Climate Change Response Act

Martes Species A

Dog Metaconid

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room DMNH 33949 fragmentary R jaw with alveoli pl-4 G 0, 5, 6, 7, L30 34570 R Ml G 0, 5, 6, 7, L 30 . Mark's Sink 34569 fragmentary R maxilla with P4 8 96 36681 L jaw with alveoli c-ml L19, 7 97 39563 fragmentary L Ml 124, 7 97 40243 R c 8 96 40244 R C 8 96 40266 R c L22, 7 97 . Ferret Room DMNH 2277l skull fragments. Generator Dome DMNH L c Ll . Gypsum Room CM 48439 L ml. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Two diagnostic teeth, P4 and Ml, of a true marten subgenus Martes were...

Geology of the Porcupine Cave Area

Location Porcupine Cave Colorado

The Manitou Dolomite accumulated on a broad, stable, westward-facing cratonic shelf bathed in shallow, well-oxygenated marine waters teeming with life Foster, 1972 Gerhard, 1972 Stewart and Poole, 1974 . After deposition as fossiliferous limestone, the strata were largely transformed into dolomite in the Porcupine Cave area, a process of recrystallization that obliterated much of the Ordovician fossil record. At the cave site, the Manitou Dolomite is a 55-m-thick, well-bedded, gray, resistant...

Class Mammalia Order Rodentia Family Muridae

GENERAL COMMENTS Zakrzewski (1993) provided an overall summary of the fossil record of the wood rats and discussed their dental characters. The terminology he used is not the same as that used herein, although in many cases it refers to the same features. There is no generally accepted terminology for the features that are called by different names in his report and in this chapter. Both reports include illustrations that define the terms. Zakrzewski's intent was to cover all known species of...

Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp Mni Nisp

1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 Neotoma cinerea (bushy-tailed wood rat) Neotoma floridana (eastern wood rat) Neotoma micropus (southern plains wood rat) Neotoma stephensi (Stephens' wood rat) t Mimomys virginianus (Virginia mimomys) Phenacomys sp. (teeth nondiagnostic) (vole) * Lemmiscus (four triangles) (sagebrush vole) Lemmiscus sp. (cannot identify to species) t Mictomys kansasensis meltoni (extinct bog lemming) t Mictomys sp. (probably extinct bog lemming) Spilogale putorius (spotted skunk) 1 1 Spilogale...

American Indian History

American Indians were the first human inhabitants of South Park. The Utes were entrenched in central Colorado when the Spaniards first entered the North American interior in the fifteenth century Simmons, 1966 . Initially they were apparently loosely organized into family groups, but after the acquisition of horses from the Spanish they organized into larger bands Swift, 1980 . Because of the abundant game animals and salt deposits in the basin, Comanches, Kiowas, Cheyennes, and Arapahos also...

Fossils in Porcupine Cave

Don and Jerry Rasmussen took the fossils collected in 1981 to the University of Kansas the following year for comparison with the mammal collections there. With the help of Larry Martin and Robert (Bob) Hoffmann, professors of vertebrate paleontology and mammalogy, respectively, most of the mammals were tentatively identified. In 1984 Don gave the fossils to Peter Robinson, curator of vertebrate fossils at the University of Colorado Museum of Natural History, for study and possible curation. In...

Climatic Correlations

In the Pit, the contacts between glacial and interglacial strati-graphic levels are abrupt, with dramatically differing sediments on each side of the contact. Within each climatic interval, the sedimentary transitions across stratigraphic levels are much more subtle, or, in the case of arbitrary levels, lacking entirely (Barnosky and Rasmussen, 1988 Bell and Bar-nosky, 2000). This pattern suggests episodic deposition, with periods of nondeposition (unconformities or disconformities between...

Subgenus Callospermophilus Merriam

SPERMOPHILUS LATERALIS (SAY, 1823) FIGURE 17.1E REFERRED MATERIAL See appendix 17.1. NISP 327, MNI 66. IDENTIFICATION AND DISCUSSION The third most abundant sciurid in the composite Porcupine Cave assemblage represents the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Sper-mophilus lateralis). Numerous features support this assignment oval infraorbital foramen with vertical lateral wall small P3 relative to P4 swept-back coronoid process of dentary gradual drop in dorsal surface of dentary anterior to the p4...

Genus Cynomys

Prairie dogs (Cynomys) are large, derived ground squirrels endemic to North America throughout their history (Goodwin, 1995b). Morphological evidence suggests a close relationship with derived ground squirrels (subgenus Spermophilus Bryant, 1945 Goodwin, 1995b) some late Blancan-early Irvingtonian taxa are morphologically intermediate between these taxa, complicating taxonomic assignment (e.g., S. cragini Goodwin and Hayes, 1994). Two subgenera and five extant species currently are recognized...

Subgenus Leucocrossuromys Hollister

LEUCURUS MERRIAM, 1890 FIGURE 17.1H REFERRED MATERIAL See appendix 17.1. NISP 427, MNI 83. IDENTIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION Several Porcupine Cave sites (Pit, VR-DMNH, VR-CM, MS, and WH) include fossils of undoubted prairie dogs (Cynomys). Characters supporting this assignment include great hypsodonty (for sciurids), large size, the presence of an accessory lophule along the buc-codistal margin of the protoloph on M3, a complete protolophid on p4, a complete metalophid on m3...

The Fossil Records of the Pit Locality

The Pit locality (UCMP V93173, CM 1925) is well sampled, with 1650 Neotoma specimens examined (appendix 18.1). Interesting variation in the numbers and species of wood rat specimens occurs through the different stratigraphic levels, and those differences do not seem to arise from collection biases (see chapter 2, Barnosky and Rasmussen 1988 , and Wood and Barnosky 1994 for information on excavation and processing procedures). The number of specimens per level varies greatly, from a maximum of...

Known Geographic And Temporal Distribution

Ophiomys parvus fossils are widely distributed across the western United States. The only reported Irvingtonian record of O. parvus is from the Froman Ferry fauna in Idaho (Repenning et al., 1995), where it extended into earliest Irvingtonian sediments (as defined by Repenning et al., 1995, by the first appearance of Phenacomys in the section). The species is known from the Grand View and related faunas along Jackass Butte in Idaho (Wilson, 1933 Hibbard and Zakrzewski, 1967 Repenning, in...

Louis H Taylor

Porcupine Cave, arguably the richest source of information in the world on Irvingtonian-age vertebrates, sits in the Colorado Rocky Mountains at 2900 m (latitude 38 43'45 N, longitude 105 51'41 W, USGS Gribbles Park 7.5' Quad) (figures 2.1, 2.2). Situated on the southwest rim of the highest large intermountain basin in North America, known as South Park, the cave is a three-tiered chamber comprising at least 600 m of passageways (figures 2.3-2.7). South Park itself lies nearly in the center of...

Ranching in South Park

The first ranches in South Park were established soon after the first gold mining strikes in the 1850s. Fairplay became as much a ranching center as a mining center. The excellent grazing land in South Park is one of the primary reasons that cattle ranching became the most stable industry in the area. Hay grown in this area has been shipped as far away as Kentucky and even to England as feed for racehorses. The right of landowners having no access to streams to appropriate and divert water to...

Bone Accumulation in Caves

Snowy Owl Skeleton

Bones are deposited at sites such as Porcupine Cave by four major processes Andrews, 1990 1. Animals die in the cave, particularly during hibernation, denning, or both. 2. Animals fall into the cave through a sinkhole at the surface. 3. Animals are taken into the cave by predators. 4. Bones are transported into the cave by wood rats Neotoma after having passed through the digestive tracts of carnivores or raptors or having become disarticulated from carcasses decomposing outside the cave...

Anthony D Barnosky

Earth's climate is getting warmer, and it will probably continue to do so over the coming century. The emerging consensus is that human activities are stimulating an increase in global mean temperature that will amount to 1.4-5.8 C by the year 2100 (Houghton et al., 2001), with 90 probability that the change will amount to 1.7-4.9 C in the absence of climate mitigation policies (Wigley and Raper, 2001). Regionally, the changes will be even greater. Average warming for the United States is...

Biostratigraphic Zones

Biostratigraphic changes within the stratified Pit sequence may prove useful for correlation of deposits within Porcupine Cave. Two zones based on first or last known stratigraphic appearance data are recognized (figures 7.1-7.3). These zones FIGURE 7.1 Stratigraphic ranges of Amphibia, Reptilia, ochotonids, leporids, sciurids, and geomyids at the Pit. These ranges and those in figures 7.2 and 7.3 are used to define the biostratigraphic zones noted at the top and explained in the text. Levels...

Discussion

With 23 species and 918 specimens, Porcupine Cave contains the richest Irvingtonian carnivore assemblage known. Today in South Park, 11 species of carnivores inhabit the area 3 others (Canis lupus, Ursus arctos, and Mustela nigripes) have been extirpated within historic times. Remains of Spilogale putorius and Vulpes velox are common in the cave, but these species have not been reported from South Park or Park County. The 12 areas in the cave where carnivores have been found were not all open...

Taphonomy and Interpretation of Packrat Sign

Wood rats collect and accumulate at their dens great quantities of sticks, bones, owl pellets, carnivore scats, and almost anything they can carry. In caves and rock shelters these are protected for hundreds or thousands of years. Neotoma can thus be a valuable taphonomic agent for preservation of cave deposits and their bone remains. Donald L. Rasmussen recognized the richness and nature of the fossil deposits at Porcupine Cave and the unique taphon-omy that depended so much on wood rats...

The Pit as a Key Reference Section

The least complicated and possibly the temporally longest stratified sequence known in the cave is the CM UCMP Pit excavation. It was excavated in 14 stratigraphic levels defined either by sedimentological breaks or as being less than 10 cm thick, whichever was thinner. Figure 23.1 illustrates the deposits and provides a schematic of the section. As detailed in Bell and Barnosky (2000), the sedimentological evidence suggests that at least three cool-warm cycles (probably glacial-interglacial...

Accumulation of Bones

At least three vectors of bone accumulation seemed to have been active when the cave was open in the early and middle Pleistocene. The most important of these was probably the propensity of wood rats (Neotoma spp.) to collect random items to incorporate into their middens (Betancourt et al., 1990). Collected items include carnivoran fecal pellets and raptor regurgitation pellets, which are frequently laden with the bones of small vertebrates (especially mammals) that the predators ate. Wood...

Subfamily Sciurinae

Sciurus Fossils

TAMIASCIURUS HUDSONICUS (ERXLEBEN, 1777) FIGURE 17.1A,B REFERRED MATERIAL Pit level 1-R M1-2 (CM 66103) level 2-L M1-2 (UCMP 175231) L M3 (CM 66506) 2 R m1-2 (UCMP 180964-180965) level 3-L M1-2 (UCMP 180968) L, R m1-2 (UCMP 180966-180967) level 4-L, R P4 (UCMP 180973-180974) R M1-2 (UCMP 180975) L, R m1-2 (UCMP 180969-180970) L, R m3 (UCMP 180971-180972) level 5-L, R M1-2 (UCMP 180977-180978) L m1-2 (UCMP 180976) level 6-R M1-2 (UCMP 180980) R m1-2 (UCMP 180979) level 7-L m1-2 (UCMP 180981) L,...

Implications for Ecological Interpretations

Realistic Alligator Coloring Pages

The collection vectors described earlier mean that the sample of Pleistocene bones represents animals that lived mostly within a 5- to 18-km radius of Porcupine Cave. Wood rats generally collect within 50 m of their nest raptors usually collect their prey within about 5 km of the sites where they regurgitate most of their pellets and mammalian carnivores such as coyotes and badgers typically hunt within 5 km of their dens (Hadly, 1999). Porder et al. (2003) found that in Yellowstone Park, the...

Ambystomatidae

DIAGNOSIS A single salamander vertebra (DMNH 44765) was recovered from the cave. The specimen is amphicoelous, with the centrum and most of the neural arch preserved. The diapophyses and parapophyses are broken distally, but there is some indication that they supported bicipital ribs. On the ventral side of the vertebra a single spinal nerve foramen pierces each side of the centrum immediately posterior to the transverse processes where they meet the centrum. Single intravertebral spinal nerve...

Conclusions

The wood rats of the Pit fauna of Porcupine Cave (2900 m elevation) include three species (Neotoma mexicana, N. micropus, N. floridana) that now live in the vicinity of Pueblo, Colorado (1420 m elevation) and in southeastern Colorado in the western part of the Great Plains. A fourth (N. stephensi) now lives farther southwest than Colorado, and a fifth (N. cinerea) is characteristic of elevations above 1800 m in the Rocky Mountain region. The wood rats of the DMNH Velvet Room excavation have not...

History of the Ownership of the Porcupine Cave Property

Park County records reveal that Jacob G. Decker of Denver applied for the first claim to the property surrounding the cave on 13 May 1922, to use it for cattle ranching under the Homestead Act of 1909. This claim was first contested in 1925 by Lawrence E. Frees of Buena Vista, Colorado, then by Walter A. Filmer, who applied for a claim to the land on 23 October 1928 and patented said claim on 7 February 1931. In March 1931 he sold the land to cattle rancher Frank M. Fehling while keeping...

Aztlanolagus

REFERRED SPECIMENS DMNH 39054, 39057, 39061, 39066, 39067, 39071, 39072, 39075 , 39078, 39093, 39100, 39104, 39108, 39113, 39114, 39120, 39124, 39129, 39133, 39134, 39136, 39149, 39154, 39169, 39173, 39182, 3918639191, 39195, 39197, 39306, 39307, 39309, 39313, 39319, 39320, 39323, 39327, 39329, 39331, 39334, 39335, 39347, 39348, 39350, 39353, 39356, 39359, 39361, 39363-39366. COMMENTS This genus is represented by remains that are significantly larger than those of the single described species,...

Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae

The leporids from the Pit were identified by A. D. Barnosky. It was not possible to confidently identify leporine specimens to the level of species, or in most cases even genus, on the basis of qualitative traits of isolated teeth. The only moderately diagnostic tooth is the p3, but even that tooth is subject to wide variation within species and exhibits broad overlap in morphology between Lepus and Sylvilagus. In view of the potential for error in ascribing too great a level of taxonomic...

Aztlanolagus Sp

REFERRED MATERIAL CM 63679 UCMP 164256, 164257, 164260, 164355, 164356, 164379, 164389, 164390, 164416164420, 164451, 164452, 164461-164464, 164490, 164491, 164498, 164499, 164520, 164539, 164540, 164544, 164545, 164555-164567, 164584, 164585, 164596, 164597, 164599, 164602. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Assignment to Aztlano-lagus required a p3 characterized by a deep anterior internal reentrant, anterior external reentrant, posterior internal reentrant, and posterior external reentrant, as well as...

Porcupine Cave Interior

The record of cave formation inside Porcupine Cave mirrors some of the complexity deduced from the regional geological history. Based on cross-cutting relationships, the earliest features in the cave are elongated veins and fissure fills of strongly altered dolomite with intense limonitic weathering. These features probably derive from the Paleozoic karst surface that developed on the Manitou Dolomite during subaerial exposure prior to accumulation of the Harding Quartzite. Analysis of the...

Ecological Attributes of Neotoma Species

Six species of Neotoma are extant in Colorado N. cinerea, N. mexicana, N. floridana, N. albigula, N. micropus, and N. le-pida Finley, 1958 . They live in different parts of the state such that rarely more than three species are sympatric. The most widespread is N. cinerea, which lives throughout the higher mountains. N. mexicana is found in the foothill zone on both the east and west slopes and occurs only about 700 m lower in elevation than Porcupine Cave. N. floridana lives on the Great...

Various Businesses

Breweries found thirsty clients in the miners South Park Lager Beer was brewed in Fairplay starting in 1866 (Simmons, 1966). Dairy farming near Jefferson was so successful in the 1890s that a cheese factory was located there (Simmons, 1966). Rancher Samuel Hartsel was also a successful entrepreneur, building a sawmill, trading post, wagon shop, and blacksmith shop he also developed the hot springs and built a hotel across the river at Hartsel (Simmons, 1966). Although sightseeing expeditions...

Acknowledgments

Excavating, analyzing, and publishing the Porcupine Cave data has been an arduous task that has taken nearly 20 years and involved more than 30 scientists, more than 100 field hands, and the cooperation of the three major museums where specimens reside the Carnegie Museum of Natural History CM , the Denver Museum of Nature and Science DMNH , and the University of California Museum of Paleontology UCMP . Thanks are due to all who lent a hand, and especially to the following individuals and...

Description of Localities

Most of the material described in this book was recovered from seven localities the Badger Room, Fissure Fill A, the Gypsum Room, the Pit, and three spatially distinct excavations in the Velvet Room (Mark's Sink, DMNH 644, CM 1927 UCMP V93175). Of these, the most closely studied have been the Pit and DMNH 644, because those localities contained stratified sequences composed of multiple stacked layers and yielded thousands of specimens. The Pit locality provides the main basis for interpreting...

Vegetation in the Vicinity of Porcupine Cave

The southern portion of South Park is a rolling landscape of forested hills and grassland slopes with small streams or marshes in the valley bottoms (figure 3.14). The area around Porcupine Cave is undulating, with ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, and aspen forests on the tops and north-facing slopes of hills. Some of this forest area has clearly developed only during the twentieth century, owing to fire suppression. Thus the forested areas of today are probably larger than those that existed prior...

Spanish Expeditions

Although Coronado and his party may have visited eastern Fremont County during his expeditions into the high plains of eastern Colorado in the 1540s (Chamblin, 1978) and members of the Dominguez Escalante expedition of 1776 may have viewed South Park from the southwest rim (Nutt, 1983), it was Juan Bautista de Anza who actually crossed through South Park in 1779 (Scott, 1975). Thomas (1932) translated Bautista de Anza's journals, which tell of his travels in South Park. Having been appointed...

Gold And Silver Prospecting And Mining

Most of the gold found in South Park came from mineral veins and lodes high in the adjacent mountains and in the thick gravels in the stream valleys. Pleistocene glaciers eroded these mountain deposits, and the streams carried the gold far into the valley, where flakes and nuggets would later attract the attention of prospectors. Gold was reported from South Park as early as 1806, when James Purcell (called Pursley by Pike) told Zebulon Pike of his findings (Simmons, 1966), and nuggets were...

Discovery and Early Exploration

Porcupine Cave (figure 4.3 see also figure 2.3) is located on Kaufman Ridge, which extends southeast from Trout Creek Pass. It is thought that prospectors first noticed iron oxides on the surface of the hill where the cave is located. Because iron oxides were sometimes surface indicators of gold and silver deposits, they began their diggings, which led to the discovery of the cave. Following an iron-rich fissure into the hill, they shored up their diggings through the loose rubble, and, after...

Mapping and Use by Cavers

By the mid-1940s members of local grottos (regional clubs of cavers within the National Speleological Society) were exploring Porcupine Cave (Bloch, 1946). Since then, cavers from the Colorado Grotto, as well as the Front Range Grotto (Denver) and the Southern Colorado Mountain Grotto (Colorado Springs), have used the cave as a beginner's cave because it is a fairly simple cave to explore, especially after ladders were installed in the more difficult vertical places. Halliday (1952) reported...

Recent Excavations

Donald L. (Don) Rasmussen, a geologist, paleontologist, and caver, and his son Dalton (Larry) went into the cave in 1981 in hopes of exploring new parts of the cave and digging out blocked passageways that they had seen in photographs taken by Kirk Branson a few weeks before. It was during this trip that Larry first noticed bones and teeth in the debris being excavated along the wall in the Pit area of the cave. Although the bones and teeth appeared to be from recent animals, Don recognized a...

The Tale of the Velvet Tobacco

The Velvet Tobacco tin found in 1986 in the Velvet Room of Porcupine Cave contained a 47-year-old note in a bottle. The tin had been thrown into the cave in 1939 by two cowboys who were working for Frank Fehling at the time it was carried from there to the midden by wood rats. The cowboys, Lloyd (Monk) Marshall and Elvis (Happy Jack) Conner, were on their way to a rancher's private rodeo when they passed by the entrance to the cave. On a whim, Marshall wrote a note on a piece of paper that he...

Geological Setting of DMNH

The sampled strata are from a small alluvial cone (DMNH 644) located on the west side of the Velvet Room in Porcupine Cave (figure 6.1). Systematic excavation identified a succession of well- to weakly bedded gravelly to silty unconsolidated strata approximately 3 m thick. The bedding is best developed within the upper meter of the succession, which is also the most fossiliferous. DMNH 644, known as the DMNH Velvet Room excavation (and also as the Velvet Room Main Dig), was excavated between...

Characteristic Remanences

All samples showed evidence of normal polarity overprinting. Some of this magnetization was viscous and weak, and it was easily removed in the earliest phases of AF demagnetization. However, some samples showed strong vectors indicating normal polarity (figure 6.3A). These vectors plotted directly upon the modern inclination and declination for Porcupine Cave for most of their demagnetization trajectory. Such samples FIGURE 6.2 Stratigraphy and paleo-magnetic sampling in DMNH 644. The samples...

Christopher J Bell

Establishing chronologic control in early and middle Pleistocene deposits is difficult, all the more so in cave deposits. In the absence of a lucky infusion of datable volcanic ash (which Porcupine Cave so far seems to lack), dating methods typically are restricted to magnetostratigraphic associations, biostratigraphic and biochronologic correlations, amino acid racemi-zation, electron spin resonance, and uranium series dating. The latter two techniques have not been applied to samples from...

Biochronology

Figures 7.1-7.3 show stratigraphic ranges of Pit taxa. Arvico-line rodents currently provide the most feasible link from biostratigraphic to biochronologic time scales (Repenning, 1987 Fejfar and Repenning, 1992 Bell, 2000 Bell et al., in press). At least 10 species of arvicolines range through the Pit (figure 7.2). Biochronologically informative species fall into two groups. One group, including Phenacomys gryci, Mimomys vir-ginianus, and AHophaiomys pliocaenicus, is known elsewhere, primarily...

Robert B Finley Jr

Wood rats, genus Neotoma, also widely known to speleologists as packrats, are commonly found in caves within their range, but they are primarily adapted for life outside caves. They are terrestrial rodents of the family Muridae, subfamily Sigmo-dontinae. The center of abundance and diversity of Neotoma is in the arid southwestern United States and Mexico. Since the diet of Neotoma consists mainly of foliage and fruits, they must forage outside caves for food, much of which is carried inside for...

Definitions

The literature on wood rat dens and middens is often sketchy and ambiguous. For example, words used by hunters, naturalists, and cavers to describe the sign at a den or cave en- FIGURE 8.1 Bushy-tailed wood rat, Neotoma cinerea, the species of wood rat living in Porcupine Cave today. FIGURE 8.1 Bushy-tailed wood rat, Neotoma cinerea, the species of wood rat living in Porcupine Cave today. trance have different meanings to different people. I defined my use of such terms, as widely understood by...

Paleopathology and Taphonomic Modification of Mammalian Bones from Porcupine Cave

ELAINE ANDERSON deceased Denver Museum of Nature and Science Disease is as old as life, for disease is a part of life, life in changing conditions. The story of Porcupine Cave would be incomplete without an understanding of health, disease, trauma, and the calamities that befell the animals whose remains were fossilized, as well as the conditions that led to the accumulation of the many bones in the cave. Paleopathology was first defined in Funk and Wagnall's Standard Dictionary in 1895 and was...

Discussion and Conclusions

Taphonomic features of Porcupine Cave bones include those characteristic of predation and wood rat accumulations of raptor pellets and carnivore scat, including acid etching and digestion of some specimens (figures 9.4, 9.5, 9.6), broken parts of bones, and abundance of small mammal taxa. There is also postmortem modification from breakage, gnawing, weathering, and excavation (DMNH 42147, figure 9.11). From a paleopathology standpoint, the disease, trauma, and calamity evident from the fossils...

Species Lists

Tables 10.1-10.13 list the species that are documented in this book from each of the Porcupine Cave localities. NISP is derived by counting each specimen that was identified as belonging to a particular taxon. MNI, in contrast, attempts to recognize the minimum number of individuals that would account for all of the specimens assigned to a given taxon. NISP overestimates the actual number of individuals, whereas MNI typically underestimates the actual number of individuals (Lyman, 1994). Which...

Methodological Approach

There are difficulties, often unacknowledged, in seeking fine-scale taxonomic resolution of isolated skeletal elements of amphibians and reptiles. Our identifications are based on the reliable diagnostic features of the fossil material available. Whenever possible we minimized the use of geographic parsimony to refine our identifications, in part because of the antiquity of the material and our uncertainty regarding the distribution (or taxonomic evolution) of amphibian and reptile lineages in...

Phrynosomatidae

DIAGNOSIS We refer two specimens to the genus Phryno-soma. The fossil maxilla DMNH 44766 figure 11.2 shows an anteroposteriorly restricted, triangular ascending process that terminates in a sharp dorsal tip this morphology is a synapo-morphy of Phrynosoma and is not known for any other lizards native to North America. The dentary DMNH 44767 is referred to Phrynosoma based on the distinctive, pronounced mediolateral curvature with a flattened ventral portion at the posterior end this morphology...

Discussion Regional Comparisons

Previous studies of late Pleistocene North American herpeto-faunas appear to indicate both taxonomic and geographic stability of reptile and amphibian taxa throughout the Rancho-labrean mammal age and into the Holocene (Fay, 1984, 1988 Brewer, 1985 Holman, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1999). The question FIGURE 11.6. UCMP 399993 precloacal vertebra referred to non-Natricine Colubridae shown in anterior (top), left lateral (middle), and ventral (bottom) views. Scale bar 4 mm. FIGURE 11.6. UCMP 399993...

Comparison with Local Modern Fauna

To our knowledge, intensive surveys of the extant herpeto-fauna in the immediate vicinity of Porcupine Cave have not been conducted. Limited efforts to document extant herpeto- faunal diversity in the immediate vicinity of the cave were conducted by Robert Finley Jr. and resulted in multiple observations of the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum including 10 vouchered specimens and the garter snake Thamnophis elegans including four vouchered specimens within a few miles of the cave all...

Paleoenvironmental Significance

Given the fact that so few species seem to inhabit the region surrounding Porcupine Cave today, the relatively low abundance of amphibian and reptile remains at the site is not unexpected. Most of the specimens recovered thus far are from test pit excavations, surface samples, and unstratified or mixed deposits. Consequently, the majority of the reptile and amphibian records from the cave simply confirm the presence of these taxa in South Park (an intermontane basin in the southern Rocky...

Materials and Methods

All fossil specimens were identified using comparative osteo-logical collections at the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., and the Florida Museum of Natural History (FLMNH), Gainesville. Terminology follows that of Howard (1929), and systematic presentation and taxonomy follow that of the American Ornithologists' Union (1998, 2000). Common names of most species mentioned below are noted in tables 10.1-10.13 and 12.1. Common names of birds not appearing in those tables are noted...

Order Galliformes Family Phasianidae

CENTROCERCUS UROPHASIANUS BONAPARTE, 1827 REFERRED MATERIAL Two premaxilla, DMNH 30204 and CM 73359 three distal mandibular symphyses, DMNH 8830, 8924, and 35383 two humeral ends of right coracoid, DMNH 30205 and 3 5743 humeral end of left coracoid, DMNH 30079 proximal right scapula, DMNH 30205 fragment of furculum, DMNH 30205 distal left humerus, DMNH 35385 two right carpometacarpi missing ends, DMNH 30205 two distal left tibiotarsi, DMNH 9849 and 30205 right and left tarso-metatarsi with...

Order Charadriiformes Family Scolopacidae

NUMENIUS MADAGASCARIENSIS LINNAEUS, 1766 OR N. ARQUATA LINNAEUS, 1758 REFERRED MATERIAL Distal half of right tarsometatarsus, DMNH 35864 fig. 12.1B . provenance Location 1349, Velvet Room, Mark's Sink, level 19. DESCRIPTION DMNH 35864 is much larger and more robust than tarsometatarsi of male Numenius americanus, N. borealis, N. minutus, N. tahitiensis, and N. phaeopus it is most similar in size and characters to N. madagascariensis and N. arquata. These species are both large curlews whose...

Gymnorhinus Cyanocephalus

REFERRED MATERIAL Proximal half of left mandible, DMNH 35392. provenance Location 644, Velvet Room, grid 11, level 4 (B). DESCRIPTION This specimen compares well in size and characters to the living species. It was also compared to Cyanocitta stelleri, Aphelocoma californica, Nucifraga columbiana, and Perisoreus canadensis. All these genera are distinct, especially in their relative size and the morphology of the post-articular and articular processes of the mandible. DMNH 35392 most closely...

The Carnivora from Porcupine Cave

ELAINE ANDERSON (deceased) Denver Museum of Nature and Science Anderson (1996) reported 22 species and 144 specimens of carnivores from nine areas in Porcupine Cave. Since then, Ursus americanus has been added to the faunal list, 774 specimens of carnivores have been identified, and three new areas (Mark's Sink, Will's Hole, and Generator Dome) have been excavated. These new sites are rich in carnivores, with 376 specimens identified so far. Remains of Taxidea taxus, Canis latrans, and...

Mustela Species A

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room DMNH 18152 L maxilla with P4, associated R maxilla (G8 8A, L mixed). Mark's Sink DMNH 41403 R jaw with p4-m1 (L27, 7 97) 41405 L jaw with p4-m1 (8 96) 41406 R jaw with m1 (8 96) 41407 R jaw with p3, m1 (L20, 7 97) 41408 L jaw with p4-m1 (L20, 7 97). Will's Hole DMNH 41404 R P4 41409 L maxilla with P4-M1. Badger Room DMNH 10951 R m1. Generator Dome DMNH 27038 L jaw with p3-m2 (L1). Pit CM 48427 fragmentary R maxilla with P3-M1 (surface) 48446 fragmentary L jaw with...

Indeterminate Otter

REFERRED MATERIAL Badger Room DMNH 18151 R P3. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS No additional specimens have been found of this large, unknown lutrine. REFERRED MATERIAL See appendix 13.1. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS To date, remains of badgers outnumber those of all other carnivores in Porcupine Cave, with at least 213 specimens identified. Badger bones are most common in the appropriately named Badger Room 122 specimens and in Generator Dome 37 specimens from the test trench . Both of these areas are...

Family Canidae

REFERRED MATERIAL See appendix 13.1. description and comments The coyote Canis latrans is the most common canid and the second most abundant carnivore in Porcupine Cave. At least 180 specimens have been identified from eight areas in the cave, with most of the remains coming from the Badger Room, Mark's Sink, Generator Dome, and Fissure Fill A. All age classes are represented. Two fragmentary maxillae with deciduous dentitions DMNH 36589 and 36590 , representing different age classes as shown...

Family Ursidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Generator Dome DMNH 41411 LI1 (L1). Undifferentiated UCMP 155908 MT III. Most Common Species (MNI) of Carnivores in Five Areas of Porcupine Cave Taxidea taxus (122) Canis latrans (73) S. putorius (45) C. edwardii (14) Spilogaleputorius (85) C. latrans (40) M. frenata (39) Vulpes vulpes (29) Mustela frenata (33) Mustela erminea (27) S. putorius (10) V. velox(9) T. taxus (37) C. latrans (26) C. edwardii (9) S. putorius (8) T. taxus (16) S. putorius (13) M. frenata (13) V. velox...

Family Felidae

REFERRED MATERIAL Velvet Room UCMP 140509 L P3 (G5-6, L 1). Mark's Sink DMNH 33909 R C (8 96) 37163 L C unerupted (L 26, 7 97). Will's Hole DMNH 40215 R c. Badger Room DMNH 13924 L C 41033 R m1 CM 49133 R C 49138 L c. Generator Dome DMNH 27044 L c (L 2). Crystal Room DMNH 36667 R c CM 49158 R C 49159 middle phalanx. Cramped Quarters CM 49154 fragmentary R jaw with canine, p3-4. Undifferentiated CM 49125 L P4. DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS Felids are rare in Porcupine Cave. Except for CM 49154 from...

Sandra L Swift

Alaska Irvingtonian

The lagomorph family Ochotonidae, represented today by a single living genus Ochotona pika , originated in the middle Oligocene of Asia. During the late Miocene and into the Pliocene, the family flourished throughout Eurasia and migrated into North America. Beginning in the late Pliocene and throughout the Pleistocene, the group has declined, survived only by the genus Ochotona Erbajeva, 1988, 1994, 1996 Er-bajeva and Tyutkova, 1997 . Today more than 23 species of Ochotona live in Asia, and...

Class Mammalia Order Lagomorpha Family Ochotonidae

Specimens of Ochotona were recovered from six sites in Porcupine Cave appendix 14.1 Badger Room, Generator Dome, North American fossil Ochotona of Pliocene Latest Hemphillian and Blancan and Early Pleistocene Irvingtonian Age C. J. Bell and J. I. Mead field notes Guilday 1979 Mead and Grady 1996 Guilday 1979 Pfaff 1990, 1991 Mead and Grady 1996 note Rancholabrean-age localities are numerous, and descriptions of them can be found in Mead 1987 and Mead and Spaulding 1995 . The small morph may...

Ochotona Sp Near Trout Cave Form

DESCRIPTION AND COMMENTS The Lp3 from the Pit G1 L3 is from a small pika with a curved lingual side (versus the typical straight walls figure 14.2B). The anteroconid and pos-teroconid are widely confluent. The anteroconid is rounded (as has been observed in some O. collaris). The anterointernal fold is short, shallow, and without cement. The anteroexternal fold is slightly deeper than the former and is filled with cement (figure 14.2B). The posteroconid is moderately long with a slightly...

Colleen N Baxter

This chapter establishes the presence of certain leporid taxa in the DMNH Velvet Room excavations and in Mark's Sink, which here collectively are called the DMNH Velvet Room sites. As noted in chapter 2, the taphonomy of Porcupine Cave is complex. Some rooms were carnivore dens, and in others, such as the Velvet Room, wood rats (Neotoma spp.) seem to have been the principal agent for accumulation. These animals built their nests within the room, scavenging outside for bones, twigs, and other...

Class Mammalia Order Lagomorpha Family Leporidae

DESCRIPTION The defining character of this genus is the p3, which has a posterior external reentrant (PER figure 15.1) extending no more than halfway across the tooth, a very shallow anterior external reentrant (AER), and usually no other reentrants. Species in this genus show a wide range of size, from that of a small cottontail to that of a large hare. The degree of cursoriality ranges from less cursorial than Sylvilagus to typical jackrabbit ecomorph (Dawson, 1958 Campbell, 1969 White,...

Anthony D Barnosky And Samantha S B Hopkins

That possibility was based on one isolated m3 UCMP 158080 from level 7. This tooth, although superficially similar to Dipodomys lower third molars, is substantially larger length 1.4 mm, posterior width 1.3 mm, anterior width 0.9 mm than in D. ordii or D. microps. It compares favorably with Geomys bursarius in overall morphology, but it is slightly smaller and has enamel all the way around the occlusal surface, whereas G. bursarius has dentine tracts. A p4 UCMP 158081 from the same...

Thomas Goodwin

Squirrels (Rodentia, Sciuridae) are diverse taxonomically and ecologically in the extant North American fauna (Hall, 1981). On a broad scale, the roots of sciurid diversity extend deeply in time, with fossils known as far back as the early Oligocene (e.g., Sutton and Black, 1975 Emry and Thorington, 1984), but adaptive radiation leading to modern species and species groups was probably concentrated in the late Neogene. Details of this radiation remain sketchy. It is tempting to seek causation...

Subgenus Uncertain

MEADENSIS (HIBBARD, 1941A) FIGURE 17.1C REFERRED MATERIAL Generator Dome R maxilla with P4, M2 (DMNH 28335). IDENTIFICATION AND DISCUSSION Known from a single specimen, this ground squirrel dentition is distinguished from that of other Porcupine Cave sciurids by a combination of small size and incomplete metaloph on P4 and M2 (figure 17.1C). The specimen falls within size variation of extant thirteen-lined (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) and spotted (S. spilosoma)...

Subgenus Otospermophilus Brandt

FIGURE 17.1D REFERRED MATERIAL Pit level 10 R P4 (UCMP 180950) level 11-R M1-2 (UCMP 180951). IDENTIFICATION AND DISCUSSION Two specimens deep in the Pit sequence represent a relatively large, narrow-toothed ground squirrel with broad protocone and incomplete metaloph on upper cheek teeth (P4 illustrated figure 17.1D). This combination of features is characteristic of the subgenus Spermophilus (Otospermophilus) but may be primitive for the genus thus I refer...

Subgenus Spermophilus Cuvier

ELEGANS KENNICOTT, 1863 FIGURE 17.1F,G REFERRED MATERIAL See appendix 17.1. NISP 1953, MNI 400. SUPRASPECIFIC assignment By far the most abundant sciurid in the Porcupine Cave assemblage represents the morphologically derived ground squirrel subgenus, Spermo-philus (Spermophilus). Evidence supporting this assignment includes a triangular infraorbital foramen, relatively high-crowned cheek teeth, large P3 relative to P4, elongate M3 typically with metaloph, abrupt drop in...

Site Correlation and Biochronology

Variation in taxonomic composition, morphology, and relative frequency of sciurids was used to generate an age corre FIGURE 17.6 Preliminary age correlation hypothesis for Porcupine Cave sites based on the sciurid fauna. *, S. cf. S. elegans not measured t, S. lateralis not present (but samples were small) **, single specimen may represent C. cf. C. leucurus, suggesting a mixed age. FIGURE 17.6 Preliminary age correlation hypothesis for Porcupine Cave sites based on the sciurid fauna. *, S. cf....

Environmental Interpretation

The Pit sequence may document at least two glacial-interglacial cycles, with most study to date having focused on one putative glacial-interglacial couplet (levels 4-5 and 1-3, respectively) (Barnosky et al., 1996). Sedimentary and faunal variation is consistent with a model of wet glacial-dry interglacial environmental fluctuation for this upper couplet (Barnosky et al., 1996). Environmental conditions at other sites in Porcupine Cave have not been investigated adequately. Substantial...

Pleistocene Evolutionary History of Rocky Mountain Sciurids

C. leucurus coincides with the onset of presumed glacial environments (the species first appears in Pit level 5), and the virtual disappearance of C. andersoni coincides with the shift to an interglacial (the Pit level 4 3 transition, based on the model of Barnosky et al. 1996 ). Taxonomic turnover may be linked with local environmental history. The Porcupine Cave record indicates morphological modernization of m3 in C. cf. C. leucurus (taking C. gunnisoni as indicative...

Environmental Controls

The wood rat fauna from the Pit includes four of the five species of wood rats that now live in southeastern Colorado. Four of the five southeastern Colorado species live in the vicinity of Pueblo, about 120 km to the southeast of Porcupine Cave at an elevation of 1489 m, and extend eastward across the Great Plains. The fifth (Neotoma cinerea) is the species that makes up the majority of the Porcupine Cave sample and now lives in the cave area, as well as elsewhere in the mountains at...

Climate and Orogeny

The difference in wood rat species composition between the time represented through the Pit sequence and the present suggests major biogeographic changes in the Porcupine Cave area. Three causes seem possible orogenic elevation of the South Park area since the Pit fauna was deposited, causing the loss of a Great Plains-like habitat that once had been continuous with South Park climate change or a combination of the two. The climate change that would permit wood rats, now living on the Great...

Or m meadensis

IDENTIFI CATION Molars are rootless and have cementum in the reentrant angles. The m1 consists of a posterior loop followed by at least five (occasionally six) closed, alternating triangles triangle 2 is distinctly smaller than triangle 1. Triangles 6 and 7 (secondary wings of Repenning, 1992) are well developed. At least 12 Microtus species extant in North America have an m1 with five or six closed alternating triangles M. breweri, M. californicus, M. chrotorrhinus, M. longicaudus, M....

Arvicoline Biodiversity and Biogeography

With no fewer than 13 species, the overall diversity of arvicoline rodents within Porcupine Cave exceeds that of any other North American locality. Moreover, arvicoline diversity within discrete stratigraphic horizons in some localities within the cave (e.g., Pit, level 4, with at least nine species) presents a unique example not only of taxonomic diversity, but also of species associations. Perhaps most notable in this regard is the stratigraphic co-occurrence of AHophaiomys with at least...

Early Trails And Wagon Roads

Several natural passes, including Kenosha, Wilkerson, Trout Creek, and Hoosier, open through the mountains into South Park. Early trappers, traders, explorers, prospectors, and miners reached South Park on foot or horseback following old Indian trails through these passes (see map by Scott, 1975). Wagon roads were eventually built through the passes into South Park in the late 1850s and early 1860s, some of them as tollways. These roads opened up South Park to stage lines and freight companies....

Ku Co Ku Co Dmnh Cm Ucmp V Cm Dmnh Ucmp V

Biostratigraphically correlative with levels 4-8 in the Pit probably between 780 Ka and 1 Ma old. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian. Mixed. Contains specimens of potential Blancan age as well as Irvingtonian. At least as old as levels 4 and older in the Pit possibly older. Unknown. Probably Irvingtonian, possibly a Blancan component. Mixed. Contains fossils indicating...

Collection Protocols

The main Pit excavation (figure 2.3, site 17) was conducted by CM crews from 1985 through 1988. The excavation was approximately 2 x 2 m wide and 2 m deep. Horizontal control was maintained by laying out a grid composed of eight adjacent 0.90-m squares. Six of these squares were excavated and featured 14 stratigraphic levels defined by natural sedimento-logical breaks, or arbitrary 10-cm thicknesses, whichever was thinner. Stratigraphic levels were traced across excavation squares. Bones were...

Velvet Room CM Excavation Figure Site Locality Numbers

CM crews excavated five adjacent squares, each approximately 0.90 cm on a side and numbered 1-5, abutting the northernmost wall of the Velvet Room (see excavation map in Barnosky and Rasmussen, 1988). Also included was sediment extending from the east wall of the CM squares to beneath the east wall of the alcove in which the excavation was located (this material is labeled grid 3 4 extension). Seven stratigraphic levels discernible by natural stratigraphic breaks were removed in 1986 and 1987,...

Of Burros Bears and Dogs

Schedel Van Een Alleseter Vos

The tales of the burros Prunes and Shorty, the dog Bum, and Old Mose, a notorious grizzly and one of the last grizzlies in the park, are prominent in South Park folklore. According to Bair (1959), Prunes (1867-1930) was owned by Rupert Sherwood and packed so long for the gold mines in the Alma-Fairplay district that few could remember when he had started. Prospectors would send him down the mountain with a note tied to his saddle he would return with his packs filled with food and supplies for...

Trauma or Disease

NEOTOMA OR SPERMOPHILUS (WOOD RAT OR GROUND SQUIRREL) DMNH 41425 from DMNH Velvet Room excavation (G8 8A) (7 93) right innominate (figure 9.8). Measurements GL, 32.50 GB, 11.60 LSW, 4.95. This specimen, a right innominate, shows wear patterns consistent with bone from a regurgitated owl or raptor pellet. The ends are missing, but the bone is not highly corroded and the acetabulum morphology is distinct. This specimen shows acute osteomyelitis (an opportunistic staphylococcal...

Puncture Wounds

DMNH 30076 from the Badger Room (7 94) skull (figure 9.7). Measurements (values marked a are for alveoli only) GL, 186.0 POC, 37.50 GB, 90.0 HS, 55.35 CC, 28.65 L WP2, R L 12.60, W 3.90 W I3-I3, R 12.40a L WP3, L 12.65, R 12.65 L 4.80, R 4.75 W P4-P4, 53.50 LPC, R 6.30 FMB, 11.05 (ID) WP4PC, R 9.50 FMH, 12.50 (ID) WP4BL, R 2.35 POP, L 22.25, R 19.05 L WM1, L 13.10 R 13.10 L 14.90, R 14.55 WOC, 30.0 L WM2, L 7.80, R 7.80 L 10.90, R 10.90 HS, 55.35 PL, 93.45 (from R side) CL, L 10.25a, R 10.25a...

Civilian Conservation Corps

The Civilian Conservation Corps was established in 1933 to employ U.S. male citizens during the Great Depression. One of their camps, located near Trout Creek, was active for several years before closing in 1938 (Shaputis and Kelly, 1982 Simmons, 1990). In an attempt to prevent erosion in the area, the men built check dams and contoured terraces and planted willows along Badger Creek, Herring Creek, and Castle Rock Gulch thousands of acres were planted with pine trees. The baseball game between...

David J Cooper

South Park is one of the four large intermountain basins that characterize the Rocky Mountains of Colorado (figure 3.1). The basins, typically called parks, have relatively level to rolling floors and are surrounded by mountain ranges with peaks reaching over 4000 m elevation. The floors of all parks have arid climates with cool summers and very cold winters. Three characteristics of South Park distinguish it from Colorado's three other major intermountain basins, North Park, Middle Park, and...

Alpine Tundra

Alpine tundra occurs above treeline, at approximately 3450 m elevation, on all mountains bordering South Park. The flora and vegetation are highly variable because of the diversity of bedrock types in these mountains. Bedrock includes both granite, which forms acid soils, and limestone and dolomite, which form alkaline soils. Tundra plants are highly specific to substrate chemistry, with different plant species and distinctive plant communities occurring on acid and alkaline soils Bamberg and...

Oil And Gas Well Drilling

Drilling for oil and gas in South Park has spanned more than a hundred years, beginning in the early 1890s, when the first test well was drilled (Cullen, 1960). Oil Creek (Fourmile Creek on present-day maps), which the explorer Pike followed into South Park, had been named several years earlier from the oil seeps prevalent along its banks. Some of the companies active in South Park have included the McDannald Oil Company, headed by A. T. McDannald (who had acquired the Hartsel Ranch in 1946),...

Charles A Repenning

The evolution and paleobiogeography of wood rats (packrats), genus Neotoma, is poorly known, not because they are uncommon as fossils, but because their teeth all look alike. Living species are identified by features that are seldom preserved in fossils. Usually all that is mentioned of the teeth is the anterointernal reentrant (or groove, as it is most frequently called in the description of modern forms) of the M1, the alveolar length of the tooth row, and the nature of the m3. The great...

The Floor of South Park

The floor of South Park supports four principal natural environments 1. Grasslands on dry terraces, slopes, and hills with deep water tables. 2. Streams and their floodplains. 3. Wetlands fed by groundwater. The floor has been highly modified over the past hundred years by agricultural water diversion, flood irrigation, the clearing of riparian vegetation, and the replacement of indigenous bison with cattle. The last wild Colorado bison was killed in the northeastern portion of South Park early...

J Fmamj J Asond

FIGURE 3.7 Monthly maximum and minimum temperatures at the Antero Reservoir weather station. FIGURE 3.6 Mean number of days each month receiving more than 0.25, more than 1.25, and more than 2.54 cm of precipitation at the Antero Reservoir weather station. FIGURE 3.6 Mean number of days each month receiving more than 0.25, more than 1.25, and more than 2.54 cm of precipitation at the Antero Reservoir weather station. winter months, December, January, and February (figure 3.5). More than 20 of...

Biostratigraphy

As noted in chapter 2, this excavation included five strati-graphic levels, the sediments of which very closely resembled the distinctive loose, dry dust of levels 1-3 of the Pit. Paleo-magnetic samples taken from beneath the lowest level were interpreted as questionably normal by Fred Luiszer and V. A. FIGURE 7.4 Correlation of the Pit sequence with the CM and DMNH Velvet Room excavations. Correlation of the sections is based on the biostratigraphic zones defined in the Pit and the local...

Chronologic Significance

The chronologic significance of arvicoline rodents is well established. The known temporal ranges of arvicolines recovered from Porcupine Cave are summarized in table 19.1 and are based on localities outside Porcupine Cave. The biochronology and age interpretations of the stratified sequences from Porcupine Cave are discussed in chapter 7, but a few comments are in order here. One of the most interesting (and frustrating) arvicoline assemblages from the Cave is from the Mark's Sink locality...

Undifferentiated

DMNH 6563 L P4 G1, L6 6638 R jaw with ml G1, L8 6711 C G1, L9 6712 R humerus G1, L9 9934 L jaw with m1-2 G5, L5 10569 C G16, L16, G 10699 L femur G6, L5, B 10960 L jaw with m1 G8 8A, L3, B 10961 L jaw with m1 G8 8A, L1-6, A-B-C 10962 R jaw with m1 G7, L below 23, below H 10963 L innominate, L femur, L tibia G7, L 22, below H 12639 R femur G11-12, L mixed 13821 R c G16, L1, A 14047 L P4 G16, L3, B 15184 R tibia G8 8A, L mixed 22108 fragmentary R jaw with m1 G16, L17, H 22816 R C G8 8A, L2, A...

Trappers And Traders

Simmons (1966) reported on the fur trappers and traders who journeyed into South Park. James Purcell, a trader, and Ezekial Williams, a mountain man, were two of the earliest Americans of European descent to travel in the basin, arriving between 1800 and 1810. They were followed by Jim Beckwourth, Bill Williams, and one of South Park's more famous visitors, Kit Carson. Carson, along with a group led by Thomas Fitzpatrick, spent the winter of 1830 trapping in the mountains surrounding the basin....