URSUS AMERICANUS PALLAS, 1780
REFERRED MATERIAL Generator Dome: DMNH 41411 LI1 (L1). Undifferentiated: UCMP 155908 MT III.
Most Common Species (MNI) of Carnivores in Five Areas of Porcupine Cave
Taxidea taxus (122) Canis latrans (73) S. putorius (45) C. edwardii (14)
Spilogaleputorius (85) C. latrans (40) M. frenata (39) Vulpes vulpes (29)
Mustela frenata (33) Mustela erminea (27) S. putorius (10) V. velox(9)
T. taxus (37) C. latrans (26) C. edwardii (9) S. putorius (8)
T. taxus (16) S. putorius (13) M. frenata (13) V. velox (7)
DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS So far, only two specimens, an upper first incisor and an immature third metatarsal, are referable to ursids. Both specimens compare favorably in size and morphology with Ursus americanus. Irvingtonian occurrences of U. americanus include Conard Fissure, Arkansas; Cumberland Cave, Maryland; Port Kennedy Cave, Pennsylvania; and Trout and Hamilton Caves, West Virginia. Although several species and subspecies of Pleistocene black bears have been named, Graham (1991) referred all of them to U. ameri-canus and did not recognize any extinct subspecies, noting that, when the pronounced sexual dimorphism and individual variation of black bears are considered, measurements of the fossil material fall within samples of Recent U. ameri-canus. Black bears frequent the hillsides and meadows around Porcupine Cave today.
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