is usually clear or partly cloudy. The development of the storm is fueled by rising, heated air. Sand and dust are picked up and carried aloft. This makes it look like a small tornado without a mother cloud. The diameter is a few meters. It is wise to seek cover from an approaching dust devil of this type, because blowing sand and debris can cause personal injury to people who are unprotected and who are directly struck. Dust devils rarely have...

Hell on Earth

Imagine the worst possible vision of hell. The vile stench of sulphurous gas pervading a world of darkness broken only by a dull red glow on a distant, invisible horizon. Heavy, grey ash pours from above like snow, clogging the eyes, nose, and ears as swiftly as you can remove it. Choking and retching you ram your fingers into your mouth to try and gouge out the ashy, gritty slime that forces its way in with every struggling breath, but to no avail. Suddenly a blinding flash reveals the nightmare landscape of Tolkien's Mordor-all familiar features blotted out and buried by ash accumulating at half a metre an hour. A titanic crash of thunder heralds the return of the darkness and the onset of a truly biblical deluge. Within seconds the ashy drifts are transformed into rushing torrents of mud that almost sweep your feet from under you. As the falling rain and ash combine, you are battered by pellets of mud that begin to weigh you down under a sticky, ever-thickening carapace of Vulcan's...

Introduction Historical Perspective

In the Rigvedas, the oldest extant literature of the Aryans, there are many beautiful verses describing the fight between the rain-god Indra who was also the king of Gods and the demon Vritra who was blamed for holding up rains from clouds for days together, until Indra, with his thunderbolt, would kill the demon, and the clouds would give beneficient and much-wanted rain. On the day of the summer solstice, the traditional day when monsoon rain was supposed to burst, a high flag would be raised in honour of Indra. When a region would suffer from continuous

Are local environmental protests ultimately weak

Substantive impacts depend on political battles in which local groups demon-strably alter the decisions taken by authorities or companies by creating sufficient controversy and counter-pressure. Of course, other beneficial environmental outcomes may be achieved without confrontation. For instance, where local environmental groups become involved in stable partnerships with decision-makers. However, recognition of the power of opponents of environmental goals suggests, as Gould et al. show, that such outcomes will be marginal. If there are threats to business interests, confrontation is likely and the evidence surveyed above from a variety of countries suggests that open public opposition is the best strategy for environmental groups. Where they devote their energies to working within institutions they are unlikely to be able to balance the institutional power of their opponents with political costs.

Spinners of Straw into Gold

Ray Hess is a farmer who has made his living growing wheat and potatoes. Now he also sows the seeds of hope on his ranch in the Upper Snake RiverValley of Idaho. Hess looks out over his 1,400 acres and sees the farm his grandfather started by laboriously breaking the ground of a sagebrush-covered plateau seventy years ago, and he wonders if his two sons will be able to keep the farm. Like so many farmers, he has been hit hard by the twin demons of skyrocketing fuel prices and low commodity prices. Farm incomes have been in decline. Hess has dreaded even contemplating selling off his ancestral ground.

Breaking Free of Commandand Control

Founding director of CEMP, 1 had completed a virtual turnabout It was now clear to me that the corporate sector itself was the key leverage point for achieving substantial and lasting change in societal performance and that financial performance need not suffer in the process. I could finally put aside the demons from the past associated with the smell of money. I came to realize instead that pollution was the smell of waste and poor management.

How tofreeze a planet

Combination of circumstances has heralded the formation of enormous ice sheets that have transformed a balmy paradise into a freezing hell. Artists' impressions and television documentaries have ensured that most of us are familiar with the last great Ice Age, when mammoths roamed the tundra and our pelt-covered ancestors struggled to eke out an existence from afrozen world. Only recently, however, have studies of ice-related rock formations around the world brought to light a far more ancient and much more terrible period of refrigeration a time when our planet was little more than a frozen snowball hurtling through space. Long, long ago, during a geological episode that is becoming increasingly and appropriately referred to as the Cryogenian (after cryogen for freezing mixture), the Earth found itself at a critical threshold in its history. It had cooled substantially since its formation over three and a half billion years earlier and now the problem was keeping itself warm. At this...

Part One Environmental Challenges Go Global

Some of the statistics in the following chapters are indeed hellish, but abandoning hope is precisely what we must not do. To despair when confronted with the challenges we have created would only assure a human and natural calamity we still have the power to avoid. There are solutions, but we will not seek them or appreciate their urgency unless we first understand the problems.

Death by a thousand cuts

Our task is to make it too expensive, too difficult, and too controversial for the dirty energy industry to continue. Wherever they meet we will disrupt their meetings. Wherever they mine we will occupy their machines. Wherever their CEOs live there will be protests in their front yards. Wherever their offices are, their doors will be blocked. Whoever funds them will be given hell.

The Socialpolitical Challenge

A system capable of providing adequate energy to sustain 6 billion people is certain to have features undesirable to someone or some group. They will attempt to erect barriers to the implementation of the system. The discussion of the social political challenge is almost entirely a discussion of those barriers. As a result, this discussion has a negative tone. The pessimism is not directed at the implementation of the Fusion-Hydrogen system, but arises from the barriers to progress raised by people and institutions. The social political (institutional resistance to change) barriers are far more difficult to overcome than the technical barriers. In challenging engineering projects, a popular slogan is Lead, follow, or get the hell out of the way . The challenges for implementation of the Fusion-Hydrogen energy system are the people and institutions that refuse to accept one of these three options. In the United States, the existing government agencies will respond in a manner similar...

Australopithecus Missing Tooth

You will decide whether global warming is an imminent threat to the planet. You will do so on ideological, political, or scientific grounds. It may be as simple as pointing out the broiling summer that you just experienced or the rash of severe weather events we had in 2005. Or maybe you reject it by thinking that if the damn weather man couldn't predict yesterday's rain that left you soaking wet without an umbrella, how the hell can anyone predict weather 50 years into the future

Numerous Value Buckets

Storage offers an array of benefits for fighting the next electricity war and enhances the value of the existing assets and their role in every future strategy envisioned so far. I'm sure you think that the industry is hell-bent on developing and applying storage. Think again.

Eliminating the Guesswork with Home Energy Audits

Manner, you need to first understand the economics of your overall consumption. When you make investments in either time or money, they should be focused and deliberate in order to ensure good payback (I get into payback in Chapter 5). Unfortunately, most people don't have a good handle on the specifics of how and where they're using energy and other resources in their homes. As the saying goes, The devil is in the details. In this chapter, I present a detailed system for analyzing your resource use (I leave the devil out of it, however).

Uncertainty and the role of sceptics

It is a safe generalisation that in a world of many uncertainties, one test of whether a scientist, or scientific challenger, is open to all the evidence and therefore unprejudiced is whether they say 'on the one hand this, and on the other hand that'. While such admissions of uncertainty are often used to put down scientists, genuine scientists seldom make statements without some qualification or caveat because there are usually at least two sides to any complex argument. People who admit to only one side are usually either biased or taking a 'devil's advocate' role. Some genuine sceptics (often academic scientists) take the 'devil's advocate' position to stimulate debate and test propositions. This is bolstered by one traditional academic view of science as a process leading to a body of tested propositions or theories that can be regarded as truths (at least until subsequently disproved). This view, in statistical terms, traditionally requires that a proposition be established at...

The Breath of Our Fathers

Yet it is not tobacco that is the biggest threat to human health from the smoke it blows in our faces. It is the petroleum industry that is listed by the Geneva Protocol on Air Pollution as the largest single source of harmful air pollution worldwide.3 Have we made a Faustian deal with the Devil Are we now indefinitely obliged to pay our part of the bargain in human lives Fast, seemingly cheap, independent transportation in exchange for higher rates of birth defects, asthma, emphysema, and years shaved from our lives

The Bonn Agreements And Marrakech Accords

Must be made as to baseline determinations, additionality, verification, monitoring, enforcement, transparency of process, and whether these initiatives will promote or discourage energy for sustainable development. As is true with most implementation of socially desirable goals, the devil is in the details.

Identifying Obstacles

First, there are barriers to awareness and information. At the most basic level, these barriers include the failure by energy consumers even to look for energy efficiency opportunities. This failure sometimes springs from a simple lack of awareness of the technological opportunities available. Sometimes, however, there may be an absence of specific technical expertise. Each technological process has its own characteristics. Devising and implementing technological improvements in complex processes demands both technical skill on the part of engineers and creativity on the part of designers. Occasionally the absence of an appropriate skill and knowledge base leads to a lack of confidence in technological alternatives. Better the devil you know than the one you don't know. The old technology is generally tried and tested. The new one may carry the appearance of risk, particularly to the non-expert.

Education as Politics

I can bring these rather abstract observations to bear on geography in a particularly graphic way. In early 2003, one of the more respected British newspapers - The Independent - published a provocative article entitled 'Is geography brainwashing ' (6 February 2003). It focused on high-school rather than university geography, but is useful for my argument nonetheless. It claimed that geography teaching has become overly 'biased' in recent years in the UK. Instead of teaching useful skills (like map-reading) or basic knowledge (like the names of major cities and rivers), the article feared that geography teaching had become left-wing propaganda. To quote 'Are geography classrooms places where students are now taught to bow before the altar of environmentalism, while learning that multinationals and Western governments are the devil incarnate ' Clearly believing that the answer is 'yes', the article goes on to imply that we need to get back to a form of geography teaching that is...

Water Reallocation In A Context Of Evolving Watermanagement Institutions

And third, in an effort to secure additional State Water Project contractual water rights, the Castaic Lake Water Agency, also located in southern California, purchased an entire agricultural water district, the Devil's Den Water District, and then formed a joint powers authority to facilitate the agriculture-to-urban water transfer.

Corporate Crime And Punishment

Ambrose Bierce, an acerbic journalist of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, defined corporate status in his Devil's Dictionary Corporation an ingenious device for obtaining individual profit without individual responsibility (Bierce 1958 25). Indeed, Milton Friedman, perhaps the most influential defender of the market, implicitly advocates antisocial behavior by insisting that there is one and only one social responsibility of business to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition, without deception or fraud (Friedman 1962 133). Later, as I will show, Friedman's colleagues even dropped this

Nonprofit Clinical Trials

this fact and make it known to parents r and physicians. Yet nobody is anxious to fund the relevant clinical trials because Q such treatments do not yield profits for investors. In fact, drug companies usually play devil's advocate because they don't want to lose any of their current customers. How can we, as a nation, deter- mine the safety and efficacy of dietary and lifestyle changes when the corresponding studies are not profitable and cannot possibly be double blind

Keeping Water Heaters in Check

You can take this a step further by plugging in various small appliances like hair dryers, portable fans and heaters, electronic games, and so forth. You can see how fast the meter spins for each of these. Some of these little gadgets can make the meter look like the Tasmanian Devil.

Image Not Available

That is not the end of the story, though in 1988 a group of terrestrial scientists (Winograd et al., 1988) looked at the O18 record in calcite deposited from ground waters on the walls of an open water filled vault called Devil's Hole in Nevada. In this case it is the air temperature determining the O to O ratio. Unlike the ocean cores, these cores contained sufficient radioactive uranium (Uranium decays to thorium) to date the cores in the normal way. Although they came up with a similar distribution to the ocean cores, they found different dates and concluded that the Milankovitch cycles were not responsible for ice ages. This re-opened the debate, with both sides accusing the others of getting the date wrong. The terrestrial scientists disliked the statistical analysis of the ocean core records and the oceanographers disliked the assumption that air temperatures have the same link with global climate and the marine reservoir. Oceanographers studying coral, which can be dated using...

Reconstructing female risk

Crime reconstruction programmes which have proved highly popular with audiences in the 1980s and 1990s, as exemplified by America's Most Wanted in the USA and Crimewatch UK in Britain, underscore women's perceptions of the public sphere as dangerous. Research demonstrates that such programmes have particular consequences for women in terms of increasing their fear of crime and or concern about their personal safety (BBC Broadcasting Research 1988 18 P.Schlesinger et al. 1992 ch. 3 Wober and Gunter 1990 ii). Such responses demonstrate how this programme encourages women to anticipate danger, and seek ways to inhibit their activities outside of the home as a way to avoid it. As we suggested earlier in the chapter, women tend to place more restrictions on their use of public environments, and do not consider themselves as having the same freedoms as men in such spaces (Gordon and Riger 1988 R.Pain 1991). However, several respondents in this study were highly critical of Crimewatch for...

The costs and opportunities of climate change in Southeast Asia

Sari, and Olivia Tanujaya use the case of Indonesia to demonstrate some possible fallacies in current thinking on international efforts to offset GHG emissions in developing countries. The Kyoto Protocol requires the developed industrialized countries to limit their GHG emissions as well as to enhance sinks for them (e.g. possibly including growing trees, which at least temporarily absorb carbon dioxide). One of the protocol's unique characteristics is the provision for carbon emissions-offset mechanisms, where countries can trade emissions quota permits. At present, the CDM is the only Using a quantitative model developed specifically for policy issues in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol (the Pelangi Emissions Trading model), Jotzo, Sari and Tanujaya analyze the implications of including sinks projects under the CDM. They find that assuming these projects will increase the volume of the CDM may be incorrect. This is because the increase in...

Wanna Soak up the

N ancient Egyptian mythology, the sun god Ra used a solar barge to pass through the underworld each night so that he might rise in the morning. Human civilization has certainly come a long way in the five millennia since Ra. We now understand the intimate details of the nuclear fusion taking place moment by moment inside the sun's unimaginably hot interior. And now in the twenty-first century, we understand how to harness the sun ' s power to provide the energy that keeps our modern civilization thriving.

Private understandings and public knowledge

Some materials let light through without much distortion - they are transparent. Primary school teachers often describe such materials as 'see-through'. There are other materials which light passes through, but you cannot see through them they are translucent. This is less easy to translate into English is cumbersome. Telling children that the scientific word for see-through is transparent, and the other is translucent, can be like using the words markobinegando. They have no meaning, so just have to be learnt. But children know many words with the Latin word 'trans' (meaning through) in them transport, transfer, trans-Atlantic, Ford Transit van. In each case they can see that something is moving, either 'through' or 'across'. Less easy, but worth exploring, is the difference between -parent and -lucent (meaning 'see' and 'light'). What other words do they know containing these roots Apparent, appear, '. . . to peer into the gloom' are all linked with seeing and lucid, Lucifer link...

Timeline of the History of Hydrogen

Jacques Alexandre Sar Charles

On 5th June 1783 the Montgolfier Brothers gave the first public demonstration of a model hot-air balloon and in September - in the presence of King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette - they flew a balloon carrying a sheep, a duck and a cockerel to demonstrate that it was possible to survive in the sky. Some weeks later Pilatre de Rozier, a science teacher, and the Marquis d'Arlandes, an infantry officer, became the first human air travellers when, in a hot-air balloon, they flew for 9km (5.5 miles) over Paris. Jacques Alexandre Cesar Charles (1746-1823) realized that hydrogen was lighter than air, he built the first balloon made of paper and filled with 25 m3 hydrogen gas and, on 27th August 1783, the balloon ascended to a height of nearly 914 m. The hydrogen was produced by the reaction of iron with sulfuric acid. Upon landing outside Paris, it was destroyed by terrified peasants. On December 1st, 1783, he, along with Aine Roberts, ascended to a height of549 m in the newly constructed...

K J Macks Design For Tropical Cyclones

Off the Grid Managing Electricity from Renewable Sources. The Centre for Alternative Technology. E-mail help catinfo.demon.co.uk Roaf, S. and Fuentes, M. (1998). Demonstration Project for a 4 KW Domestic Photovoltaic Roof in Oxford - Volume 1. ETSU Report No. S P2 00236 00 00, School of Architecture, Oxford Brookes University.

Hydrogen for Fuel Cells from Methanol Reforming

Methanol Reformer

In seeking to overcome the problems associated with hydrogen storage and distribution, numerous approaches have set out to use liquids rich in hydrogen such as gasoline or methanol as a source of hydrogen via on-board reformers. In contrast to pure hydrogen-based systems, they are compact (containing on a volume basis more hydrogen than even liquid hydrogen) and easy to store and handle without pressurization. The possibility of generating hydrogen with more than 80 efficiency by the on-board reforming of gasoline has been demon strated. However, the process is expensive and challenging, because it involves high temperature and needs considerable time to reach a steady operational state. The advantage is that the distribution network for gasoline already exists, though this would not solve the problems of diminishing oil resources and dependence from oil-producing countries. On the other hand, methanol steam reformers operating at much lower temperature (250-350 C) 95 , albeit still...

Historical Perspective Concerning Entropy And Caratheodorys Statement Of The Second

The perspective set forth in this study has roots in Sir Napier Shaw's (1930) view of the thermally forced circulation consisting of an overworld and an underworld in which higher and lower values of entropy are respectively transported from entropy sources to sinks in the overworld and from entropy sinks to sources in the underworld. Sir Napier Shaw (1923, 1930) does not indicate an awareness of Caratheodory's postulate in relation to entropy and the second law. From the nature of his discussions, Shaw (1923, 1930) was aware of the condition that entropy is a fundamental property with the term being introduced much earlier in 1865 by Clausius (Kutzbach, 1979). Presumably through Maxwell's influence and his development and use of the t (temperature-entropy) diagram for graphic representation of pressure and temperature obtained from observations by balloons, aeroplanes, or kites, Shaw (1923, 1925, 1930) developed arguments like Caratheodory's as evidenced from his deduction of cyclic...

Chapter Do Nonwarring Societies Actually Exist

Michael Ghiglieri, The Dark Side of Man Tracing the Origins of Male Violence (Reading, Mass. Perseus, 1999), 246,- David Buss, Evolutionary Psychology The New Science of the Mind (Boston Allyn and Bacon, 1999), 298 Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males Apes and the Origin of Human Violence (Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1996), 63,- see also David Buss, The Murderer Next Door Why the Mind Is Designed to Kill (New York Penguin Press, 2005), 5, 9, 11, 231, 234-35,- Steven LeBlanc (with 2. Keeley, War Before Civilization, 30-31 Wrangham and Peterson, Demonic Males, 75.

The Scale of the Climate Crisis

If the IPCC report I mentioned in chapter 1 wasn't enough to set your clothes on fire, James Hansen, one of the world's leading climate scientists and the director of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies, has repeatedly said that if we don't take radical action to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in the next ten years, our children will be living on a planet unrecognizable to us. (He last said that more than two years ago.) He has also said that we are on the precipice of climate system tipping points beyond which there is no redemption. 3 Weather Channel climatologist Heidi Cullen says, We know that there are nearly 6.7 billion people on the planet that spill out 2.2 gigatons of carbon if we continue to spew at that same rate, the climate is going to get a hell of a lot One of the best explanations of the level at which we need to work comes from Joe Romm's book Hell and High Water Global Warming the Solution and the Politics and What We Should Do. His analysis is based...

Chapter The Earliest Evidence of

Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, Demonic Males Apes and the Origin of Human Violence (Boston Houghton Mifflin, 1996), 63, 108-9,- Douglas Fry, Anthropological perspectives on aggression Sex differences and cultural variation, Aggressive Behavior 24 (1998) 81-95. 3. Wrangham and Peterson, Demonic Males, 84,J. van der Dennen, The Origin of War, 2 vols. (Groningen Origin Press, 1995), 497.

The Carveup of Arabias

With Great Britain looming large over any significant event in the region, BP dismissing its potential, and a hostile environment making access prohibitive to most Westerners, the Arabian Peninsula seemed doomed to remain on the sidelines of the global quest for oil. But change came in the form of an eccentric possessed by the demon of seemingly foolish undertakings, Frank Holmes, who opened the door to its oil development. A mature mining engineer from New Zealand, Holmes had bought* some oil concessions in Bahrain and Kuwait and in what was to become Saudi Arabia. He had to exercise those rights within a few years, or they would expire. In 1926, strained by financial problems, he sought to sell his rights to Iraq Petroleum Co. through BP, but they rebuffed his offer, reiterating their belief that the Arabian Peninsula did not hold any valuable oil prospects, once again repeating the worst assessment in the history of oil.4 Having failed to perform any drilling, Holmes lost his...

Social movements and industrial knowledge

In literature, too, the mechanization that characterized the first wave of industrialization was rejected outright by many influential poets and writers. William Blake decried the dark satanic mills of the industrial cities and scorned the narrowness of the mechanical philosophy, while William Wordsworth and John Keats escaped from the emerging mechanical world into a world of beauty and passion, countering the coming of the machine with new forms of personal expression (Roszak 1973). Many were the romantics - in art, music, and everyday life, as well as in literature - who turned their backs on industrial society to gain inspiration from the wilderness or from the ideals of earlier, pre-industrial epochs. Perhaps the two most significant experiments were those of Mary Shelley and Henry David Thoreau. Shelley's 1819 literary experiment imagined the industrial world-view in the shape of a monster constructed by her mad Doctor Frankenstein and Thoreau conducted his 1840s experiment in...

The city waiting to die

It is extraordinarily difficult to get across to someone who has never experienced it the sheer, mind-numbing terror of being caught in a major earthquake. Even in California, where the population is constantly bombarded with information about what to do in the event of a quake, coherent, sensible thought ceases when the ground starts to tremble. Following the Loma Prieta quake that struck northern California in 1989, a survey by the United States Geological Survey revealed that only 13 per cent of the population of Santa Cruz sought immediate protection, while close to 70 per cent either froze or ran outside. This is aperennial problem with earthquakes however well educated the people, when the ground starts bucking like a bronco and the furniture starts to hurl itself across the room, blind instinct takes over and tells them to 'get the hell out of there'. Unfortunately, this serves only to increase the death toll as terrified homeowners rushing screaming into the street provide...

The Idea of Wilderness

The idea of wilderness changed in this country toward the end of the eighteenth century as a result of ideas developed in England, Germany, and France. In England, Edmund Burke's Origins of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful (1757) began to look at forests, mountains, and waterfalls as beautiful places. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant wrote Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime in 1761, in which nature and wilderness began to take on meanings of reverence and awe. God's action in the land through thunderstorms and lightning was now looked upon not as the work of the devil, but as a manifestation of God's goodness. The sublime was manifested in waterfalls, mountains and canyons, and in sunsets, rainbows, and oceans. The idea of the sublime as a religious experience became important in the romantic period of the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in America. Nature was now cathedral, temple, and Bible.

Preface On Global Warming

(Some liked it, some died.) For the next seven years, I carried on counting the climate change beans in the belief that politicians would see the need for action, and act. When the Kyoto Protocol emerged in 1997 I knew that, by itself, the treaty wouldn't be enough. Nevertheless, I felt reassured that with so many nations on board something would finally get done. Then, in 2001, US president George W. Bush withdrew his nation - the world's single biggest greenhouse gas emitter -from Kyoto. For a while I just wandered about at work muttering What the hell happened . At the time it looked as though Kyoto was dead in the water, that there was to be no concerted action on cutting global greenhouse emissions, and all the scientific research (my own algae boiling included) counted for nothing.

Worlds Fair in Progress

The fair, Erik Larson writes in The Devil in the White City, changed how Americans thought about architecture, what they could expect from cities (the Chicago fair was clean, safe, and beautiful), and what technology could do.1 To some extent, the fair created modern America and modern Americans, with their sense that their own ingenuity can change the world, even spin someone to the top of Chicago on a giant, colorful, fragile-looking-but-tough-as-steel pinwheel. The environmental movement needs something like a world's fair today. We need a series of demonstration projects that will give us experience and inform policy. Of course, Aspen has no Ferris wheel or the equivalent of the first lightbulbs. But until now, the city hasn't had the impetus to build any such demonstrations. Now it does. Faced with incomprehensible, and seemingly insurmountable, problems like climate change, it seems we as a people don't quite know what to do. The world has big problems and needs a vision of what...

Pessimism and the Political Environmental World View

I remember listening in 1970 to an acquaintance explain that the world would basically end in five years due to overpopulation. She explained why in a fairly cogent manner, and it seemed fairly logical to me at the time. When she finished, I was horrified and asked her what could be done to prevent or at least delay this terrible future scenario. Nothing she exclaimed with grim satisfaction. It is too late to do anything now.'' At first I was shocked, and then I felt a complete sense of disbelief. If there is really nothing to be done,'' my mind told me, to hell with it, pass the joint.'' (This was 1970, I repeat.)

Pathways Forward for the New Climate Movement

EPA had ignored its own expert panel on mercury and after a letter to then EPA administrator Mike Leavitt stating that the proposed rule does not adequately protect children was leaked, all hell broke loose. PSR further made the inadequacy of the rule clear by reviewing and touting carefully buried EPA pronouncements revealing that more than 630,000 newborn infants per year (far higher than generally supposed) were exposed in the womb to unsafe levels of mercury. Environmentalists, public health groups, parents, disability activists, and consumers were now fully banded together. More than 600,000 individual public comments were drafted and sent in on the EPA's proposed rule. More than 12,000 of them were from the medical community, as well as from forty-five U.S. senators, ten state attorneys general, and numerous state and local officials.

Binding Life to Values

Scientifically I also see it morally and often symbolically. In this sense, the hurricane took on another form it resembled the God-as-whirlwind of the Hebrew Bible, a divine reminder that when idolatry (which, in our time, includes consumerism, greed, social injustice, and addiction to oil) trumps reverence for life, there is hell to pay. And that hell is on earth.

Recruitment and Retention

One often overlooked aspect of green buildings is their effect on people's willingness to join or stay with an organization. It typically costs 50,000 to 150,000 to lose a good employee, and most organizations experience 10 to 20 percent turnover per year, some of it from people they really didn't want to lose. In some cases, people leave because of poor physical environments (as well as the Dilbert-parodied boss from hell ). In a workforce of 200 people, turnover at this level implies 20 to 40 people leaving per year. Demographics is destiny Owing to an aging Baby Boomer labor force, by 2014 there will be fewer people in the 35 to 44-year-old age group than in 2005, typically the leadership group in most organizations managers, executives, experienced employees, and senior technical people, typically at the peak of their career. Getting and keeping them will tax the ingenuity and resources of most companies green buildings can demonstrate that the company or organization and the key...

Not Striking Second The Rights And Wrongs Of Nuclear Revenge

As the point to be made against him will be a purely logical one, it can be developed with the help of a fantastic hypothesis. Fantasticality doesn't affect the logic of the affair. Imagine, then, that in return for ten billion dollars I've told the Devil he can have my soul, to torment for ever and ever, if you flip a coin and it falls heads. I know that you know this, and that you have quite a liking for me. Unfortunately it turns out that you nevertheless feel tempted to flip the coin the Devil is offering you fifty billion dollars for doing so. What am I to do Suppose the Devil suggests the following. He'll carry off both our souls to damnation endless years of torment whenever I give the word. Assuming I know you to be rational, can't I now reasonably threaten you with damnation if you flip the coin To be absolutely sure of avoiding the Devil's clutches, couldn't I make a solemn declaration that if you flip it then I'll automatically demand damnation for you and me Couldn't I...

Overview of loss models

Although in principle the hurricane loss models as shown diagrammatically in Figure 11.1 are straightforward to construct, the ''devil is in the details.'' In particular, databases on historical hurricanes (e.g., HURDAT (with updates) Schwerdt et al., 1979 Ho et al., 1987) must be mined to develop probability distributions of frequency of occurrence by location, of intensity by location, of forward speed, and so forth. A wind field model needs to be selected that can incorporate hurricane characteristics, such as central pressure, radius of maximum winds, forward speed, etc. A parametric wind field provides the wind speed at the sites of the exposures of interest (e.g., residential housing stock). In addition, some (but not all) published hurricane models consider further

Dust storms and environmental change

There are various kinds of dust event caused by wind (Goudie and Middleton, 1992). Technically, the term dust storm is restricted to situations where particles of dust are entrained into the air by turbulent wind systems, restricting visibility to 1 km, the phrase blowing dust is used, and convective whirlwinds containing dust are known as dust devils. Suspended particles from a wind event that occurred some time earlier, or some distance away, are called dust haze. Bryant (1991, pp. 44, 50-55) summarised the circumstances and formation mechanisms of dust devils and dust storms. Clearly, they can occur only where loose dry soil or sand is available - that is, in situations of low rainfall and low vegetation. They are most frequent in semiarid regions where the annual rainfall is between 100 and 200 mm. Dust devils can occur when intense solar heating of the surface has warmed the lower levels of the atmosphere, causing it to be unstable to free convection. Localised surface heating...

Designing a Local Real Monetary System

This simplistic illustration on how sustainable energy dollars can be created hides the devil in the detail. A typical problem of establishing a local currency is how to get it issued, used and distributed. This problem is minimized by a commodity-backed currency when there is a universal demand for the commodity like electrical power. The power authority could require or provide a compelling incentive for its energy bills to be paid with energy dollars. In addition, the CLB, like any other local government authority could require or provide a compelling incentive for some or all of its rates, taxes and rents to be paid in energy dollars.

Contemporary technomillennialism

Joel Garreau's (2006) recent book on the psychoculture of accelerating change, Radical Evolution The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies - and What It Means to Be Human, is structured in three parts Heaven, Hell and Prevail. In the Heaven scenario he focuses on the predictions of inventor Ray Kurzweil, summarized in his 2005 book,

Types of millennialism

Amillennialists believe that the millennial event has already occurred, or is occurring, in the form of some movement or institution, even though there are still bad things happening in the world (Hoekema, 2007 Riddlebarger, 2003). For Christian amillennialists the Millennium is actually the ongoing establishment of righteousness on Earth through the agency of the Church, struggling to turn back Satan and the Tribulations. Augustinian amillennialism was made the official doctrine of the early Christian Church, and premillennialism was declared heresy. The subsequent millenarian rebellions against church and civil authority, inspired by the Book of Revelations, reinforced the Catholic Church's insistence that the Millennium would not be an abrupt, revolutionary event, but the gradual creation of the Kingdom of Heaven in each believer's heart in a church-ruled world. In abstract, when the 'Church Age' ends Christ will return to judge humanity and take the saved to heaven for eternity,...

Max Martin

A disaster, or a conflict, can spell an abrupt halt to everything we know and live with. The sea turns into a demon, the earth devours villages, neighbours turn into killers. A photographer freezes these dramatic moments and showcases them to the world. These images generate shock, information, compassion, awareness, policy changes, mass action (as in the US during the Vietnam war) and even entertainment, in a perverted sense. It takes a while to get the clock ticking again. If the cameras stay back, as it only rarely happens, then they can record the budding of life once again, moment by precious moment. This article tries to explore the challenges of disaster-linked still photography from a media professional's perspective. It argues that disaster photography needs to break away from the constraints of time and space.


With degrees in physics and philosophy, P.R. Mishra was rare amongst his contemporaries. In his inimitable style he had once quizzed me 'have you been able to understand Sukhomajri ' Having seen protected hill slopes, an enthused village community and a couple of check dams filled to the brim, my response was in the affirmative. So amused was the man behind the project, which eventualy launched the country's watershed programme, that he could not hold himself to say that I was yet to understand it Years later, I now realise that getting to understand the dynamics of natural systems is one hell of a subject too big for a lifetime.

The Rise of Rights

At the head of this backlash was the Sierra Club, the country's oldest conservation organization. Founded in 1892, it had played a major role in shaping policies on forestry practice and the emerging national parks system at the beginning of the twentieth century. For several decades it had remained a much more passive organization, but the Grand Canyon controversy revived its active stance. David Brower, who had been the club's executive director for fourteen years, made the issue a major focus. He took out newspaper advertisements outlining the dam proposal, complete with coupons and instructions for lodging complaints with appropriate members of government. The Sierra Club ordered two movies to be made, printed up bumper stickers and pamphlets, and reprinted its own colorful coffee table book on the Grand Canyon. By 1967 the New York Times had dubbed the organization's members gang-busters of the conservation movement. The fracas led one senator to conclude, Hell hath no fury like...

Internal factors

Again, of course, all of the characteristics just outlined were present. It was simple radioactivity is bad, scientifically complex (what the hell is Technetium ), data rich (the scientists can argue till the cows come home), crisis prone and has sloganability (it can be linked to nuclear weapons).


From here they fetch 8 pails of water twice a day to meet the water needs of their enormous families. And when I had gone to report about their misery, I suffered from sunstroke, got dehydrated, became disoriented and fell faint. I do not know what happened to my blood sugar level at that point, but it was impossible to be back in my hotel in Ranthambhore by lunch time, and at 1.30 p.m. my stomach was impossible to quieten. I openly admitted that I am diabetic and was so hungry that I could eat anything. I pleaded with the village elder to make available something for me to sustain myself for 3 hours after that. The men-folk in the village did not know what the hell diabetes meant My guide explained that it is an illness which causes hunger to people suffering from it The village men-folk told me in no uncertain terms that I should walk down the cliff with their women to fetch pails of water for 2 days and I would be cured of diabetes I should surely give it a try. What if a woman...

Benefit Cost Analysis

There are numerous examples of benefit-cost analysis leading to preservation of natural areas. For example, in the 1970s the government considered building a dam at Hells Canyon, a unique wilderness area on the Snake River in Idaho. A study of the benefits and costs showed that the preservation value was greater than the value of electricity and recreation benefits created by a reservoir. Consequently, Hell's Canyon was preserved.10

The Learning Curve

Standard would one judge the weakness of this norm If it is by contrast with the definitive knowledge supplied by objective familiarity with the nature of things, it goes without saying that mere collective experience appears very slight. This is what Socrates relentlessly insisted in the agora in Athens. We have become aware, however, that, no matter how useful it may be, this standard can never become commensurable with the tasks of the collective. The common world has to be built on a life-size scale, in real time, without knowledge of causes and consequences, in the middle of the agora, and with all those who are its concerned parties.14 Public life, as we have seen, cannot unfold except on condition that every threat of salvation, every hope of sudden simplification, be withdrawn. By comparison with the blinding clarity of the Heaven of Ideas, the notion of a successful experiment may appear obscure, but by comparison to the total obscurity that reigns in the hell of the Cave,...


Warm air holds more water vapor than cool air, so the global rate of rainfall is expected to increase with warming. An increase in rainfall overall sounds like a good thing, in a time when freshwater availability is a problem in many parts of the world. However, for the rainfall forecast the devil is in the distribution, even more than it is for temperature (Plate 12.3).

The Shooting Room

The Shooting Room thought experiment was considered briefly in Chapter 5. It is time to look at it in detail. Imagine that the Devil creates people in a room, in a batch or several batches. Successive batches would be of 10 people, then 100, then 1,000, then 10,000, then 100,000, and so forth each batch ten times as large as its predecessor. You find yourself in one such batch. At every stage in the experiment, whether there will be any later batches is decided by the Devil's two dice, thrown together. The people in any batch watch the dice as they fall. So long as they don't fall double-six, the batch will exit from the room safely. If they fall double-six everybody in the batch is to be shot, the experiment then ending. How confident should you be of leaving the room safely In the story as I've so far been telling it the Devil can continue creating people indefinitely and has no difficulty in fitting them into the room, no matter how long the throwing of a double-six is delayed. In...


Played a central role in organizing ways of life and perceptions of nature. It provided timber for masts, naval stores, barrel staves, and construction habitat for beaver, deer, and ducks and a source of fertile soils for agriculture. It was perceived variously as a threat to settlement, the home of the devil, and a place of religious purification as a land of sublime goodness and picturesque beauty as a vanishing national asset, and later as a place where man is a visitor who does not remain. The forest as wilderness is also connected to human labor as a means of transforming natural resources into commodities, as well as a place where people do not labor at all, but simply observe the beauties of nature. Environmental historians, in probing the meanings of changing concepts such as wilderness and labor, cast light on their historical complexity.

Hills And Cities

Small tornadoes can be produced by orographic lifting. As the wind blows against a hill or mountain, the air is forced upward because it has no place else to go. The rising air can begin to twist, especially if the hill or mountain has irregularities that produce wind shear. The vortex tightens until it resembles a dust devil. A similar effect can occur when air is forced down a slope.

Out of Control

A converted commercial lawn sprinkler-the kind that normally creeps across grass blessing it with life-giving water-diabolically blessed the place with a shower of flames. Its rotating arms pumped fiery orange clouds of ignited kerosene fuel over a wide circle. The acrid, half-burnt smoke, trapped by the overhead freeway structure, choked the spectators. Then the Screw accidentally tipped over its fuel can, and the Sprinkler from Hell went out of commission. So the Flamethrower lit up to take up the slack. The Flamethrower was a steerable giant blower-of the type used to air-condition a mid-town skyscraper-bolted to a Mack truck engine. The truck motor twirled the huge cage-fan and pumped diesel fuel from a 55-gallon drum into the airstream. A carbon-arc spark ignited the air fuel mixture and spewed it into a tongue of vicious yellow flame 50 feet long. It roasted the pile of 20 pianos.

Volcanic activity

Of all the geological phenomena that make an impression on the general public, volcanic eruptions must be the most spectacular. The sight of incandescent lava being spewed into the air or creeping down hillsides is a regular standby of television documentaries dealing with the natural world, and the invocation by Old Testament writers of fire and brimstone in their portraits of hell indicates how vivid is the image of volcanic activity that has persisted throughout recorded history. How significant, though, are erupting or exploding volcanoes as killers

Mastering the Math

Harry, it's snowing like hell in Washington, the meteorologist told the director of research for the U.S. Weather Bureau. The telephone call from Jule Charney came in the middle of the night. Charney was in his office in Princeton, New Jersey, wide awake, as he often was at that hour, and exuberant with his news about the weather in Washington, D.C., on November 6, 1952. At the other end of the line, Harry Wexler was at home in Washington, in bed, formerly sound asleep. This urgent weather report came not in November 1952, but a year later, in 1953, although more remarkable at the time was the fact that it came at all. The storm of November 6, 1952, which dumped six inches of snow on the nation's capital, had come as a surprise to weather forecasters in 1952. But now a powerful new tool was about to change meteorology. Charney and his elite team of researchers at the Institute for Advanced Study had programmed the same data used by the mistaken forecasters into their unique...


Barry, 1999 Miller, 1999 Hailwood 2004) have sought to demonstrate compatibility between liberal and environmental themes or, more strongly, to show how the ecological political project can be expressed more or less completely in the liberal idiom. From an environmental point of view this looks very promising. Yet - as ever - the devil is in the detail what, precisely, does 'unless unavoidable' mean Carnivores and vegetarians, for example, will have different answers to this question. More broadly still, the 'unless unavoidable' proviso takes us back full circle to an earlier point that the idea of environmental sustainability enjoins us, by definition, to have a definitive moral conception of 'people's appropriate relation to nature' - precisely the kind of conception, though, that liberalism eschews.

Water Spouts

A water spout is a tight vortex made visible by cloud and spray within it, extending dozens or hundreds of metres from a water surface. Sailboats and small motorboats have been capsized by water spouts. They are of two kinds, one of which is the marine analogue of a dust-devil, growing up from a warm sea-surface under a clear sky. Such water spouts occur when the cold air behind a cold front passes over a warm sea, for instance.

Jim Motavalli

Vintage Catfighting Girls

India's capital city, New Delhi, is even worse than Mumbai. Tourists get a full measure of it when they travel by teeming road or slow train to the tourist mecca of Agra. Just south of New Delhi, they encounter a hell's circle of industrial towns, including Faridabad and Ballabgarh. The Hindustan Times has called Faridabad a gas chamber, where citizens are dying a slow death due to the high level of pollution.


Clouds are the sleeping giant of the climate system. Most of the variation in sensitivities of different climate models comes from clouds. Clouds interact and interfere with both visible and IR light. It turns out that according to visible light, clouds should cool the planet while with IR light clouds should warm the planet. It gets even more complicated which of these two effects wins depends on the altitude of the clouds. High-altitude clouds don't reflect much visible light, but they are pure hell in the IR. Lower clouds are the reverse less of an IR effect because they are warm, but a large change in albedo because they are thick and opaque.

Toxic Substances

In 1979 all hell broke loose in a small residential neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York. The community of Love Canal (named for a man named Love) had been built on the site of a toxic-chemical waste dump. The results were disastrous. The residents of the region had been suffering from ailments like cancer, birth defects, and childhood diseases at rates far above normal. A local resident named Lois Gibbs and a local reporter brought the situation to the attention of the residents, the local authorities, and the media. Investigations found that toxic chemicals like phosphorus, toxic metals, and benzene were leaching up from the ground to the surface, and often spontaneous fires and explosions occurred as the concentrated levels of flammable chemicals interacted with one another and the atmosphere.

Instant Suburbs

At the same time, American cities have become places to be feared or trashed. We call them the mistake by the lake or sarcastically refer to beautiful downtown Burbank. As a reporter interviewing Massachusetts suburbanites, I've always been struck by how proud people are that they never venture into Boston, save for a once-a-year Red Sox game, as if it's a circle of hell. In their minds, it's a place you get mugged and you can't find a place to park. It has high taxes and lousy schools and it's dirty.


In Radical Evolution Joel Garreau's Hell scenario is centred on the Luddite apocalypticism of the techno-millennial apostate, Bill Joy, former chief scientist and co-founder of Sun Microsystems. In the late 1990s Joy began to believe that genetics, robotics, and nanotechnology posed novel apocalyptic risks to human life. These technologies, he argued, posed a different kind of threat because they could self-replicate guns do not breed and shoot people on their own, but a rogue bioweapon could. His essay 'Why the Future Doesn't Need Us,' published in April 2000 in Wired magazine, called for a global, voluntary 'relinquishmenf of these technologies.

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