Biobased Feedstocks

• Cellulose (Cellophane)

• Cellulose Derivatives (CA, CAB)

• Cellulose graft copolymers & blends

• Engineered wood products

Examples:

• Biofiber Composites

Examples:

Examples:

Examples:

Examples:

• Corn

• Pectin

• Soybean

• Zein

• Potato

• Chitin

• Lesquerella

• Soy protein

Products:

• Levan

• Rapeseed

• Industrial Starches

• Pullulan

Products: • Biodiesel

• Thermoplastic Starch

• Starch graft copolymers & reactive blends

• Polyols -urethanes

• Plasticizers / Process aids

• Starch

nanoparticles

FIGURE 1.6 Direct extraction of biomass to provide biopolymers for use in manufacture of biobased products.

Biobased Feedstocks
FIGURE 1.7 Conversion to biomonomers and other chemicals and polymers.

short-life, single-use, disposable packaging materials and consumer products can and should be engineered to retain inherent biodegradability properties, thereby offering an environmentally responsible disposal option for such products.

REFERENCES

1. Lieth, H. and Whittaker, H.R., Eds., Primary Productivity of the Biosphere, SpringerVerlag, Heidelberg, 1975.

2. Institute of Gas Technology, Symposium on Clean Fuels from Biomass and Wastes, Orlando, FL, 1977.

3. Szmant, H.H., Industrial Utilization of Renewable Resources, Technomic, Lancaster, PA, 1986.

4. Rowell, R.M., Schultz, T.P., and Narayan, R., Eds., Emerging technologies for materials and chemicals from biomass, in ACS Symp. Ser. 476, ACS, Washington, DC, 1991.

5. DOE, The technology roadmap for plant/crop-based renewable resources 2020, DOE/GO-10099-706, Feb. 1999; available on-line at www.oit.doe.gov/agriculture.

7. Chum, H.L. and Power, A.J., in ACS Symp. Ser. 476, ACS, Washington, DC, 1991, Vol. 976, p. 28.

8. Doane, W.M., Swanson, C.L., and Fanta, G.F., in ACS Symp. Ser. 476, ACS, Washington, DC, 1991, Vol. 97, p. 197.

9. Narayan, R., Environmentally degradable plastics, Kunststoffe, 79, 1022, 1989.

10. Narayan, R., Biomass (renewable) resources for production of materials, chemicals, and fuels: a paradigm shift, in ACS Symp. Ser. 476, ACS, Washington, DC, 1992, p . 1.

11. Narayan, R., Polymeric materials from agricultural feedstocks, in Polymers from Agricultural Coproducts, Fishman, M.L., Friedman, R.B., and Huang, S.J., Eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 575, ACS, Washington, DC, 1994, p. 2.

12. Narayan, R., Commercialization technology: a case study of starch-based biodegradable plastics, in Paradigm for Successful Utilization of Renewable Resources, Sessa, D.J. and Willett, J.L., Eds., AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, 1998, p. 78.

13. Narayan, R., Biodegradation of polymeric materials (anthropogenic macromolecules) during composting, in Science and Engineering of Composting: Design, Environmental, Microbiological and Utilization Aspects, Hoitink, H.A.J. and Keener, H.M., Eds., Renaissance Publications, Columbus, OH, 1993, p. 339.

14. Narayan, R., Impact of governmental policies, regulations, and standards activities on an emerging biodegradable plastics industry, in Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers, Doi, Y. and Fukuda, K., Eds., Elsevier, New York, 1994, p. 261.

15. ASTM International, Committee D20 on Plastics, Subcommittee D20.96, Biobased and Environmentally Degradable Plastics; available on-line at www.astm.org.

16. ASTM, Standard D 6866-04, Annual Book of Standards, Vol. 8.03, ASTM International, Philadelphia, 2004.

17. Federal Biobased Preferred Product Procurement Program (FB4P); available on-line at www.biobased.oce.usda.gov.

18. ASTM, Standard D 7075, Annual Book of Standards, Vol. 8.03, ASTM International, Philadelphia, 2004.

19. Narayan, R., in Science and Engineering of Composting: Design, Environmental, Microbiological and Utilization Aspects, Hoitink, H.A.J. and Keener, H.M., Eds., Renaissance Publications, Columbus, OH, 1993, pp. 339.

20. Narayan, R., in Biodegradable Plastics and Polymers, Doi, Y. and Fukuda, K., Eds., Elsevier, New York, 1994, p. 261.

21. Anonymous, Science, 304, 838, 2004.

22. Mato, Y., Isobe, T., Takada, H., Kahnehiro, H., Ohtake, C., and Kaminuma, T., Environ . Sci. Technol., 35, 318-324, 2001.

23. Nature works, PLA producer; available on-line at www.natureworks.com.

24. Narayan, R. and Graiver, D., Lipid Technol., 16, 2, 2006.

25. Tran, P., Graiver, D., and Narayan, R., J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., Vol. 82, pp. 183-196, 2005.

26. Baber, T.M., Graiver, D., Lira, C.T., and Narayan, R., Biomacromolecules, 6, 1334-1344, 2005.

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