Acknowledgments

Bamosky for the invitation to participate in the Porcupine Cave project. I am grateful to Don and Jerry Rasmussen for the benefit of many conversations about wood rats and the history of caves in South Park, and for their guidance both inside the cave and in the surrounding hills. I thank Donna Shay for help in collecting and preparing mammal specimens, and for improvements made to a draft of this chapter. Reviews of this chapter by A. D. Barnosky, Don Rasmussen,...

Additional Paleomagnetic Data

To assess the feasibility of magnetostratigraphic analyses in the cave, a series of samples collected in 1988 was analyzed by Fred Luiszer in the University of Colorado Paleomagnetism Laboratory the results were interpreted by Luiszer and subsequently by V. A. Schmidt (pers. comm., 1993). The results suggested that sediments about 10 cm below the surface of the Gypsum Room were potentially normally magnetized. Additional samples were taken and interpreted by Schmidt in 1990. Those from Tobacco...

Ambystomatidae

DIAGNOSIS A single salamander vertebra (DMNH 44765) was recovered from the cave. The specimen is amphicoelous, with the centrum and most of the neural arch preserved. The diapophyses and parapophyses are broken distally, but there is some indication that they supported bicipital ribs. On the ventral side of the vertebra a single spinal nerve foramen pierces each side of the centrum immediately posterior to the transverse processes where they meet the centrum. Single intravertebral spinal nerve...

Amino Acid Racemization

Relative age placements of Porcupine Cave localities derived from amino acid racemization are consistent with the biostratigraphic and paleomagnetic conclusions noted previously. Bell and Barnosky (2000) described the relative age results obtained from the Badger Room, Pit level 2, Pit level 6, and CM Velvet Room level 1. The technique suggested that Pit levels 2 and 6 and the Badger Room samples were approximately similar in age, but that CM Velvet Room level 1 was substantially younger. A...

Analyses

Qualitative and quantitative comparisons with extant and extinct species allowed taxonomic assignment of most specimens. Most quantitative comparisons were based on the following variables 1. Length of the maxillary alveolar row (LMAX). Front edge of alveolus of P3 to back edge of alveolus of M3. 2. Length of lower alveolar row (LMAND). All but Cynomys front surface of anterior root on p4, in line with alveolar border (lateral view), to back edge of alveolus of m3. For Cynomys same except...

Anthony D Barnosky

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California University of California Press, Ltd. London, England 2004 by The Regents of the University of California Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Biodiversity response to climate change in the middle Pleistocene the Porcupine Cave fauna from Colorado edited by Anthony D. Barnosky p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-520-24082-0 (cloth...

Appendix List of Specimens Examined for the Four Most Abundant Sciurids Studied

Specimens are ordered by locality and element (skulls, palates, maxillae, and upper cheek teeth first dentaries and lower cheek teeth last). Pit specimen numbers have CM and UCMP prefixes, which are listed separately. Specimens from the CM Velvet Room Excavation have CM prefixes. Catalogue numbers from other localities have DMNH prefixes. See chapter 25 for a listing of Marmota specimens. R maxilla I, P3-M3 (23369) L maxilla P4-M3 (23379) 2 R maxillae P4-M3 (22288, 37202) L maxilla P4-M2...

Appendix Specimens of Neotoma from the

CM 64600, 64604, 64605, 64607, 64609, 64610, 64612, 64613, 64616, 64620, 64621, 64623, 64625, 64626, 64628, 64630, 64632, 64634, 64638, 64640, 64644, 64645, 64647, 64653, 64655, 64658, 64661, 64668, 64674, 64678, 64679, 64680, 64681, 64684, 64689, 64708, 64710, 64711, 64714, 64719, 64722, 65056, 65059-65066, 65068, 65221-65225, 65227, 65229, 65291, 65292, 65295, 65296, 65298, 65299-65302, 65329-65339, 65341-65353, 65355-65358, 65429, 66149, 66151, 66152, 66159-66162, 66164-66166, 66168, 66169,...

Arvicoline Biodiversity and Biogeography

With no fewer than 13 species, the overall diversity of arvicoline rodents within Porcupine Cave exceeds that of any other North American locality. Moreover, arvicoline diversity within discrete stratigraphic horizons in some localities within the cave (e.g., Pit, level 4, with at least nine species) presents a unique example not only of taxonomic diversity, but also of species associations. Perhaps most notable in this regard is the stratigraphic co-occurrence of AHophaiomys with at least...

Aztlanolagus Sp

REFERRED MATERIAL CM 63679 UCMP 164256, 164257, 164260, 164355, 164356, 164379, 164389, 164390, 164416164420, 164451, 164452, 164461-164464, 164490, 164491, 164498, 164499, 164520, 164539, 164540, 164544, 164545, 164555-164567, 164584, 164585, 164596, 164597, 164599, 164602. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Assignment to Aztlano-lagus required a p3 characterized by a deep anterior internal reentrant, anterior external reentrant, posterior internal reentrant, and posterior external reentrant, as well as...

Aztlanolagus

REFERRED SPECIMENS DMNH 39054, 39057, 39061, 39066, 39067, 39071, 39072, 39075 , 39078, 39093, 39100, 39104, 39108, 39113, 39114, 39120, 39124, 39129, 39133, 39134, 39136, 39149, 39154, 39169, 39173, 39182, 3918639191, 39195, 39197, 39306, 39307, 39309, 39313, 39319, 39320, 39323, 39327, 39329, 39331, 39334, 39335, 39347, 39348, 39350, 39353, 39356, 39359, 39361, 39363-39366. COMMENTS This genus is represented by remains that are significantly larger than those of the single described species,...

Biochronology

Figures 7.1-7.3 show stratigraphic ranges of Pit taxa. Arvico-line rodents currently provide the most feasible link from biostratigraphic to biochronologic time scales (Repenning, 1987 Fejfar and Repenning, 1992 Bell, 2000 Bell et al., in press). At least 10 species of arvicolines range through the Pit (figure 7.2). Biochronologically informative species fall into two groups. One group, including Phenacomys gryci, Mimomys vir-ginianus, and AHophaiomys pliocaenicus, is known elsewhere, primarily...

Biostratigraphic Zones

Biostratigraphic changes within the stratified Pit sequence may prove useful for correlation of deposits within Porcupine Cave. Two zones based on first or last known stratigraphic appearance data are recognized (figures 7.1-7.3). These zones FIGURE 7.1 Stratigraphic ranges of Amphibia, Reptilia, ochotonids, leporids, sciurids, and geomyids at the Pit. These ranges and those in figures 7.2 and 7.3 are used to define the biostratigraphic zones noted at the top and explained in the text. Levels...

Biostratigraphy

As noted in chapter 2, this excavation included five strati-graphic levels, the sediments of which very closely resembled the distinctive loose, dry dust of levels 1-3 of the Pit. Paleo-magnetic samples taken from beneath the lowest level were interpreted as questionably normal by Fred Luiszer and V. A. FIGURE 7.4 Correlation of the Pit sequence with the CM and DMNH Velvet Room excavations. Correlation of the sections is based on the biostratigraphic zones defined in the Pit and the local...

Calcarius Cf C Lapponicus

REFERRED MATERIAL Premaxilla, DMNH 35729. provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink. DESCRIPTION The specimen is too fragmentary for positive identification but most closely matches Calcarius lappon-icus in size and characters. CALCARIUS CF. C. PICTUS (SWAINSON, 1832) REFERRED MATERIAL Premaxilla, DMNH 43452. provenance Last Chance Pit, unit 2, level 7. DESCRIPTION This specimen is larger and more robust than Calcarius lapponicus, narrower at the base than in C. or-natus, and smaller...

Carnivore Digestion

DMNH 42146 from Mark's Sink (8 96) innominate fragment (figure 9.4). Measurements GL, 32.95 GB, 7.50 LSW, 3.85 PB, 11.50. This specimen exhibits extreme acid etching and severe corrosion over its entire surface. Articular surfaces are missing and the bone itself is severely compromised in density and completeness. The bone has passed through the digestive system of a carnivore, as evidenced by its overall eroded appearance and fragility. DMNH 42148 from Mark's Sink (8 96) fragmentary vertebra...

Cf Anser Sp Or Chen Sp

REFERRED MATERIAL Partial premaxilla, DMNH 12807 (fig. 12.1A). provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 16, level 19 (I). DESCRIPTION The relatively more posterior position of the nares on the premaxilla is one character that distinguishes Anser and Chen from Branta, which has nares placed farther anteriorly and nearer to the tip of the bill. The fossil is relatively larger than A. albifrons, C. caerulescens, and C. rossi and is too fragmentary for more specific identification. It may...

Cf Th Ryothorus Sp

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 8528. provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 1, level 10 (mixed). DESCRIPTION This specimen is larger than those in Salpinxes obsoletus, Troglodytes aedon, T. troglodytes, Thryomanes bewickii, Catherpes mexicanus, Cistothorus platensis, and C. pa-lustris, and distinctly smaller than that in Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus. It compares most closely in size and features to Thryothorus ludovicianus, but in lateral view the dentary in this...

Chapter Appendixes

Specimens from Porcupine Cave showing taphoni or paleopathological modification 90 11.1. Amphibian and reptile specimens recovered from Porcupine Cave 124 13.1. Carnivore specimens from Porcupine Cave 149 14.1. Ochotona specimens from Porcupine Cave 160 17.1. List of specimens examined for the four most abundant sciurids studied 187 18.1. Specimens of Neotoma from the Pit 204 19.1. Specimens of arvicoline rodents from Porcupine Cave 220 21.1. Artiodactyl remains from Porcupine Cave 291...

Charles A Repenning

The evolution and paleobiogeography of wood rats (packrats), genus Neotoma, is poorly known, not because they are uncommon as fossils, but because their teeth all look alike. Living species are identified by features that are seldom preserved in fossils. Usually all that is mentioned of the teeth is the anterointernal reentrant (or groove, as it is most frequently called in the description of modern forms) of the M1, the alveolar length of the tooth row, and the nature of the m3. The great...

Christopher J Bell

Establishing chronologic control in early and middle Pleistocene deposits is difficult, all the more so in cave deposits. In the absence of a lucky infusion of datable volcanic ash (which Porcupine Cave so far seems to lack), dating methods typically are restricted to magnetostratigraphic associations, biostratigraphic and biochronologic correlations, amino acid racemi-zation, electron spin resonance, and uranium series dating. The latter two techniques have not been applied to samples from...

Chronologic Significance

The chronologic significance of arvicoline rodents is well established. The known temporal ranges of arvicolines recovered from Porcupine Cave are summarized in table 19.1 and are based on localities outside Porcupine Cave. The biochronology and age interpretations of the stratified sequences from Porcupine Cave are discussed in chapter 7, but a few comments are in order here. One of the most interesting (and frustrating) arvicoline assemblages from the Cave is from the Mark's Sink locality...

Class Mammalia Order Carnivora Family Mustelidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room DMNH 10967 R m1 talonid (G11, L10, F). Mark's Sink DMNH 38867 R m1 talonid (L29, 7 97), 40264 R glenoid fossa (L19, 7 97), 40265 L p4 (L19, 7 97), 40379 L p3 (8 96), 40380 L P2 (8 96), 40381 L M1 (L26, 7 97). Will's Hole DMNH 39565 L c. Badger Room DMNH 22768 fragmentary R jaw with alveoli p1-4 22769 fragmentary R jaw with alveoli p1-4 33461 proximal L ulna. CM 49108 L jaw with p4-m1. Generator Dome DMNH 27037 fragmentary L maxilla with alveoli P4 (L1). DESCRIPTION...

Class Mammalia Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae

DESCRIPTION The defining character of this genus is the p3, which has a posterior external reentrant (PER figure 15.1) extending no more than halfway across the tooth, a very shallow anterior external reentrant (AER), and usually no other reentrants. Species in this genus show a wide range of size, from that of a small cottontail to that of a large hare. The degree of cursoriality ranges from less cursorial than Sylvilagus to typical jackrabbit ecomorph (Dawson, 1958 Campbell, 1969 White,...

Class Mammalia Order Rodentia Family Muridae

GENERAL COMMENTS Zakrzewski (1993) provided an overall summary of the fossil record of the wood rats and discussed their dental characters. The terminology he used is not the same as that used herein, although in many cases it refers to the same features. There is no generally accepted terminology for the features that are called by different names in his report and in this chapter. Both reports include illustrations that define the terms. Zakrzewski's intent was to cover all known species of...

Climate

South Park is sheltered from cyclone storms by continuous mountain belts on the north, west, and east. Little precipitation falls on the park floor during the winter, and snow is quickly redistributed by wind into drifts, leaving many areas relatively free of snow and exposed to the action of wind and frost (figure 3.4). In the highest mountain areas, abundant winter snow falls, and as in other high mountain regions in Colorado this snow provides the bulk of the annual precipitation. South...

Climate and Orogeny

The difference in wood rat species composition between the time represented through the Pit sequence and the present suggests major biogeographic changes in the Porcupine Cave area. Three causes seem possible orogenic elevation of the South Park area since the Pit fauna was deposited, causing the loss of a Great Plains-like habitat that once had been continuous with South Park climate change or a combination of the two. The climate change that would permit wood rats, now living on the Great...

Climatic Correlations

In the Pit, the contacts between glacial and interglacial strati-graphic levels are abrupt, with dramatically differing sediments on each side of the contact. Within each climatic interval, the sedimentary transitions across stratigraphic levels are much more subtle, or, in the case of arbitrary levels, lacking entirely (Barnosky and Rasmussen, 1988 Bell and Bar-nosky, 2000). This pattern suggests episodic deposition, with periods of nondeposition (unconformities or disconformities between...

Collection Protocols

Collections housed at the CM and UCMP are split samples of the same test excavations that took place primarily in 1985, 1986, and 1987. Initially fossils were collected from the surface. As the surface was depleted of fossils, trowels and trenching shovels were used to excavate a volume of approximately 0.5 m3. Fossils were carefully removed as they were uncovered, but no data were recorded about depth below surface, given the nature of the deposits, which made such information meaningless in...

Comealong Room

R maxilla M1-M2 (28026) R dentary p4 (28325). MARK'S SINK 2 skulls P3-M3 (21357, 21358) skull I, P4-M3 (36019) skull P4-M3 (21356) skull R P4-M3 (21360) skull P4, M2-M3 (21359) 3 palates P4-M3 (21374, 21375, 22281) palate R P4-M3 (22278) palate P4-M2 (22281) 2 palates P4-M1, M3 (22277, 22282) palate M1-M3 (22283) palate M1-M2 (22276) palate L M2 (275 05) palate M3 (22279) 2 palates edentulous (27825, 33521) 3 L maxillae P3-M3 (21376, 23374, 33837) 2 R maxillae P3-M3 (23358, 33549) L maxilla...

Conclusions

The combination of magnetostratigraphic, biochronologic, biostratigraphic, and amino acid racemization techniques that has been applied to Porcupine Cave sediments suggests that the Pit sequence has an age near 780 Ka at its top and is as old as 900 Ka or 1 Ma at its bottom. The DMNH Velvet Room appears younger than the uppermost Pit sediments at its top (levels A-C), with levels D and E potentially coeval with Pit levels 1-3, level F in the vicinity of Pit levels 3 or 4, and levels G-I...

Convention for Dental Terminology and Higher Taxonomy

The systematic accounts of identified taxa appear in the following chapters of part 2. All authors except Bell et al. (chapters 11, 19) follow Linnaean taxonomy above the genus level Bell et al. conceptualize the higher taxa as monophyletic units and leave Linnaean ranks out of their treatment. In general, one author or group of collaborating authors analyzed all of the specimens of a given higher taxon. An exception is the leporids, in which specimens of the DMNH Velvet Room are identified and...

Cynomys andersoni

R maxilla P4-M2 (36153) 2 L, 3 R M3 (22829, 33910) R dentary m1 (20443) R dentary m3 (22834) L dentary m1-m2 (20447) 2 L, 2 R p4, 5 L, 5 R m3 (14303, 22829, 33910). R dentary m1-m3 (23335) L dentary I, m1 (23334) L dentary m3 (23332). R maxilla P3-M1 (28024) R maxilla M1-M3 (28317) 2 R dentaries m1-m3 (28027, 28320) 3 L dentaries m1-m2 (28047, 28048, 28323) R dentary m1-m2 (28319) 2 L dentaries p4 (28025, 28318) 2 R dentaries m2 (28022, 28327) R dentary m3 (28321) L p4, L, 4 R m1 or m2, 3 L m3...

Cynomys cf C leucurus

L P3 (35502) L M1 or M2 (37247) L dentary I, p4-m3 (37164) L dentary p4-m3 (37170) R dentary p4-m2 (36887) L dentary m1, m3 (37140) L dentary m3 (37168) L m3 (37247). LEVEL 1 Palate P4 (65265) palate R M3 (66438) L maxilla M2-M3 (65261) 2 R maxillae M2-M3 (65262, 66439) L, R maxillae P4 (66440, 66441) 2 L, R maxillae M3 (65259, 65263, 66443) L maxilla edentulous (65260) 3 L M3 (65140, 65856, 66372) L dentary p4-m2 (65257) R dentary m1-m2 (65258) 3 R p4 (61119, 65117, 65125) L, 3 R m1 or m2...

David J Cooper

South Park is one of the four large intermountain basins that characterize the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (figure 3.1). The basins, typically called parks, have relatively level to rolling floors and are surrounded by mountain ranges with peaks reaching over 4000 m elevation. The floors of all parks have arid climates with cool summers and very cold winters. Three characteristics of South Park distinguish it from Colorado's three other major intermountain basins, North Park, Middle Park, and...

Definitions

The literature on wood rat dens and middens is often sketchy and ambiguous. For example, words used by hunters, naturalists, and cavers to describe the sign at a den or cave en- FIGURE 8.1 Bushy-tailed wood rat, Neotoma cinerea, the species of wood rat living in Porcupine Cave today. FIGURE 8.1 Bushy-tailed wood rat, Neotoma cinerea, the species of wood rat living in Porcupine Cave today. trance have different meanings to different people. I defined my use of such terms, as widely understood by...

Description of Localities

Most of the material described in this book was recovered from seven localities the Badger Room, Fissure Fill A, the Gypsum Room, the Pit, and three spatially distinct excavations in the Velvet Room (Mark's Sink, DMNH 644, CM 1927 UCMP V93175). Of these, the most closely studied have been the Pit and DMNH 644, because those localities contained stratified sequences composed of multiple stacked layers and yielded thousands of specimens. The Pit locality provides the main basis for interpreting...

Discussion

Prior to the discovery of Porcupine Cave, little information existed about early and middle Pleistocene avifauna from the intermountain West. Rogers et al. (2000) provided useful information with the report of 10 taxa from SAM Cave Tachy-baptus cf. T. dominicus (Least Grebe), Phasianus colchicus (Ring-Necked or Common Pheasant), Troglodytes cf. T. troglodytes (Winter Wren), Corvini, Ammodramus sp. (sparrow), Junco sp. (junco), Passerculus cf. P. sandwichensis (Savannah Sparrow), Parus sp....

Discussion and Conclusions

The presence of significant numbers of sites and samples carrying a reversed polarity magnetization indicates that these units are older than the Brunhes polarity interval. Given the external constraints on the age of the cave, it is most likely that the long reversed interval sampled in the section is the Matuyama polarity interval (0.781-1.757 Ma Cande and Kent, 1995). This interpretation suggests the strata represent a duration of no more than a million years and probably less. This estimate...

Discussion Regional Comparisons

Previous studies of late Pleistocene North American herpeto-faunas appear to indicate both taxonomic and geographic stability of reptile and amphibian taxa throughout the Rancho-labrean mammal age and into the Holocene (Fay, 1984, 1988 Brewer, 1985 Holman, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1999). The question FIGURE 11.6. UCMP 399993 precloacal vertebra referred to non-Natricine Colubridae shown in anterior (top), left lateral (middle), and ventral (bottom) views. Scale bar 4 mm. FIGURE 11.6. UCMP 399993...

Disease Injury or Trauma

DMNH 42653, Lepus sp. long bone fragment (swelling) (7 94) DMNH 42655, Rodentia L innominate fragment (periostosis) (7 94) DMNH 42678, Rodentia metapodial (break) (7 94) DMNH 42687, Lepus sp. metapodial (puncture) (mixed) (7 94) DMNH 42701, Rodentia rib (bony exostoses) (1993) DMNH 42725, Lepus sp. metapodial (bony exostoses) (1993). DMNH 42675, Rodentia metapodial (puncture) DMNH 42686, Rodentia metapodial (puncture) DMNH 42694, Rodentia claw (puncture) DMNH 42700, Lepus sp. metapodial...

Dmnh Ucmp V

Note Supporting evidence for geological ages is presented by the references cited in the text. note Supporting evidence for geological ages is presented by the references cited in the text. washing was not systematically employed, small specimens are probably underrepresented in the CM and UCMP collections. Material housed at the DMNH was collected by DMNH crews using similar techniques, plus screen washing, during field seasons between 1987 and 2000. DMNH extracted less than 1 m3 of...

Dmnh Velvet Room

DMNH 42706, Rodentia tibia fragment (8 8A) mixed (7 93). FISSURE FILL A DMNH 42720, Lepus sp. calcanea (7 94). MARK'S SINK DMNH 42662, Lepus sp. innominate DMNH 42664, Lepus sp. femur fragment DMNH 42669 Lepus sp. R innominate fragment (G9-Lb) (1994) DMNH 42671, Rodentia ulna fragment DMNH 42675, Lepus sp. calcanea (32 specimens) DMNH 42708, Rodentia calcaneum (L 33) DMNH 42710 Rodentia tibia fragment (1994) DMNH 42714, Lepus sp. long bone fragment (L23) (7 97) DMNH 42716, Lepus sp. tibia...

DMNH Velvet Room Excavation

The DMNH Velvet Room excavation is a stratified sequence excavated as described in chapter 2. Horizons are designated by letter, with A the highest and deeper horizons progressing through the alphabet. The sediments of horizons A-C are very similar to those of levels 1-3 of the CM Velvet Room excavation (chapter 2). All sediments are unconsolidated. The brown clays that intermittently characterize Pit levels below level 3 were not observed in the Velvet Room. However, DMNH Velvet Room horizons...

Environmental Controls

The wood rat fauna from the Pit includes four of the five species of wood rats that now live in southeastern Colorado. Four of the five southeastern Colorado species live in the vicinity of Pueblo, about 120 km to the southeast of Porcupine Cave at an elevation of 1489 m, and extend eastward across the Great Plains. The fifth (Neotoma cinerea) is the species that makes up the majority of the Porcupine Cave sample and now lives in the cave area, as well as elsewhere in the mountains at...

Environmental Interpretation

The Pit sequence may document at least two glacial-interglacial cycles, with most study to date having focused on one putative glacial-interglacial couplet (levels 4-5 and 1-3, respectively) (Barnosky et al., 1996). Sedimentary and faunal variation is consistent with a model of wet glacial-dry interglacial environmental fluctuation for this upper couplet (Barnosky et al., 1996). Environmental conditions at other sites in Porcupine Cave have not been investigated adequately. Substantial...

Family Emberizidae

PASSERINA (BECHSTEIN, 1798) REFERRED MATERIAL Premaxilla, DMNH 30195. provenance Location 1342, Ferret Room. DESCRIPTION This specimen compares well in size and characters to this species among other species in this genus, the premaxilla is slightly smaller and narrower (Spizella brew-eri, S. pusilla, and S. pallida) or larger and broader (S. arborea). REFERRED MATERIAL Mandible missing proximal right end, DMNH 30164. provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 8 8A, level 2 (A)....

Family Falconidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal half of right tibiotarsus, DMNH 35742. provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink. FALCO SP. REFERRED MATERIAL Left ulna missing ends, DMNH 30189 proximal left femur, DMNH 35721 distal left tarso-metatarsus, DMNH 9801 two ungual phalanges, DMNH 9924. provenance 9801 Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 3, level 7 (mixed) 9924 Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 5, level 5 (B) 30189 Location 644, Velvet Room grid 25, level 2 (B) 35721 Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's...

Family Felidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room UCMP 140509 L P3 (G5-6, L 1). Mark's Sink DMNH 33909 R C (8 96) 37163 L C unerupted (L 26, 7 97). Will's Hole DMNH 40215 R c. Badger Room DMNH 13924 L C 41033 R m1 CM 49133 R C 49138 L c. Generator Dome DMNH 27044 L c (L 2). Crystal Room DMNH 36667 R c CM 49158 R C 49159 middle phalanx. Cramped Quarters CM 49154 fragmentary R jaw with canine, p3-4. Undifferentiated CM 49125 L P4. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Felids are rare in Porcupine Cave. Except for CM 49154 from...

Family Fringillidae

LEUCOSTICTE TEPHROCOTIS (SWAINSON, 1832) REFERRED MATERIAL Ten premaxillae, DMNH 10552, 30081, 30097, 35747, 35749, 35801, 35806, 41119, 43313, and 43450 14 distal mandibular symphyses, DMNH 30081 (2), 35383, 35397, 35746, 35812, 35813, 41119 (2), 41130, 41210, 43312, 43315, and 43327. provenance 30097 Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 9, level 2 (B) 35397 Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 11, level 5 (C) 10552 Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 6, level 1 (A) 30081, 35383 , 35746, 35747, 35749,...

Family Geomyidae

REFERRED MATERIAL CM 65590, 65839-65841, 66119, 66123-66144, 66263, 66395-66398, 66447-66450, 66623, 66625-66627 UCMP 158000-158009, 158012-158018, 158021, 158023-158030, 158032, 158034-158045, 158047-158055, 158057, 158059, 158060-158071, 158074-158079, 158083, 158085-158089, 158091-158095, 158097-158106, 158108158111, 158113-158115, 158119-158124, 158127-158132, 158134, 158136-158141, 158143-158147, 164626-164631, 164671, 164680, 164696-164700, 164702, 164704-164706, 165501, 165502,...

Family Hirundinidae

BICOLOR VIEILLOT, 1808 REFERRED MATERIAL Premaxilla, DMNH 30097. provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 9, level 2 (B). DESCRIPTION The specimen differs from Hirundo rustica and Riparia riparia, which have a slightly longer and narrower bill, and from H. pyrrhonota, which has a nasal bar that rises more steeply posteriorly from the premaxilla than in Tachy-cineta bicolor. T. bicolor is a common summer resident throughout Colorado today. REFERRED MATERIAL Right humerus,...

Family Indeterminate

BADGER ROOM (DMNH 942 1351 AND UCMP V93176) DMNH 44771 vertebral centrum DMNH 44772 trunk vertebra DMNH 44773 broken radioulna UCMP 399997 tibiafibula. DMNH 44755 urostyle DMNH 44757 angulosplenial DMNH 44758 trunk vertebra DMNH 44759 trunk vertebra DMNH 44760 sacral vertebra DMNH 44761 humerus DMNH 44762 humerus DMNH 44763 tibiafibula DMNH 44764 tibiafibula.

Family Muridae

REFERRED MATERIAL CM 65304-65429, 65527, 65528, 65835, 65836, 66110-66118, 66523 UCMP 158116-158173, 158175-158181, 158183-158200, 164679, 165503-165530, 165532-165540, 165544-165548, 165550, 165551, 165556165559, 165562-165569, 165571-165580. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS These specimens were assigned to Peromyscus on the basis of similarity of the cheek teeth to those of modern specimens of the genus. It may be possible with more detailed work to determine which species are present.

Family Sittidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 30207. provenance Location 1350, Will's Hole (PC-11). DESCRIPTION This specimen compares well in size and characters to Sitta carolinensis the mandibular symphyses of S. canadensis and S. pygmaea are smaller than that in S. carolinensis. REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis missing tip, DMNH 43317. provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 21, level 7A (C). DESCRIPTION This specimen is similar to Sitta carolinen-sis and S. canadensis...

Family Ursidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Generator Dome DMNH 41411 LI1 (L1). Undifferentiated UCMP 155908 MT III. Most Common Species (MNI) of Carnivores in Five Areas of Porcupine Cave Taxidea taxus (122) Canis latrans (73) S. putorius (45) C. edwardii (14) Spilogaleputorius (85) C. latrans (40) M. frenata (39) Vulpes vulpes (29) Mustela frenata (33) Mustela erminea (27) S. putorius (10) V. velox(9) T. taxus (37) C. latrans (26) C. edwardii (9) S. putorius (8) T. taxus (16) S. putorius (13) M. frenata (13) V. velox...

Fossils in Porcupine Cave

Don and Jerry Rasmussen took the fossils collected in 1981 to the University of Kansas the following year for comparison with the mammal collections there. With the help of Larry Martin and Robert (Bob) Hoffmann, professors of vertebrate paleontology and mammalogy, respectively, most of the mammals were tentatively identified. In 1984 Don gave the fossils to Peter Robinson, curator of vertebrate fossils at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, for study and possible curation. In...

Genus Cynomys

Prairie dogs (Cynomys) are large, derived ground squirrels endemic to North America throughout their history (Goodwin, 1995b). Morphological evidence suggests a close relationship with derived ground squirrels (subgenus Spermophilus Bryant, 1945 Goodwin, 1995b) some late Blancan-early Irvingtonian taxa are morphologically intermediate between these taxa, complicating taxonomic assignment (e.g., S. cragini Goodwin and Hayes, 1994). Two subgenera and five extant species currently are recognized...

Genus Spermophilus

Five sciurid taxa from Porcupine Cave are assigned to the genus Spermophilus, a large and extremely successful group of ground-dwelling squirrels especially diverse today in western North America (Hall, 1981). One species is of uncertain sub-generic placement others represent the subgenera S. (Callo-spermophilus), probably S. (Otospermophilus), and S. (Spermo-philus) (two species). Three of these five taxa are known from only one or two specimens the other two are well represented.

Geological Setting of DMNH

The sampled strata are from a small alluvial cone (DMNH 644) located on the west side of the Velvet Room in Porcupine Cave (figure 6.1). Systematic excavation identified a succession of well- to weakly bedded gravelly to silty unconsolidated strata approximately 3 m thick. The bedding is best developed within the upper meter of the succession, which is also the most fossiliferous. DMNH 644, known as the DMNH Velvet Room excavation (and also as the Velvet Room Main Dig), was excavated between...

Gymnorhinus Cyanocephalus

REFERRED MATERIAL Proximal half of left mandible, DMNH 35392. provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 11, level 4 (B). DESCRIPTION This specimen compares well in size and characters to the living species. It was also compared to Cyanocitta stelleri, Aphelocoma californica, Nucifraga columbiana, and Perisoreus canadensis. All these genera are distinct, especially in their relative size and the morphology of the post-articular and articular processes of the mandible. DMNH 35392 most closely...

Thomas Goodwin

Squirrels (Rodentia, Sciuridae) are diverse taxonomically and ecologically in the extant North American fauna (Hall, 1981). On a broad scale, the roots of sciurid diversity extend deeply in time, with fossils known as far back as the early Oligocene (e.g., Sutton and Black, 1975 Emry and Thorington, 1984), but adaptive radiation leading to modern species and species groups was probably concentrated in the late Neogene. Details of this radiation remain sketchy. It is tempting to seek causation...

Ast Jrofllc

FIGURE 2.5 West to east profile through Porcupine Cave. The profile runs from the entrance adit on the left side of figure 2.3 through the Memorial Day Room on the right side of figure 2.3. FIGURE 2.6 Detailed profiles through cross sections depicted in figure 2.3 A-A', D-D', and F-F'. FIGURE 2.6 Detailed profiles through cross sections depicted in figure 2.3 A-A', D-D', and F-F'. ments of these fossils must take into account the spatial and temporal provenance of the different localities. In...

Implications for Ecological Interpretations

The collection vectors described earlier mean that the sample of Pleistocene bones represents animals that lived mostly within a 5- to 18-km radius of Porcupine Cave. Wood rats generally collect within 50 m of their nest raptors usually collect their prey within about 5 km of the sites where they regurgitate most of their pellets and mammalian carnivores such as coyotes and badgers typically hunt within 5 km of their dens (Hadly, 1999). Porder et al. (2003) found that in Yellowstone Park, the...

Info

P. lobatus (Red-necked Phalarope) Scolopacidae, indeterminate Larus sp. (Gull) Bubo virginianus (Great Horned Owl) Nyctea scandiaca (Snowy Owl) Asio sp. (Owl) Strigidae, indeterminate Picoides villosus (Hairy Woodpecker) Colaptes auratus (Northern Flicker) 2 Corvus brachyrhynchos (American Crow) 1 2 Melospiza cf. M. lincolnii (Lincoln's Sparrow) 2 2 Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Hirundinidae, indeterminate 1 1 Chondestes grammacus (Lark Sparrow) 1 1 Junco hyemalis...

ItiwiT Level Offset

V UnJiipA lUmllnJ I SI,< V 7 Iti ni OaH e Rut l J Uilint Hcijhi LJ Limite iiC lliiii Hf.ili j nit KNij Mjiln RT-1 Din* iJi INK' Vm-pl I t l> i*4afvt hint -* V UnJiipA lUmllnJ I SI,< V 7 Iti ni OaH e Rut l J Uilint Hcijhi LJ Limite iiC lliiii Hf.ili j nit KNij Mjiln RT-1 Din* iJi INK' FIGURE 2.4 North to south profile through Porcupine Cave. The profile runs from north of Chicken-Out Dome in the upper portion of the left side of figure 2.3 through the Chessmen Room at the bottom of the...

J Fmamj J Asond

FIGURE 3.7 Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures at the Antero Reservoir weather station. FIGURE 3.6 Mean number of days each month receiving more than 0.25, more than 1.25, and more than 2.54 cm of precipitation at the Antero Reservoir weather station. FIGURE 3.6 Mean number of days each month receiving more than 0.25, more than 1.25, and more than 2.54 cm of precipitation at the Antero Reservoir weather station. winter months, December, January, and February (figure 3.5). More than 20 of...

Known Geographic And Temporal Distribution

The recovery of Pliolemmus in Porcupine Cave was completely unexpected. Prior to its discovery here, its known distribution was limited to only a few localities in the Great Plains. It was previously reported from Kansas in Rexroad Locality 2 (from a sandy pocket in the clay see Hibbard, 1941b 288, 1941d 91-92), Deer Park ( Deer Park A of Martin et al., 2000 formerly Rexroad 1 of Hibbard, 1938, 1941b see Hibbard, 1956), Dixon and Sanders (Hibbard, 1956), and the Bender fauna (Hibbard, 1972)....

Ku Co Ku Co Dmnh Cm Ucmp V Cm Dmnh Ucmp V

Biostratigraphically correlative with levels 4-8 in the Pit probably between 780 Ka and 1 Ma old. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Mixed. Contains specimens of potential Blancan age as well as Irvingtonian. At least as old as levels 4 and older in the Pit possibly older. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian, possibly a Blancan component. Mixed. Contains fossils indicating...

Landscape

High mountains of the Front Range form the northern and eastern borders of South Park, with the high point of Mount Evans reaching 4345 m elevation (figure 3.2). On the west the Mosquito Range forms a high and nearly unbroken chain of peaks greater than 4000 m elevation, reaching a high point on Mount Sherman and ending at the Buffalo Peaks (figure 3.3). The Front and Mosquito ranges supported localized ice caps and extensive valley glacier complexes during stades of the Pleistocene, as...

Leucosticte Sp

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 43316. provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink. DESCRIPTION This specimen is too fragmentary for specific identification. REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 30080. provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink. DESCRIPTION The symphysis is longer and narrower in this species and the fossil specimen compared to shorter and broader symphyses in Carpodacus purpureus and C. mexicanus. Carpodacus cassinii is a...

Lizards

Squamates constitute the bulk of the herpetological remains recovered from Porcupine Cave. The squamate remains are dominated by isolated snake vertebrae, but eight lizard specimens also were recovered. Two of these lizard remains (vertebrae) are not identifiable. Three others are from relatively small-bodied species and have slender conical teeth with weakly tricuspid crowns this morphology is consistent with identification as non-acrodont Iguania, but because of the fragmentary nature of the...

Localities DMNH

DMNH 644 is the most comprehensive excavation in the Velvet Room, with more than 2 m of stratified material excavated. Paleomagnetic dating indicates that horizons A-C are younger than the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary, which dates to about 780 Ka horizons D and below appear to predate 780 Ka. Horizon A is composed of a modern assortment of packrat fecal pellets, bone, and plant material. Horizon B is a rich brown layer. Horizon C is gray in color. A tan layer, horizon D, lies atop a brown...

Louis H Taylor

Porcupine Cave, arguably the richest source of information in the world on Irvingtonian-age vertebrates, sits in the Colorado Rocky Mountains at 2900 m (latitude 38 43'45 N, longitude 105 51'41 W, USGS Gribbles Park 7.5' Quad) (figures 2.1, 2.2). Situated on the southwest rim of the highest large intermountain basin in North America, known as South Park, the cave is a three-tiered chamber comprising at least 600 m of passageways (figures 2.3-2.7). South Park itself lies nearly in the center of...

Magnetostratigraphy

Magnetostratigraphic studies in the Pit were undertaken by V. A. Schmidt, University of Pittsburgh Paleomagnetics Laboratory, just prior to his untimely death. Samples from levels 14-8 recorded predominantly reversed polarities, although there is an admixture of intermediate and to a much lesser extent normal components as well. The data suggested to Schmidt (pers. comm., 1993) that levels 14-8 are older than 780 Ka, which marks the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary. They would fall in Chron 1r of...

Mapping and Use by Cavers

By the mid-1940s members of local grottos (regional clubs of cavers within the National Speleological Society) were exploring Porcupine Cave (Bloch, 1946). Since then, cavers from the Colorado Grotto, as well as the Front Range Grotto (Denver) and the Southern Colorado Mountain Grotto (Colorado Springs), have used the cave as a beginner's cave because it is a fairly simple cave to explore, especially after ladders were installed in the more difficult vertical places. Halliday (1952) reported...

Marks Sink

Mark's Sink (DMNH 1349) is located in the Velvet Room apart from locality 644. It is a small sink filled with bone and debris. It was originally thought to be stratified, but further work suggested that it was badly bioturbated, and deposition was so complex that it is currently regarded as a mixed sample, even though the lowest sections were differentiated into more than 33 levels as they were excavated. The source of this very rich bone deposit is unclear. Leporid remains were identified...

Materials and Methods

All fossil specimens were identified using comparative osteo-logical collections at the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., and the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), Gainesville. Terminology follows that of Howard (1929), and systematic presentation and taxonomy follow that of the American Ornithologists' Union (1998, 2000). Common names of most species mentioned below are noted in tables 10.1-10.13 and 12.1. Common names of birds not appearing in those tables are noted...

Materials Examined

I studied all sciurid taxa exclusive of Marmota information on the latter genus, as included in this chapter, was kindly provided by A. D. Barnosky. Site collections were sampled with the following coverage 1. Incomplete but extensive samples of mostly well-preserved specimens (partial to complete skulls, maxillae and dentaries with teeth) from VR-DMNH and MS, with fragmentary specimens of poorly represented taxa and horizons also included. 2. Incomplete sample from VR-CM. 3. Large, nearly...

Methodological Approach

There are difficulties, often unacknowledged, in seeking fine-scale taxonomic resolution of isolated skeletal elements of amphibians and reptiles. Our identifications are based on the reliable diagnostic features of the fossil material available. Whenever possible we minimized the use of geographic parsimony to refine our identifications, in part because of the antiquity of the material and our uncertainty regarding the distribution (or taxonomic evolution) of amphibian and reptile lineages in...

Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp

T Equus sp. (large) (horse) 1 11 1 1 1 t Equus sp. (small) (horse) 1 2 notes t, extinct species *, extinct morphotype , stratigraphic placement uncertain but probably from one of the indicated levels. Faunal List for Lower Seven Levels of the Pit Natricinae (snake) Non-Natricine Colubridae (snake) Colubroidea (snake) Ochotona cf. O. princeps (pika) Leporidae Leporid (rabbit or hare) t Aztlanolagus sp. (Aztlan rabbit) t Brachylagus coloradoensis (Colorado pygmy cottontail) t Hypolagus sp....

Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp

1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed wood rat) Neotoma floridana (eastern wood rat) Neotoma micropus (southern plains wood rat) Neotoma stephensi (Stephens' wood rat) t Mimomys virginianus (Virginia mimomys) Phenacomys sp. (teeth nondiagnostic) (vole) * Lemmiscus (four triangles) (sagebrush vole) Lemmiscus sp. (cannot identify to species) t Mictomys kansasensis meltoni (extinct bog lemming) t Mictomys sp. (probably extinct bog lemming) Spilogale putorius (spotted skunk) 1 1 Spilogale...

Mustela Species A

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room DMNH 18152 L maxilla with P4, associated R maxilla (G8 8A, L mixed). Mark's Sink DMNH 41403 R jaw with p4-m1 (L27, 7 97) 41405 L jaw with p4-m1 (8 96) 41406 R jaw with m1 (8 96) 41407 R jaw with p3, m1 (L20, 7 97) 41408 L jaw with p4-m1 (L20, 7 97). Will's Hole DMNH 41404 R P4 41409 L maxilla with P4-M1. Badger Room DMNH 10951 R m1. Generator Dome DMNH 27038 L jaw with p3-m2 (L1). Pit CM 48427 fragmentary R maxilla with P3-M1 (surface) 48446 fragmentary L jaw with...

Natricinae

Grid 16, level 6 DMNH 11971 pcv grid 17, level 6 DMNH 14966 grid 11, level 7 DMNH 44775-44776 pcv grid 7, level 8 DMNH 33756 pcv grid 11, level 9 DMNH 44781 sphenoid grid 11, level 10 DMNH 44777 pcv grid 11, level 11 DMNH 44778 pcv grid 12, level 11 DMNH 27888 pcv grid 16, level 12 DMNH 12083 pcv grid 11, level 13 DMNH 44779 pcv grid 11, level 14 DMNH 44780 pcv grid 6, level 15 DMNH 22171 pcv grids 13-15, bilge DMNH 44782 pcv. Grid 1, level 4, UCMP 399962-399969 pcv, UCMP 399970399971 maxilla...

Nonnatricine Colubridae

Diagnosis AND REMARKS The 10 vertebrae assigned to non-Natricine Colubridae (figure 11.6) are trunk vertebrae that lack a hypapophysis instead they possess a prominent hemal keel, which terminates as a blunt process ventral to the anterior margin of the condyle. Paralymphatic channels in non-Natricine Colubridae are weakly developed relative to those of natricines. It is likely that at least two species of non-Natricine colubrids are present in the Porcupine Cave sample. UCMP 399993 is a large,...

Ochotona Sp Near Trout Cave Form

DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS The Lp3 from the Pit G1 L3 is from a small pika with a curved lingual side (versus the typical straight walls figure 14.2B). The anteroconid and pos-teroconid are widely confluent. The anteroconid is rounded (as has been observed in some O. collaris). The anterointernal fold is short, shallow, and without cement. The anteroexternal fold is slightly deeper than the former and is filled with cement (figure 14.2B). The posteroconid is moderately long with a slightly...

Ochotona Sp Small Morph A

DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Morph A is a small pika with a thin, low, and gracile jaw. Its ascending ramus is short and slightly inclined posteriorly. The anterior face of the ascending ramus is rather wide in its lower portion and very narrow on the upper area. The base of the angular processus is of moderate width. The lower jaw ends below the lower incisor, forming a distinctive tubercle on the lingual side of the jaw and a relatively small tubercle on the labial side. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS...

Oil And Gas Well Drilling

Drilling for oil and gas in South Park has spanned more than a hundred years, beginning in the early 1890s, when the first test well was drilled (Cullen, 1960). Oil Creek (Fourmile Creek on present-day maps), which the explorer Pike followed into South Park, had been named several years earlier from the oil seeps prevalent along its banks. Some of the companies active in South Park have included the McDannald Oil Company, headed by A. T. McDannald (who had acquired the Hartsel Ranch in 1946),...

Or m meadensis

IDENTIFI CATION Molars are rootless and have cementum in the reentrant angles. The m1 consists of a posterior loop followed by at least five (occasionally six) closed, alternating triangles triangle 2 is distinctly smaller than triangle 1. Triangles 6 and 7 (secondary wings of Repenning, 1992) are well developed. At least 12 Microtus species extant in North America have an m1 with five or six closed alternating triangles M. breweri, M. californicus, M. chrotorrhinus, M. longicaudus, M....

Order Piciformes Family Picidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 30080. provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink. DESCRIPTION This specimen is referred to Picoides, and not Colaptes, by its relatively longer symphysis (short in Co-laptes). In addition, Melanerpes has a shallower symphysis than Picoides in Sphyrapicus, the proximal opening to a middle canal in the symphysis is more open and excavated than in Picoides. The fossil is recognized as P. villosus by its similarity in symphyseal length...

Order Strigiformes Family Strigidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Pedal phalange, DMNH 35819. provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink. REFERRED MATERIAL Distal mandibular symphysis, DMNH 30153 three pedal phalanges, DMNH 30205 (2) and 30153. provenance 30153 Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 2, level 3 (mixed) 30205 Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink (PC-10). DESCRIPTION The mandibular symphyses of Nyctea scan-diaca and DMNH 30153 are relatively broader and larger than those in Bubo or Strix. The pedal phalanges are relatively...

Other Activities in South Park

Notable among South Park's religious leaders was Father John Dyer, an itinerant Methodist minister. He preached his first sermon by a campfire in the Mosquito Mining District on 25 August 1861 (Dyer, 1890). Dyer built a crude shelter of poles and pine boughs at Sterling, where he lived for several weeks. He hired himself out as a miner and mail carrier for additional income. Dyer was known as the snowshoe itinerant because of the long Norwegian skis that he used to traverse the park and...

Paleoenvironmental Significance

Given the fact that so few species seem to inhabit the region surrounding Porcupine Cave today, the relatively low abundance of amphibian and reptile remains at the site is not unexpected. Most of the specimens recovered thus far are from test pit excavations, surface samples, and unstratified or mixed deposits. Consequently, the majority of the reptile and amphibian records from the cave simply confirm the presence of these taxa in South Park (an intermontane basin in the southern Rocky...

Pelobatidae

DIAGNOSIS AND REMARKS Among the 15 anuran bones recovered from the cave, one is identified as a pelobatid. The specimen (UCMP 399996) is a sacrococcyx (fused sacral vertebra and urostyle figure 11.1) with moderately developed webbing between the transverse processes of the sacral vertebra and the shaft of the urostyle (a feature that varies too widely to be of systematic value Zweifel, 1956 Kluge, 1966). We can find no features that permit finer taxonomic allocation of this fossil....

Pleistocene Evolutionary History of Rocky Mountain Sciurids

C. leucurus coincides with the onset of presumed glacial environments (the species first appears in Pit level 5), and the virtual disappearance of C. andersoni coincides with the shift to an interglacial (the Pit level 4 3 transition, based on the model of Barnosky et al. 1996 ). Taxonomic turnover may be linked with local environmental history. The Porcupine Cave record indicates morphological modernization of m3 in C. cf. C. leucurus (taking C. gunnisoni as indicative...

Porcupine Cave

As noted in earlier chapters, Porcupine Cave is situated at 2900 m elevation in South Park, in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado (figure 14.1). Deposits in the cave provide one of the highest-elevation vertebrate fossil sites of Pleistocene age in North America and have the most taxonomically diverse high-elevation fauna on the continent, as documented in this volume and as first reported by Barnosky and Rasmus-sen (1988). Details of the stratigraphy, chronology, and faunas are provided...

Porcupine Cave Interior

The record of cave formation inside Porcupine Cave mirrors some of the complexity deduced from the regional geological history. Based on cross-cutting relationships, the earliest features in the cave are elongated veins and fissure fills of strongly altered dolomite with intense limonitic weathering. These features probably derive from the Paleozoic karst surface that developed on the Manitou Dolomite during subaerial exposure prior to accumulation of the Harding Quartzite. Analysis of the...

Puncture Wounds

DMNH 30076 from the Badger Room (7 94) skull (figure 9.7). Measurements (values marked a are for alveoli only) GL, 186.0 POC, 37.50 GB, 90.0 HS, 55.35 CC, 28.65 L WP2, R L 12.60, W 3.90 W I3-I3, R 12.40a L WP3, L 12.65, R 12.65 L 4.80, R 4.75 W P4-P4, 53.50 LPC, R 6.30 FMB, 11.05 (ID) WP4PC, R 9.50 FMH, 12.50 (ID) WP4BL, R 2.35 POP, L 22.25, R 19.05 L WM1, L 13.10 R 13.10 L 14.90, R 14.55 WOC, 30.0 L WM2, L 7.80, R 7.80 L 10.90, R 10.90 HS, 55.35 PL, 93.45 (from R side) CL, L 10.25a, R 10.25a...

Rallus Cf R Limicola

REFERRED MATERIAL Proximal right humerus, DMNH 30202. provenance Location 1347, Generator Dome (PC-8). DESCRIPTION This specimen compares well in characters to specimens of Rallus limicola from Florida examined at FLMNH but is slightly more robust in size. No specimens of this rail from more northern regions of North America were available for comparison. R. limicola is a common resident in Colorado in wet meadows and marshes in mountain parks and other regions. CF. PORZANA CAROLINA (LINNAEUS,...

Referred Material

Provenance Location 1349, Mark's Sink, level 27. DESCRIPTION This specimen is similar in size and most characters to the living Podiceps auritus (Horned Grebe) but differs in having a relatively shallower impression of brachialis anticus and deep fossa on the entepicondylar prominence. It may represent an extinct species. However, of the five known fossil species that have been described from North America, all are either larger and more robust than P. auritus or are not represented by the...