Family Emberizidae

SPIZELLA CF. S. PASSERINA (BECHSTEIN, 1798)

REFERRED MATERIAL Premaxilla, DMNH 30195.

provenance Location 1342, Ferret Room.

DESCRIPTION This specimen compares well in size and characters to this species; among other species in this genus, the premaxilla is slightly smaller and narrower (Spizella brew-eri, S. pusilla, and S. pallida) or larger and broader (S. arborea).

SPIZELLA BREWERI CASSIN, 1856

REFERRED MATERIAL Mandible missing proximal right end, DMNH 30164.

provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 8/8A, level 2 (A).

DESCRIPTION This specimen is smaller and broader at the symphysis than those in Spizella pallida and S. passerina, smaller and narrower at the symphysis than those in S. arborea, S. atrogularis, and S. pusilla, and compares well in size and characters to S. breweri, including in the size and shape of the mandibular foramen. S. breweri is common in sagebrush and rabbitbrush habitats, but also occurs in pinyon-juniper forest throughout Colorado today (Rising, 1996).

CHONDESTES GRAMMACUS (SAY, 1823)

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 30081.

provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink.

DESCRIPTION C. grammacus is a common summer resident in valleys and foothills throughout Colorado today but is uncommon in mountain parks. It prefers grasslands and shrublands for breeding.

MELOSPIZA MELODIA (WILSON, 1810)

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 35389.

provenance Location 1347, Generator Dome (PC-8).

DESCRIPTION M. melodia is a common breeding bird in mountain parks near rivers and wetlands, and in riparian zones, throughout Colorado.

MELOSPIZA CF. M. LINCOLNII (AUDUBON, 1834)

REFERRED MATERIAL Two premaxillae, DMNH 43307 and 43338.

provenance 43307: Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink; 43338: Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink, level 24.

DESCRIPTION These specimens compare best in size and features to this species. Melospiza georgiana has a longer and narrow beak, while M. melodia is longer and more robust. Specimens of Zonotrichia leucophrys, Z. querula, and Z. albicollis also are much larger and more robust than the fossil material.

ZONOTRICHIA LEUCOPHRYS (FORSTER, 1772)

REFERRED MATERIAL Right proximal mandible, DMNH 12765; two distal mandibular symphyses, DMNH 35753 and 41119.

provenance 12765: Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 8/8A, level 11 (E); 35753 and 41119: Location 1349, Mark's Sink.

DESCRIPTION These specimens compare well in size and characters to those in the living species except for a slightly higher ramus in DMNH 12765. Zonotrichia leucophrys occurs at all elevations in Colorado today, frequenting alpine tundra, riparian zones, and mountain parks for breeding, and wintering in the foothills and plains.

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