Puncture Wounds

CANIS LATRANS (COYOTE)

DMNH 30076 from the Badger Room (7/94); skull (figure 9.7). Measurements (values marked a are for alveoli only): GL, 186.0; POC, 37.50; GB, 90.0; HS, 55.35; CC, 28.65; L/WP2, R L

12.60, W 3.90; W I3-I3, R 12.40a; L/WP3, L 12.65, R 12.65 / L 4.80, R 4.75; W P4-P4, 53.50; LPC, R 6.30; FMB, 11.05 (ID); WP4PC, R 9.50; FMH, 12.50 (ID); WP4BL, R 2.35; POP, L 22.25, R 19.05; L/WM1, L 13.10 R 13.10/L 14.90, R 14.55; WOC, 30.0; L/WM2, L 7.80, R 7.80 / L 10.90, R 10.90; HS, 55.35; PL, 93.45 (from R side); CL, L 10.25a, R 10.25a; LTR, R C-M2, 99.80; CB, L 6.50a. This skull is extremely fragile. The dentition is partially complete and is typical in size and morphology of that of a modern coyote. The dentition, which includes the L P3-M2 and R P1-M1, is heavily worn. The right parietal area of the skull is severely damaged from the frontoparietal suture posteriorly to the occiput (including the sagittal crest). The left parietal area is cracked and extremely fragile from weathering and postmortem breakage. The left nasal area (including both ventral and dorsal locations) is missing. The bullae are badly damaged bilaterally. There is severe damage to the nasal, maxilla, and lacrimal areas on the dorsal side.

The skull shows two puncture wounds and one area where the puncture is visible but has not broken through. One puncture wound is slightly anterior to the left postorbital process of the frontal on the dorsal side. Another is directly between the right P4 and M1 on the palate. A third puncture wound, which did not perforate the left palatine, shows as a slight depression adjacent to P3. These puncture wounds are consistent with the bite pattern and canine tooth size of Ca-nis latrans. As Grooms (1993:71, 73, 158) shows, it is possible for coyotes to inflict such puncture wounds during a myriad of behavior patterns. The puncture marks measure 7.85 x 7.85 mm (left palatine), 3.75 x 3.75 mm (right palatine), and 3.50 x 3.49 mm (frontal).

FIGURE 9.6 Lepus sp. (hare or jackrabbit), DMNH 20052, right calcaneum from the Badger Room. (SEM photograph by Louis H. Taylor.)
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