Without the help of more than 200 volunteers, at both the cave and the Denver Museum of Natural History, this study would not have been possible. Volunteers came to Porcupine Cave to help set up camp and cave operations, to interpret the geology, to carefully excavate, to dry screen and wet screen the matrix, and to pick bones and teeth out of the matrix. The field camp at Porcupine Cave is known for the food, and everyone who has partaken of these repasts joins me in thanking our cooks—Sheri Zimmer, Jeannie McKinney, Craig Childs, Jack and Sue McKelvy—and their helpers, who, despite often adverse conditions, cheerfully prepared and served gourmet meals. Thanks go to our speakers and storytellers, especially Craig Childs, who enhanced many an evening around the campfire. A special group of volunteers, "The Porcupine Pickers," have spent four hours every other Sunday from September through May picking the matrix, learning bones, and eating cookies (courtesy of the WIPS/Porcupine cookie fund). Their help is invaluable and greatly appreciated. Special thanks are due to Kathy Honda for cataloguing all the DMNH specimens and for getting us needed reprints.

For stimulating discussions about the fauna, the geology, and the Pleistocene, I thank Lou Taylor, Bob Raynolds, Don Rasmussen, Jim Mead, C. A. Repenning, Russ Graham, Tom Goodwin, Dave Armstrong, Colleen Baxter, Craig Childs, Philip Pratt, Sue Ware, and Heidi Schutz. Very special thanks are owed to PJ Kremer for her drawings, and to George Den-nison, who gave us all courage. Frank and Connie McMurry let us camp on their land and permitted us access to the cave.

Partial funding was provided by the Denver Museum of Natural History and the Western Interior Paleontological Society. The helpful comments of reviewers Annalisa Berta, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, and A. D. Barnosky improved the manuscript.

CM 48417 L jaw with p3 (G1, L1-3); 48418 fragmentary R jaw with m1-2 (G1, L1-3); 48443 L m1 (G3, L3); 48450 fragmen-

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