Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Read more here...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary

Rating: 4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Michael R. Meuser
Official Website: recyclingsecrets.com
Price: $27.00

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My Home Based Recycling Business Review

Highly Recommended

This is one of the best books I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

More Tips for Easy and Effective Recycling

To get the most out of recycling, keep these things in mind If you have to drop them off, make the trip to the recycling center part of your routine. Schedule a regular day and combine the drop-off with other errands. Wheeled containers or a dolly makes it easier to move recycling bins around. The kitchen is probably where the most recyclable items get used. So if you store your recycling bins in another room, keep another bin in the kitchen to collect recyclables you'll sort later. Go online to find a recycling center near you. In the U.S., go to www. earth911.com in the U.K., go to www.recycle-more.co.uk, and then click Bank Locator.

Reusing and Recycling Play It Again

Using less of everything Reusing materials and containers Recycling when all else fails eusing and recycling may not be strictly cost effective because both W require extra labor and time on your part, and you don't often get anything in return aside from the knowledge that you've helped the environment. Nevertheless, recycling makes sense for our society as a whole, and that should be enough motivation. For the most part, your recycling regimen will be dictated by what's available in your community. Some cities have no recycling at all. Some have extensive programs that include free containers (often these are different colors for different materials, like cans, bottles, newspapers, and so on.) You'll need to do some research to find out what kind of recycling your utility system offers.

Does recycling save money

Now we come to the bottom line What's the economic impact of recycling For manufacturers, recycling is good news, because it's cheaper and requires less energy to use recycled materials than to produce new ones from scratch. Industries that benefit from recycling include steel mills, companies that work with nonferrous metals (like aluminum), paper and paperboard mills, and plastic converters. Take aluminum cans as an example. Making one ton of aluminum requires nearly 9,000 pounds of bauxite and 1,020 pounds of petroleum coke as fuel. Recycling aluminum, on the other hand, requires 95 less raw material and 90 less energy. Another benefit to companies is increased demand When people like you buy recycled products, you support the manufacturers' recycled product line. That's a great example of voting with your wallet. Recycling is also good for the economy because it creates jobs According to the National Recycling Coalition, in the U.S. alone, the 236-billion-a-year recycling industry...

Environmentally Friendly Recycling

While we are not aware of any recycling process that is 100 environmentally friendly, recycling done correctly can dramatically reduce the impact that the use of computers and other electronic equipment have on the environment. Several organizations are working to ensure that recycling and the handling of e-waste are done in a responsible manner, with minimal impact on the environment. It is also your responsibility as a consumer to ensure that the vendor you use to recycle your end-of-life equipment does what you expect them to do and does not simply transfer the problem somewhere else.

California Electronic Waste Recycling

The California legislature passed the Electronic Waste Recycling Act of 2003 to address the growing problem of e-waste from computer and television video display devices. The act requires that an e-waste fee be collected at the time the product is sold to help pay for the safe recycling of what the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) has determined to be covered electronic devices or CEDs. CEDs are defined as display devices that measure more than 4 inches diagonally. These include new or refurbished MAINE'S HOUSEHOLD TELEVISION AND COMPUTER MONITOR RECYCLING LAW In 2003, a comprehensive e-waste law was passed in Maine to create a partnership among local and state governments, the manufacturers of electronic equipment, and consumers to ensure that all e-waste is recycled or properly disposed of. The legislature wrote that the purpose of this section is to establish a comprehensive electronics recycling system that ensures the safe and environmentally sound handling,...

Does recycling really reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Hand in hand with the issue of energy savings is the question of whether recycling keeps greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere and helps to reduce global warming. Again, the answer is yes Materials produced from recycled steel, copper, glass, and paper have net carbon emissions four to five times lower than when those things are produced from virgin materials. For paper, we're talking 73 less and for aluminum, 95 less. According the U.S. EPA, increasing America's recycling rate from its current rate of 32 to 35 would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2 million metric tons each year compared to what would be emitted if those recyclables were buried in landfills. That's the equivalent of taking more than 3.7 million cars off the road.

Texas Electronic Waste Recycling

In 2007, the Texas House passed House Bill 2714, the Electronic Waste Recycling Act, which requires computer manufacturers that sell in Texas to offer consumers free and convenient recycling of the computers sold in the state. The act defines computer equipment as desktop and laptop computers, monitors (display devices without a tuner), and the accompanying keyboard and mouse made by the same manufacturer.

How External Recycling Works

External recycling involves three basic steps Primary recycling is the reprocessing of materials into the same type of product, such the recycling of used glass bottles into new glass bottles. Secondary recycling is the reprocessing of materials into different but similar products, such as processing corrugated cardboard boxes into cereal boxes. Tertiary recycling is the reprocessing of a material into a product that cannot be recycled again for example, when mixed office paper is reprocessed into bathroom tissue. 3. Marketing and sale of new items. One of the most challenging parts of recycling is creating markets for recycled items. Recycling programs depend on their ability to advertise and sell recycled items at competitive prices. Recycling does not accomplish its goals if recycled items are not used.

Recycling And Embodied Energy

In most cases, refurbishment would be the preferred option, provided that the core of the building can be reused without extensive demolition. Refurbishment is essentially the recycling of a building. Recycling is an issue that needs careful thought in relation to environmental impact. It only makes environmental sense to recycle if it can be done easily that is, without requiring the input of a lot of energy, if the building can be thermally upgraded and if such recycling is not repeated too frequently.

Generation materials recovery composition and discards of municipal solid waste in millions of tons and percent of

Recovery for Recovery for source Adapted from Table 1. Generation, Materials Recovery, Composting, and Discards of Municipal Solid Waste, 1960-2003 (in millions of tons), and Table 2. Generation, Materials Recovery, Composting, and Discards of Municipal Solid Waste, 1960-2003, in Percent of Total Generation, in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, (accessed August 4, 2005) Industries do not have to report how much Class 2 or Class 3 wastes they generate or how they dispose of it. However, municipal solid waste landfills are required to report the receipt of all industrial waste.

Invested energy and recycling

In fact, invested energy is a big force in favor of recycling. From an economic standpoint, recycling may not seem like such a great idea. It takes time on your part and requires you to set up systems and stick with them. But you're not just saving money when you recycle you're saving invested energy, and all the pollution and environmental costs that go with it.

Municipal Solid Waste

The EPA defines municipal solid waste (MSW) as common garbage or trash.'' MSW includes items like food scraps, paper, containers and packaging, appliances, batteries, and yard trimmings. These types of wastes are generally collected and managed by local municipal agencies. MSW does not include construction and demolition wastes, automobile bodies, sludge, combustion ash, and industrial process wastes. The EPA publication Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003 (April 2005) reports that Americans produced 236.2 million tons of MSW in 2003, up slightly from 235.5 million tons in 2002. (See Table 6.4.) The tons of MSW generated annually increased dramatically between 1960 and 2000. Most of this increase occurred during the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. In 1960 just over eighty-eight million tons of MSW were generated. Over the next three decades, MSW generation increased on average by 32 per decade. However, the 1990s witnessed...

Provincial and municipal recycling and production of biofertilizers

Whereas agrochemicals were rationed and distributed to the farm, organic inputs could be obtained at will, where available, but had to be sought out. Some institutes and regions were supporting farmers to access organic inputs more than others. Agricultural Enterprises in one municipality in Havana, for example, were assisting in the recycling of farm byproducts purchasing manure and maize husks from specialized livestock or mixed crop farms and transporting them to where they would be returned to the land or for use as livestock feed. In this case, they were supporting the local integration of crops and livestock between rather than on-farm. Another Enterprise was producing its own compost from wastes collected throughout the region, and selling this to farmers. Yet another, at provincial level, was producing bioterra - composted sugarcane residue - and providing it free for collection by municipal Enterprises. In banana-growing regions in the east of the country, state farms and...

The Total Recycling Of Carbon Compounds

One of the major sources of pollution is the material discarded by individuals and industry. These materials are commonly called trash, garbage or solid waste. These discarded materials can probably be converted to usable materials by the process that converts coal to petroleum-like chemicals. This has been investigated and has the potential as a method of total recycle of carbon compounds. The Pittsburgh Center of the Bureau of Mines has used hydrogen to treat municipal solid waste and produce a product similar to crude oil. In these investigations, solid waste was placed in a cylindrical chamber lined with a refractory material. A mixed gas consisting of a large excess of hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen was injected into the cylinder and ignited. The excess hydrogen and the waste were heated to a high temperature by the reaction of the hydrogen with the small amount of oxygen. The cylinder was rotated to stir and grind the waste. The hot hydrogen rich gas converted the...

Oxygen For Solid Waste Processing

To evaluate the oxygen option in the treatment of solid waste it is essential to examine the nature of the solid waste problem and assess the use of oxygen in advanced waste treatment processes. This 222 O'Leary, Phillip R., Welsh, Patrick W., and Ham, Robert K., Managing Solid Waste , Scientific American, Vol. 259, No. 6, December 1988, Page 36 The oldest and still most common practice of solid waste disposal is the landfill. At a safe distance from people, waste is dumped on a parcel of land and spread out in a uniform layer. The layer of waste is covered with a layer of dirt. Alternating layers of waste and dirt are stacked on top of each other until the total reaches the designated thickness. When the dump is filled to the specified thickness, it is allowed to stand idle until decay processes are completed. Decay can be measured by monitoring the gas produced and by measuring the surface height. When the dump becomes fully stable, the parcel of land can be returned to...

Recycling Petrodollars

In May 1973, with the dramatic fall of the dollar still vivid, a group of 84 of the world's top financial and political insiders met at Saltsjobaden, Sweden, the secluded island resort of the Swedish Wallenberg banking family. This gathering of the Bilderberg group heard an American participant, Walter Levy, outline a 'scenario' for an imminent 400 percent increase in OPEC petroleum revenues. The purpose of the secret Saltsjobaden meeting was not to prevent the expected oil price shock, but rather to plan how to manage the about-to-be-created flood of oil dollars, a process US Secretary of State Kissinger later called 'recycling the petrodollar flows.' emphasis added Beginning in the mid-1970s the American Century system of global economic dominance underwent a dramatic change. The oil price shocks of 1973-1974 and 1979 suddenly created enormous demand for the floating dollar. Oil-importing countries from Germany to Argentina to Japan all were faced with how to acquire export-based...

Internal and External Recycling

Most people associate recycling with items such as newspapers, magazines, plastics, aluminum, and glass. The recovery, reprocessing, and reuse of materials from used items is called external recycling and requires public participation. A second type of recycling, internal recycling, is the reuse of waste materials from manufacturing and does not involve the general public. For example, the manufacture production of copper items results in wasted copper pieces with internal recycling, these pieces are melted down and recast. Although internal recovery is possible in many industries, it is most common in the metal industry. Because industrial waste accounts for 98 percent of all waste in the United States, many critics of recycling advocate that more attention should be paid to internal recycling than external recycling.

Maryland Statewide Computer Recycling Pilot Program

The Statewide Computer Recycling Pilot Program enacted in Maryland in 2005 is designed to encourage computer manufacturers to establish takeback programs to collect and recycle, refurbish, or reuse end-of-life computers. It applies to any computer manufacturer that sells more than 1,000 computers a year in the state. Manufacturers are charged an initial 5,000 registration fee to sell computers in Maryland. Manufacturers that establish such recovery programs are required to pay a 500 annual fee after the initial 5,000 registration. The fees are distributed to local governments to support local e-waste collection efforts. In addition, the law requires the Maryland Department of the Environment to study and compare the impact of cathode-ray tube disposal and to review the effectiveness of the computer recycling pilot program. The law is scheduled to expire at the end of 2010. Massachusetts in April of 2000 became the first state to ban the disposal of CRT displays, mostly because of...

Reduced Use and Recycling

There is growing concern about the excess use of plastics, particularly in packaging. This has been done, in part, to avoid the theft of small objects. The use of plastics can be reduced through a better choice of container sizes and through the distribution of liquid products in more concentrated form. A concern is the proper disposal of waste plastics. Litter results from careless disposal, and decomposition rates in landfills can be extremely long. Consumers should be persuaded or required to divert these for recycling or other environmentally acceptable procedures. Marine pollution arising from disposal of plastics from ships or flow from storm sewers must be avoided. Disposal at sea is prohibited by federal regulation. Recycling of plastics is desirable because it avoids their accumulation in landfills. While plastics constitute only about 8 percent by weight or 20 percent by volume of municipal solid waste, their low density and slowness to decompose makes them a visible...

Generation materials recovery combustion and discards of municipal solid waste

Generation, Materials Recovery, Combustion, and Discards of Municipal Solid Waste, 1960-2003 (in Percent of Total Generation), in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, (accessed August 4, 2005)

Breakdown by type of paper and paperboard products generated in municipal solid waste

Paper and Paperboard Products in MSW, 2003 (In Thousands of Tons and Percent of Generation), in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States 2003 Data Tables, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, http www.epa.gov epaoswer non-hw muncpl pubs 03data.pdf (accessed August 4, 2005)

The History And Current Strength Of Recycling

Recycling has become a major part of MSW management in the United States, and it will likely continue to grow, although at a slower pace than in the past. Recycling, however, did not enjoy immediate success. It started out as a do-good activity but eventually became a necessity for municipal governments. For a quarter-century after the first Earth Day (April 22, 1970), recycling advocates pleaded their case to skeptical decision-makers in the interest of environmental benefit. In the early years of recycling, the economy was unable to use all the plastic, paper, and other materials that were recovered. Many private recycling companies were not able to make a profit. Instead of earning money from recycling, the programs cost them money. Some cities even started dumping their recycled materials into landfills because they could not sell them. Many city leaders felt that money spent on recycling should be used in other areas instead, such as education. Critics of recycling pointed to the...

Recycling What Goes Around Comes Around

Recycling is a good idea that's been around for a while. Modern recycling was born in the environmental movement of the 1960s and '70s. To coincide with the very first Earth Day April 22, 1970 the Container Corporation of America, a major producer of recycled paperboard, sponsored a contest for art and design students to create a logo that symbolized the recycling process. UCLA student Gary Dean Anderson won with his triple-arrow design that has become one of the most recognized symbols on the planet. In the 1970s, concern over rising energy costs led companies to consider recycling as a way to save money. Combined with a growing interest in protecting the environment and concerns over pollution and wasteful use of resources, the recycling movement gained momentum. Beginning in the early '70s, cities and towns passed recycling laws, arranged for curb-side recycling pick-up, and set up recycling drop-off centers. States and countries banned certain kinds of recyclable materials from...

Recycling the Right Way Saves Everybody Energy

In 2005, over 80 million tons of paper were recycled, but that's only a small fraction of all the paper that gets used. Americans also go through 4 million single-use plastic bottles every hour, yet only one in four gets recycled. So what stops folks from recycling Mainly inconvenience. Thus, the best way to make recycling a reality is to set up a system that's convenient and easy to use. Aside from the more obvious candidates for recycling, here are some important items to recycle l Appliances These can almost always be recycled. Call your trash collectors and they may pick them up right at your door. Or you can donate them when the new equipment is delivered (most appliance stores have active recycling programs they get some money for the old stuff, but more power to them). l Old batteries Even the rechargeable ones can be recycled, which makes a lot of sense. For information on recycling batteries, including those from laptops, cellphones, camcorders, and the like, visit...

International Solid Waste Management

Because solid waste is generated everywhere, addressing the environmentally safe management of solid waste is not limited to the United States. Management strategies vary by country and region, although most programs address waste issues with models consisting of some combination of source reduction, combustion, recycling, and landfills. For example, the European Environment Agency (EEA) offers solid-waste management guidance analogous to EPA's integrated hierarchy. Specifically, the Community Strategy on Waste recommends that the agency's eighteen-member countries make waste prevention their top priority, followed by materials recovery, energy recovery, and, finally, the safe disposal of waste. The environmentally safe management of municipal solid waste may always be an issue, simply because societies will continue to generate trash due to increasing populations and the growing demands of modern society. Working together, federal, state, and local governments, industry, and citizens...

Waste Minimization and Recycling

Recycling and waste minimization may be the best ways to deal with hazardous waste. Waste minimization reduces the volume of waste generated, whereas recycling means that less hazardous waste requires disposal. Techniques for waste minimization may include audits, better inventory management, production process equipment modifications, and operational maintenance procedures. Raw material changes, volume reductions, nonhaz-ardous material substitutions, reuse, or recovery also reduce hazardous waste production. For example biodegradable, nontoxic lactate esters are solvents manufactured from renewable carbohydrate sources that can be substituted for toxic halogenated solvents. The EPA's Industrial Toxics Project is a nonregulatory program initiated in 1990 to achieve, voluntarily, overall reductions for seventeen toxic chemicals reported in the government's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), including cadmium, lead, mercury, trichloroethylene, and toluene. The recycling of waste through...

Does recycling actually save energy

Recycle Ennergy

It obviously takes energy to recycle. The process involves sorting, processing, and transporting materials. So does recycling save more energy than it uses Consider these facts Recycling plastic bottles uses about 70-75 less energy than creating new ones from scratch. Recycling paper uses about 40-45 less energy than making new paper from trees (and each three-foot-high stack of newspaper you recycle saves one tree). Recycling glass uses about 21 less energy than producing new glass. As these figures show, the answer is a resounding yes. Plus, recycling fosters a cradle-to-cradle approach to resources (page 84).

Expost compensation revenue recycling approach

As noted in the introductory chapter (Andersen, Chapter 1, 3 ff) it makes a significant difference whether revenues are recycled via a lowering of income taxes for wage earners, or via a lowering of employers' social security contributions. The so-called tax interaction effect (Bovenberg and de Mooij, 1994) would suggest that revenue recycling under the second method is more desirable, as inflationary impacts can be minimized. On the basis of a more detailed review of revenue recycling methods in Europe's ETR countries (cf. Speck and Jilkova, Chapter 2, 24 ff), it is possible to make the following observations tax-free allowance for income as well as to complicated formulae for exempting basic consumption of electricity and gas (Vermeend and van der Vaart, 1998 11). In the second phase, the Dutch stuck more closely to the fiscal conventionalists' advice and reduced employers' social security wage component, but they also reduced corporate taxes. In Germany, ecological tax reform split...

Solid Waste and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

The life cycle of almost all products generates greenhouse gases in their use of raw materials, manufacture, transport, recycling, or disposal (see table 8.2). For this reason, using only needed products and managing their end use or disposal can help reduce emissions, even outside of the institution. Waste prevention and recycling can reduce methane from landfills, reduce emissions from incinerators, reduce energy consumption, and increase storage of carbon in trees. Once a product has been used, it can be recycled into new products. While manufacturing products from recycled inputs still requires energy, fewer raw materials are necessary. Heat-trapping gas emissions are therefore offset by the avoided fossil-fuel use for raw material acquisition. In addition, for products that require wood or paper inputs, recycling reduces the need to cut down trees, increasing carbon sequestration in forests. If a product is not recycled at the end of its useful life, it goes through one of three...

The National Recycling Coalition Recommendations

The National Recycling Coalition lists several steps that purchasing departments of organizations can use in their waste-reduction strategies waste-to-energy to convert solid waste into a usable form of energy landfills sanitary landfills are disposal sites for nonhaz-ardous solid wastes spread in layers, compacted to the smallest practical volume, and covered by material applied at the end of each operating day secure chemical landfills are disposal sites for hazardous waste, selected and designed to minimize the chance of release of hazardous substances into the environment The EPA reports that 232 million pounds of waste were generated in 2000. The amount of waste produced per person has grown over the last thirty-five years, from 2.7 to 4.6 pounds per day. In 1999, waste reduction saved over fifty million tons of municipal solid waste from being dumped into landfills. see also Abatement Composting Green Lifestyle Recycling Reuse Technology, Pollution Prevention. National Recycling...

Development through Landscape Recycling

Another ecological centerpiece has been the rejuvenation and restoration of the Emscher River System. This river has been heavily polluted, with much of the industrial waste directly transported to the river through open sewers. Elements of this restoration effort have included improvements to the sewage treatment system (such as replacing open sewers), daylighting some streams, desealing portions of the watershed, and taking a number of actions to restore the river system to more natural conditions. An ecological restructuring of the river system is ultimately envisioned (IBA Emscher Park, undated).

Distribution of solid waste

Municipal solid waste 1 Municipal solid waste 1 source Solid Waste State and Federal Efforts to Manage Nonhazardous Waste, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, 1995 source Solid Waste State and Federal Efforts to Manage Nonhazardous Waste, U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC, 1995 It is difficult to calculate exactly how much waste is generated in the United States and what becomes of it. Under RCRA the federal government collects data on the production and management of hazardous waste. These data are supplied by the industries and businesses generating the waste. In addition, the EPA estimates the production of municipal solid waste (common garbage) each year using surveys, studies, population data, and other information (see below). However, both of these waste streams'' are thought to be very small in comparison to the amount of industrial nonhazardous waste that is generated. The EPA reported that the country generated a total of thirteen billion tons of...

Composting Recycling Organic Materials

Composting is a method of recycling organic materials, such as certain food waste and yard clippings, directly into the soil. Although there are many ways to make composts, the basic idea is to mix yard clippings and food waste into a pile with soil and let it decompose worms, insects, and other organisms RECYCLING The Netherlands recycled more than three quarters (77 )of the approximately 65 million tons of garbage it generated in 2000. Public pressure to reduce dioxin emissions from incineration plants and pollution from landfills led to landfill taxes beginning in 1995 and a landfill ban on combustible waste in 1997. In addition, government-owned incineration plants were operated below full capacity at the same time as incentives to expand the recyclables market and encourage end-of-life producer responsibility were initiated. Mandatory separation of different types of industrial wastes, with recycling of construction and demolition waste within a government financed...

Longer term perspectives mineral sequestration and CO recycling

- Ex situ mineral sequestration is operated above ground in an industrial installation by reacting CO2 with ground rocks or with solid waste. The main drawback is the need to manipulate, grind and store considerable volumes of solid materials. Different solid phases have been investigated for use in such a process. Typically, CO2 is reacted with crushed olivine and serpentine (magnesium-rich silicate rocks) from a mine. Industrial wastes, such as blast furnace slag, composed of iron and calcium silicates, can also be used. Carbon dioxide recycling includes all possible uses in industrial or biological processes. Unfortunately the quantities of CO2 which can be recycled in that way are limited. Currently, the main application in the chemical industry is the production of urea, which requires around 80 million tons of CO2 per year 92 . A significant outlet is provided by the agro-food industry which, in Europe, consumes around 2.7 million tons of CO2. A CO2 rich atmosphere is used for...

Breakdown by waste type of municipal solid waste generated

Note Total MSW was 236 million tons (before recycling). source Figure 3. 2003 Total MSW Generation 236 Million Tons (Before Recycling), in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, http www.epa (accessed August 4, 2005) Note Total MSW was 236 million tons (before recycling). source Figure 3. 2003 Total MSW Generation 236 Million Tons (Before Recycling), in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, http www.epa (accessed August 4, 2005) the waste stream. It was followed by yard trimmings (12.1 ), food scraps (11.7 ), plastics (11.3 ), metals (8 ), rubber, leather, and textiles (7.4 ), wood (5.8 ),

Recycling Programs

As you saw in Table 9-1, HP's recycling efforts go back to 1971. Though the company started with recycling computer printouts, over the years its efforts have evolved to include inkjet cartridges, computers, and most other devices. Programs are geared at customers and businesses, and they give several options for customers who want to get rid of old equipment. Since 1987 the company has been recycling technology products and currently offers recycling services in 45 countries. HP uses company-approved recycling vendors to handle product that cannot be reused. Recyclers dismantle equipment and process materials to extract as much value as possible. NOTE In Europe, HP was key in the creation of the European Recycling Platform and Nordic Electronics Recycling Association. This helped the company comply with European Union producer responsibility recycling legislation. Recycling vendors must meet HP's supplier code of conduct and global recycling standards. These standards require vendors...

Recycling

We are slowly moving to a position where there will be no such thing as waste, merely transformation. This is what recycling is mainly about. It is in the sphere of building that recycling has considerable potential, and this applies to renovation as well as new build. There are at least three aspects to this

Recycling Companies

If you've decide to go the recycling route, you should bear in mind certain considerations when making a selection. Naturally, you want to save money, but you also want to go with a recycler who is environmentally responsible (not all are a lot of that stuff in China came from unscrupulous recyclers). You also want to find a company that is accountable and maintains good records about what they did with your old machines. In this section, we talk about factors to consider when selecting a recycler.

Recyclingof Sorts

How can I be so bold on this claim First, other countries with extensive nuclear power operations, notably France, United Kingdom, and Japan, all operate reprocessing facilities to some degree. It's not like we're reinventing the wheel or anything reprocessing is a form of recycling. I freely acknowledge most people who feel good about recycling their bottles and cans do not feel good about reprocessing nuclear fuel. However, for the most part, they don't realize that we already reprocess significant amounts of nuclear material.

Solid Waste

When asking people in the streets of the smaller cities in Latin America about the most important problems of the city, there is a fair chance that they mention la basura (solid waste) as the most important problem. In part, this has to do with the fact that it is a very visible problem. In many cities, waste is scattered in streets, squares, parks, water flows, etc., because collection systems are absent or inappropriate. Also, the relationship with health problems is clear, because of the obvious presence of disease vectors like flies, rats, dogs and others that feed and breed in the waste heaps.16 The environmental impact of solid waste production is most severe in cities where property rights are not enforced. In a city with well-established property rights, residents would be forced to pay compensation if they disposed of their trash on someone else's property, including property belonging to the state. Absent this expectation, people are much more likely to dump their garbage in...

Industrial Waste

Some 350 million tonnes of hazardous industrial wastes are generated worldwide each year, about 90 percent of which comes from industrial countries. The US Environmental Protection Agency has identified a top-priority national list of over 5000 hazardous sites ('Super fund sites') left behind by industry, which, together will cost billions of dollars to clean up. As the curtain of secrecy lifts from Eastern Europe, tales of dead rivers, unbreathable air, villages abandoned because of extreme pollution, and other industrial horrors are being revealed daily. There are no good ways of getting rid of hazardous waste. In the UK, 82 percent of hazardous industrial waste is dumped in landfills (see commentary to Map 6). At the beginning of the 1990s, the UK was still dumping 8 percent of its hazardous waste at sea. Protests from other EEC countries and from environmentalists mean that this practice is to be phased out. In the USA, incineration is increasingly favoured by industry, but this...

Increasing Recycling

Although a majority of Americans express favorable attitudes toward recycling (Dunlap & Scarce, 1991), the amount of material recycled in the United States falls far short of what is considered possible. People fail to participate in recycling programs for a variety of reasons, including indifference and the perceived nuisance of doing so (Howenstine, 1993 Vining & Ebreo, 1990 Vining, Linn, & Burdge, 1992). Several studies have shown that logistic factors, such as the design and placement of receptacles for deposit of trash or materials for recycling, can have an effect on litter control and recycling behavior (Finnie, 1973 Geller, Brasted & Mann, 1979-1980 Humphrey, Bord, Hammond, & Mann, 1977 Jacobs, Bailey, & Crews, 1984 Luyben & Bailey, 1979 Reid, Luyben, Rawers, & Bailey, 1976). Stern, & Dietz, 1995 Schultz & Oskamp, 1996 Scott, 1999). Reasons for recycling also vary not least among them is the intrinsic satisfaction people get from being frugal or participating in...

Recycling energy

The manufacturing and electric-power industries, by and large, capture only a small portion of the potential energy in the fuel they burn, and then discard the rest as waste energy. Many cost-effective approaches are available to recycle these waste streams, generating incremental electricity and thermal energy without increasing pollution or burning additional fossil fuel. Recycled energy's unused potential may be society's best-kept secret. Recycling waste energy can take two approaches. In the first case, power plants are sited at an industrial facility that produces a stream of waste energy, such as gas that is normally flared, hot exhaust or high-pressure gas or steam that must be decompressed back to atmospheric pressure. These plants, known in the literature as 'bottoming cycle cogeneration plants', convert the waste energy streams into electricity. The resulting electricity is typically sold back to the industrial host for use on site, thus avoiding the need for transmission...

ETR in the Netherlands

In 1998, an ETR was implemented based on revenue neutrality. Revenues, generated mainly by the Regulatory Tax on Energy, are recycled back to the economy (households and industry) by applying different recycling measures that took effect in 1999. The recycling measures targeting households were Various recycling options were also in place for Dutch industry

An Old Idea Is Rediscovered

There is nothing new about recycling. People have found ways to reuse pottery, gold, silver, and bronze for thousands of years. Old swords were melted and reshaped to use as plows. Gold and silver jewelry were melted down and reshaped into other forms. As recently as one hundred years ago, traveling peddlers in the United States and Europe collected rags, bones, and scrap metal waste from household garbage and sold them to manufacturers to make into new products. During the early twentieth century, Americans relied less and less on recycling. By the 1950s the United States was labeled a throw-away economy because Americans were consuming increasing amounts of goods that ended up in garbage landfills. Recycling was revived in many Western countries back in the 1960s and 1970s as the public became interested in conservation and looked for ways to reduce damage to the environment. In the United States, the first Earth Day in 1970 is often viewed as the official beginning of the modern...

Environmental Compliance Label For A Portable Handset

Ment functions for its full life and is not discarded as out of fashion. The surplus equipment is sent to a recycling company that separates component materials and sends the results to be recycled or for final disposal. In this way, the Green Supply Chain becomes more of a Green recycling loop. From time to time, electronic equipment ceases to work. If the device is under warranty, then the manufacturer can send a replacement part. In some cases, the broken part must be returned to the manufacturer as proof of the defect or for recycling. If the component is inexpensive or has little reuse value, the repairperson is told to dispose of it. This is called a field destroy replacement. These parts must be included in the regular waste stream to the electronics recycling company.

Measure The Percentage Of Devices Sent To A Recycler

The third option is to use a hardware recycling company. These organizations shred the devices to physically separate the materials used to create it. These materials are then recycled for reuse instead of mining fresh material from the earth. The recycler will also ensure the proper disposal of potentially toxic materials that cannot be reused. Many electronic equipment recycling companies will also prepare used equipment with remaining useful life for sale or donation. Another service available is the total management of IT assets from proposal to disposal, if desired.

Sources for map and commentary

Cointreau, Sandra, Solid Waste Recycling Case Studies in Developing Countries, Washington DC World Bank, 1987 Levenson, Howard, Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, personal communication Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), OECD Environmental Data Compendium, 1989, Paris OECD, 1989 World Resources Institute lnstitute for Environment and Development, World Resources 1988-89, New York Basic Books, 1988 World Action on Recycling Materials for Energy from Rubbish (WARMER), Tunbridge Wells, personal communication Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 1989, New York Norton, 1989.

The Role of Government

The oldest recycling law in the United States is the Oregon Recycling Opportunity Act, which was passed in 1983 and went into effect in 1986. The Act established curbside residential recycling opportunities in large cities and set up drop-off depots in small towns and rural areas. A growing number of states require that many consumer goods sold must be made from recycled products. In addition, many states have set recycling recovery goals for their MSW. In 1989 the state of Maine adopted a goal to achieve 50 recycling by the year 1994. Although the deadline was later extended, the state has not been able to achieve it as of 2005. Officials blame the dramatic population growth in southern Maine that boosted the MSW generation rate. For recycling programs to work, there must be markets for recycled products. To help create demand, some states require that newspaper publishers use a minimum proportion of recycled paper. Many states require that recycled materials be used in making...

Manufacturer Programs

The term recycle is defined by dictionary.com as to treat or process (used or waste materials) so as to make suitable for reuse. We normally think of recycling as taking a product back to its raw material form and then using the reclaimed raw material to make a new product (such as the recycling of paper). However, when many people apply the term recycling to computer equipment, it can also mean giving the equipment to others who can use it (such as donating it to a school or charity) or reusing still functional parts to make a new system (technically remanufacturing). All of these options are preferable to dumping the equipment into a landfill, but this chapter focuses on how design affects the feasibility of breaking down equipment so that the raw materials can be recovered.

Beyond calculating and all over the world

Another helpful site for individuals is provided by the fossil fuel multinational BP. It covers relatively few countries, but they do include China and South Africa. You can pass your cursor over various on-screen icons and find information about ways to reduce your carbon emissions. There are three main areas At Home, In the Store, and On the Road. The At Home info-icons include renewables, lighting, domestic appliances like fridges, home insulation, heating and cooling, energy-efficiency and recycling. In the Store offers advice on seasonal sense, local logic, packaging principles and recycling reason ( In many cases, products made from recycled materials require less energy to produce compared with those made from original materials. For example, it can take almost 75 per cent less energy to make items from recycled steel than it does from new steel. ) else in an industrialized country. One notable exception is on the Carbon Footprint site. It allows you to work out the emissions...

Understand the Process

Processes for purchasing, orienting new employees, waste segregation, and recycling all have emission implications. Some of these processes will be more fully developed than others, creating different types of opportunities. For example, on a campus without a sophisticated or comprehensive recycling program, recycling may be a good place to start building credibility for subsequent climate change advocacy.

Waste the policy response

Waste management has become one of the priorities of EU environmental policy. The first laws in this area were adopted in the mid-1970s, but the development of EU policy has accelerated over the past decade, reflecting a rise both in political and public interest in the problem, and concern about the mixed record in bringing it under control. The emphasis of EU policy has been on waste prevention, recycling and reuse, improving disposal conditions, and regulating the transport of waste. However, despite the adoption of 85 laws and the elaboration of strategies and a broad variety of policy objectives, the EU does not yet have a common waste management policy. Policy activities have focused on five main areas as follows.

Individual State Regulations

While the U.S. government has not been at the forefront of environmental law on e-waste, individual states have begun enacting legislation to address the growing problem. An advantage to this approach is that many different ideas on how to best handle e-waste are implemented and the merits can be compared the disadvantage is that consumers and, especially, manufacturers have to keep track of a different sets of rules for each state in which they do business. One hopes that at some point the best ideas will sort themselves out and a federal program will be adopted to make compliance easier. Below are details on selected state programs. Figure 2-1 lists all states that have some sort of electronics recycling reuse legislation currently in effect.

Design for Environment

HP has integrated environmental considerations into its product designs, taking into account such issues as energy efficiency, provisions for reuse, and recycling. HP introduces new materials to meet customer expectations, to capitalize on emerging technologies, and to substitute for materials of concern. Design for Recyclability (DfR) features facilitate disassembly and recycling ' HP offers a variety of take-back options, including asset recovery, donation, leasing, remarketing refurbishment, trade-in and recycling ' Materials selection and identification increase value at end-of-life and facilitate recycling ' Design features increase ease of disassembly, recycling and material reuse

Plant Biomass Production

The reason for the Earth recycling all of her material parts can be explained by looking again at Fig. 2.5. The Earth is powered by the sun's radiation that crosses the outer boundary of her atmosphere and reaches her surface. The Earth can export into outer space long-wave infrared radiation.15 But, because of her size, the Earth holds on to all mass of all chemical elements, except perhaps for hydrogen. By maintaining an oxygen-rich atmosphere, life has managed to prevent the airborne hydrogen from escaping Earth's gravity by reacting it back to water (and destroying ozone). In a mature ecosystem, one species' waste must be another species' food and no net waste is ever created, see Fig. 2.9. The little imperfections in the Earth's surface recycling programs have resulted in the burial of a remarkably tiny fraction of plant carbon in swamps, lakes, and shallow coastal waters16, see Fig. 2.15. Very rarely the violent anoxic events would kill most of life in the oceanic waters and...

Other IT Related Disposal Issues

Because of their bulk, computers and printers get most of the attention when recycling issues are addressed, but other items that are a part of the IT food chain can also have a major effect on an organization's environmental impact. Consumables, such as paper and toner cartridges, and portable media, such as CDs and DVDs, while small in size are used in large quantities in most organizations. Other devices, such as flash drives, PDAs, and cell phones, are regularly upgraded to the latest and greatest devices. And probably most important of all is the data that is stored on all of these devices. If the data is not handled correctly at disposal time, the cost to the organization can be significant. Consumable items are used as part of the delivery of information technology services. Much of these consumables support the production of documents used for the creation and dissemination of information. These consumables include paper, toner cartridges, inkjet cartridges, staples, and paper...

Shockley Queisser Formulation

By assuming that an ideal cell did have black-body properties, they were able to very simply calculate the net rate of recombination in the cell taking into account photon recycling effects. By considering such a cell in thermal equilibrium (no external light on it and no voltage applied to it), they realised it would have to be emitting Planckian black-body radiation at these energies, of the same type as treated in Chap. 2. Moreover, From Eqs. (4.2) and (4.7), all radiative recombination in the cell should increase exponentially with applied voltage. Since photon recycling effects would remain proportionately the same, this meant Shockley and Queisser could now calculate the net recombination rate at any voltage. This leads instantly to the ideal solar cell equation with unity ideality factor (N 1) and Io given by The interesting feature of this expression is that I0 no longer depends on cell volume. Although the total number of radiative recombination events increases with volume,...

Scenarios specified to model ETR

Revenue recycling These scenarios allow the ETR to be decomposed country by country into three components the full tax, the exemptions, and compensation via recycling. these are the OECD, Eurostat, and the IEA. These data include the effects of ETR in the 1990s, and any accompanying exemptions and revenue recycling methods. The forecast part of the baseline solution, which is used for the ex-ante analysis, is derived from a combination of DG TREN's Energy and Transport Trends to 2030 (with emissions data published by the EEA), and the IEA's energy price assumptions.

Wasteto Energys Growth Prospects

All the processes mentioned here are becoming more efficient just as environmental restrictions on incinerators and landfills are tightening around the world. So in the aggregate waste-to-energy will see dramatic growth in coming years, though in early 2008, it isn 't yet clear which technologies will be the eventual winners. U.K.-based Alkane Energy, the leader in methane generation plants, is a solid choice in that segment. But as with so many other clean technologies, the innovative smaller players (i.e., the potential growth stocks) face competition from deep-pocketed giants (see Table 17.1). Garbage firms Waste Management, Allied Waste, and Covanta, for instance, operate dozens of traditional incineration plants and recycling operations and will no doubt aggressively adopt new waste- to-energy technologies as they become viable.

Geothermal Heating System

A geothermal reservoir is an aquifer with hot water or steam. The production well is used to withdraw hot water from the geothermal reservoir and the injection well is used to recycle the water. Recycling helps maintain reservoir pressure. If the geothermal reservoir is relatively small, the recycled, cooler water can lower the temperature of the aquifer. The electric pump in the figure is needed to help

From Russia with Energy

Material suitable for nuclear fuel rods. In fact, we've been doing just that. It's called the Megatons to Megawatts nuclear nonproliferation program. It is one of the more successful outcomes of the thawing of the Cold War. According to public information available from United States Enrichment Corp. (USEC), the equivalent of 11,500 nuclear warheads have been eliminated by recycling them into nuclear fuel. Bomb-grade uranium compounds are shipped halfway around the world, very carefully I assume, and converted in U.S. facilities into fuel-grade uranium.

New water technologies

It appears that Australian policy is to supply water to a population which business has imagined at between 50 million and 200 million51 by recycling water, desalinating it, and building new dams, in a kind of Saudi or Israeli vision of a twenty-first-century desert economy. All of these schemes which population stabilization and decline would mitigate and avoid, stand to cost the current population socially, physically, and financially, but the benefits (almost exclusively financial) will be focused on only a few. The situation is put to the people as one which will save them from catastrophe, so few question these costs, which they are coached to believe are inevitable.

Involve Students Directly

The Eco-Reps program is modeled after a Dartmouth program, and is a hybrid between a regular course and an internship. Students who are Eco-Reps have a noncredit class every other week and participate in several field trips. Each class is organized around a particular topic, including recycling and waste prevention, climate change, water resources, food and the environment, and consumption. Box 10.3 outlines a sample Eco-Reps program. There are seven 2-hour meetings throughout the semester. Eco-Reps engage in on-campus greening activities. Typical activities include checking on the recycling program (e.g., bin placement, contamination, and so on), talking to students, conducting surveys, putting up posters, and organizing awareness-raising events. Continue to check recycling in the dorm (30 minutes). In one of the first meetings, students were asked to evaluate and monitor recycling in their dorm. Each week, part of the Eco-Reps' responsibility will involve checking to make sure that...

Recycledcontent Materials

When you think of a green building, if you're like most people, recycling and building with recycled-content materials would likely spring to mind as a key characteristic. In the LEED system, credit is given to projects in which recycled-content represents more than 10 of the total value of all building materials (excluding equipment). This includes structure roof, floors and load-bearing walls rough and finish carpentry insulation (sometimes cotton-batt insulation is made from recycled jeans) doors and windows architectural metal, rebar, fly ash in concrete, steel structural beams, internal walls and floor coverings. The purpose of the LEED standard is to encourage the development of a local and regional economy that values recycling and that creates new materials with the same performance characteristics (strength, weight, durability, etc.) as virgin materials. In that way, we will begin to close the loop of resource flows in the economy and not incur the energy and pollution costs...

Encourage Faculty and Staff to Take Personal Actions

Should introduce the Energy Star website and explain the link between purchasing decisions and greenhouse gas emissions. Because many people associate recycling with personal environmental action, making the link between climate action and recycling can be useful. Staff and faculty need recycling programs that are convenient and visible.

Water Reallocation In A Context Of Evolving Watermanagement Institutions

Water Recycling* * Recycling creates an opportunity for reallocation unless treatment-plant effluent proceeds directly to an ocean outfall or saline sink. Water Recycling. Water recycling involves the advanced treatment of postconsumer flows and its reallocation to urban, suburban, and agricultural uses. Unless the original wastewater outfalls are located along a coastline or above an unusable saline aquifer, recycling represents a reallocation from instream flows, groundwater recharge, and or downstream uses to other (typically local) uses. Money flows from new users to agencies involved in wastewater treatment or water supply. Numerous authorities oversee recycling-based reallocation, including water supply, environmental protection, and public health agencies (Haddad, 2000).

Summary and conclusions

Six EU member states introduced environmental tax reform (ETR), in the form of carbon taxes with revenue recycling, during the 1990s and after. The purpose of this chapter was to highlight ex post the sectors that could be vulnerable under such reform and to explore the nature of their vulnerability. Were they price-takers and, if so, on which markets, and were technological opportunities available that they could call upon in order to reduce vulnerability Initial screening based on intensities of energy expenditure and other characteristics was undertaken for all sectors to select those six in which price-setting behaviour would be investigated. about loss of competitiveness. Relocation of production is a feared outcome of the introduction of environmental regulations. An advantage of ETR over environmental regulations lies in the availability of tax revenues that can be used in ways that reduce the inclination to relocate. Any special targeting of revenue recycling and mitigating...

Decisions and Social Context

Over the last several decades, sociologists have investigated the public's increasing concern about the environment, but they have had little success explaining attitudes toward the environment or the adoption of proenvironment behaviors like recycling. Derksen and Gartrell (1993) examine the role of social context in the link between individual attitudes about the environment and recycling behavior by comparing communities that vary in their access to recycling programs. Results show that people with access to a structured recycling program have much higher levels of recycling than do people lacking such access. Furthermore, individual attitudes toward the environment affect recycling behavior only in the community with easy access to a structured recycling program. Individual concern about the environment enhances the effect of the recycling program, but does not overcome the barriers presented by lack of access.

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33 One of the early successes of this effort was creating a fabric for a chair manufacturer that was durable and attractive but that could be composted at the end of its useful life. Another product developed from this point of view is a commercial carpet...

Applications of the Behavioral Approach

We can approach contingency management in several ways. Some approaches focus on the fact that contingencies are not yet powerful enough to change behavior, in part because they are still invisible. For example, we do not yet pay the true costs for most of our consumer purchases because current pricing does not reflect the resource depletion, pollution, and human poverty produced alongside the products. To make such costs more visible, we can urge lawmakers to institute real cost pricing mechanisms that represent the true contingencies that at present are invisible to us. We can provide cues and feedback for ourselves and others to facilitate behavior change, such as signs over light switches and photocopiers, information regarding energy use, or rewards for recycling. amine energy use, conservation measures, recycling procedures, and so forth, and we can take initiatives to influence our schools, workplaces, communities, and municipal agencies.

From Norms to Environmentally Appropriate Behavior

This experiment explains something Deborah could never figure out about the neighborhood where she once lived in south London. The streets were constantly blowing with litter, and she often observed Londoners contributing even more to it. She was revolted by such behavior, and thought her fellow neighbors crass and insensitive. A more social psychological explanation would be that the litter continued by virtue of the norm it expressed. Analogously, Deborah recently attended a convention of the American Psychological Association in Chicago, where she noticed recycling containers placed in some hallways, but not in others. Notably, there were no containers at the convention registration desk, as there had been at previous conventions, so people weeding out their folders had no place to recycle. Many looked for bins with what appeared to her to be frustration and annoyance. Previous placement of the containers had communicated a norm for recycling behaviors, but when the containers were...

Green Operations and Maintenance

This chapter provides practical recommendations for green building operations and maintenance procedures in the areas of groundskeeping, building systems, waste reduction and recycling, indoor air quality management, pest prevention and control, and healthy housekeeping.1

The Free Marketeers Responsibility

Pimentel opposes economic growth Hassett and his free market friends would like to see more of it. Pimentel is the darling of extremist anti-immigrant agitators Hassett has published articles advocating a moderate immigration policy. Pimentel advocates democratic but nevertheless state-ordained population control Hassett, as a classical liberal follower of F. A. Hayek,21 could not be suspected of supporting such a program, and I have little doubt that he must regard the rest of Pimentel's social ideas with an appropriate degree of revulsion. Without question, Hassett chooses to trot out Pimentel not because he is a Pimentelist, but because he sees an advantage in recycling a discredited study to make a political point.

An Enlightenment Scale Opportunity

Part of the reason people tend to focus on tangible, individual actions like recycling soda bottles is that the scale of the climate problem is so large that those who do understand it are already half-inclined to give up. What does it mean to cut CO2 emissions by 90 percent It's hard to fathom what that world would look like. So a key component of solving the problem becomes attitude. How do we think about climate change in a way that empowers us instead of scaring the pants off us

Building a Greener World

Environmental management makes business sense, as greener and cleaner products and processes meet consumer demands, result in enhanced product marketability, decrease future environmental liabilities, and, ultimately, lower costs. Environmental management fosters a competitive business advantage through efficiency in production, minimum generation of waste, and a more productive and healthy work force. Companies used to be more concerned with end of the pipe solutions to environmental compliance regulations. Now, as Sandra Woods, vice president of Environment, Health & Safety Systems of Coors Brewing Company, quotes Chairman of the Board Bill Coors, All waste is lost profit. Coors sells its spent grain as fertilizer and recycles its aluminum scraps and cans at its subsidiary, Golden Recycling.

American Consumer Advocate And Environmentalist

One of the consumer activist's first major accomplishments involved the formation of the Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs) in the 1970s. These student-led groups, funded by college activity fees and supported by paid professional staffs, serve as law offices working in the public's interest. PIRGs operate today in twenty-four U.S. states, tackling issues such as recycling, pollution, and public health and safety.

The economic costs of reducing energy use

The economic costs of imposing a carbon tax can be overstated if the efficiency gains resulting from the recycling of carbon tax revenue (by replacing the most inefficient taxes on other factors of production) are not considered. The optimal mix of public revenue raising occurs when the welfare gain from increasing carbon taxes, and recycling revenues, equals that from decreasing taxation on any other factor of production consumption. If the optimal level of energy taxation, not taking into account climate change externalities, is less than the Pigouvian environmental tax (i.e. direct marginal damage cost of CO2), then the optimal tax, including the externality costs, will be below the Pigouvian level. This is because taxing energy involves a loss in income as well as a gain in environmental quality. The tax would only be set at the Pigouvian level if reducing energy use imposed a pure welfare cost, rather than a production externality. These issues are addressed in a few models such...

Environmental policy to optimize material chains

The preceding sections showed that many measures are available to improve the efficiency of material use in economies. We have also shown that focusing on more efficient material management is likely to be an effective instrument to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some of the measures are already part of national policy plans, like material recycling and environmentally friendly product design. However, material policies are very seldom designed from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. That would be trend-breaking in itself. Other measures that may improve life-cycle efficiency of materials would be stimulating chain responsibility instead of product responsibility, setting strict standards for recycled content in products and reusability of products, setting up systems for taking back used products in order to enhance recycling rates and stimulating repair facilities to extend the useful life of products.

Material substitution the case of biomass

Technical measures in the individual life-cycle stages include measures such as increasing the efficiency of processes (where innovations in technological development and process design can be used to reduce the amount of materials used in the process), improved product design (where using innovative production methods facilitates the use of thinner material layers and using other materials in the product manufacturing stage may lead to reduced emissions)6 and more efficient waste management (where there is optimal energy recovery from waste materials). Management of the entire material product chain covers measures like material recycling, product re-use (such as refillable plastic or glass bottles), material cascading (using discarded materials for the highest possible functions), extension of the useful life of products (because of modular design and increased fitness for repair and maintenance) and also improved waste management (e.g., choosing between incineration and material...

Land degradation and desertification

Land degradation generally implies deterioration in key properties such as soil nutrients, organic matter and moisture status, to the point where productivity is reduced and, over wide areas, recovery on a timescale of years or even decades is unlikely. There are huge areas where the combination of marginality, abusive exploitation and environmental variability has led to the high levels of degradation noted above. Erosion of topsoil removes the nutrients stored in the surface layers of the soil, especially those retained within the organic matter generated by the decomposition of the vegetation. This, in turn, reduces moisture-holding capacity. Any form of exploitation that leads to depletion of the soil nutrients at a rate exceeding the rate of their renewal eventually leads to soil degradation as the ecosystem shifts to one based on a lower level of nutrient recycling and availability.

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment WEEE

WEEE establishes minimum requirements for reuse, recycling, and recovery of covered items. There are ten categories of products covered by WEEE Producers (manufacturers or importers) of electrical and electronic equipment are required to register in the countries in which they do business. They will also be monitored on their success in achieving mandated recycling and recovery targets that increase over time.

Climate Friendly Parks Making A Difference

Zion National Park in Utah has undertaken numerous projects to reduce its environmental footprint, from buying environmentally preferable materials and recycling to obtaining alternative transportation means for park employees and using renewable fuels in its vehicles. According to park superintendent Jock Whitworth, however, most important are the education and outreach efforts that reflect the passion of both the park and a model gateway community committed to stewardship.

Oxygen The Beneficial Byproduct

The preceding chapters show why the fusion energy source is the optimum replacement for our current energy sources and how hydrogen can be produced and used for the storage and transport medium. This chapter will show how the oxygen by-product can be used as a tool for the amelioration and potential elimination of other types of pollution. It will describe the use of oxygen for the reduction of solid waste. Oxygen use for process wastewater (sewage treatment) and its use for the regeneration of natural bodies of water will be described. These valuable environmental effects can be achieved with modest hardware additions to the Fusion-Hydrogen energy system. As discussed in Chapter 6, hydrogen treatment of solid waste for the recovery and recycling of valuable materials may be feasible. However, the enormous quantities of solid waste generated by the cities are becoming extremely difficult to handle. 222 The use of hydrogen to recycle trash may be inadequate for a total solution and...

Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Flue Gases

Because they are large and concentrated sources of CO2, most proposed methods for CO2 recovery and disposal are currently focused on power plants and heavy industries. For such sources, on-site capture of CO2 offers the most sensible and cost-effective approach. On the other hand, more than half of the CO2 emissions are the result of small distributed sources such as home and office heating, and most importantly the transportation sector. Whilst collecting CO2 from vehicles onboard may be technically possible, it would be economically prohibitive. The CO2 storage system to be added to the vehicle would also be a difficult problem. Moreover, CO2 once collected, would have to be transported to a sequestration or recycling site, requiring the construction of a massive and expensive infrastructure. Capturing CO2 onboard airplanes is even less feasible, because of the added weight involved. In homes and offices, producing limited amounts of CO2, the collection and transportation of CO2...

Hydrogen from Biomass

With regard to greenhouse gas emissions, biomass combustion releases CO2 that was previously captured from the atmosphere, so that in this recycling the net CO2 emission is near zero. However, the cultivation of crops requires fertilizers (that need hydrogen in the form of ammonia) and water, as well as energy for the production, harvesting and transportation. All of these factors, together with their environmental impacts on soil, water supply and biodiversity, must be taken into account and the possible consequences of a large-scale intensive energy-related crop farming carefully assessed. Dedicated high-yield energy crops such as switchgrass, which can be grown with minimal energy input, would be preferable, although biomass for energy would still have to compete for huge areas of land with other agricultural products. Algae grown in the vast expanses of the sea could, however, change this picture in the future. In any case, biomass could only be expected to supply a part of the...

Issues to be Addressed

Some ocean areas such as coastal water, mesopelagic zones, upwelling regions, and high-latitude areas, which are likely to be particularly sensitive to long-term changes in climate, have been the subject of intensive study. The continental margins are a critical boundary because they are most directly relevant to human development. For example, input of nutrients, sediments, and pollutants are large in these areas and fishing pressure has been intense. There has, however, been little consideration of the role of marine food webs in continental margins that are heavily impacted by fishing, and their relationship to biogeochemical cycles in this region. The mesopelagic zone is an important ocean region for decomposition of organic matter and the recycling of nutrients. It is also an important region for pelagic food webs.

Case for Action in Existing Buildings

The State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) has had a comprehensive energy conservation program since the 1970s. This program is credited with saving the university more than 9 million annually in energy costs. From those efforts, a larger campus sustain-ability program has emerged to encompass energy conservation, environmental awareness, green building, recycling, and green purchasing.17

How much can greenhouse gases be reduced by improved material management

Several studies have been carried out to determine the potential of material efficiency, (see Worrell et al. 1995a, 1995b Fraanje, 1997 EPA, 1998). Most studies have focused on a single product group or material. Studies on packaging material by Hekkert et al. (2000a, 2000b) have shown that the greenhouse gas emissions associated with packaging material can be reduced by 40-50 per cent by means of material-efficiency measures. Studies by Worrell et al. (1995a, 1995b) have shown that more efficient use of fertilizers and plastic packaging could lead to significant reductions in CO2 emissions (up to 40 per cent). Patel (1999 217) has shown that a limited number of measures in the German plastics industry could lead to a 24 per cent reduction in carbon emissions. In his thesis, Gielen (1999) concluded that ' the potential for emission reduction in the materials system seems to be of a similar magnitude as the emission-reduction potential in the energy system'. In short, several studies...

Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool EPEAT

Installation, use, decommissioning and, finally, recycling. EPEAT measurements meet or exceed all known U.S. and international environmental statutes. An advantage is that equipment that meets EPEAT criteria will also comply with most international export criteria, such as the EU's RoHs (Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive).

Furniture and Finishes

One of the easiest ways in which companies can start on the journey to sustainability is to evaluate their furniture and furnishings purchases and to incorporate such criteria. The LEED for Existing Buildings system explicitly incorporates environmentally preferable purchasing policies into the rating system. LEED for New Construction also rewards furniture made from salvaged and reclaimed materials recycled-content materials, rapidly renewable materials, certified wood products and composite materials that are free of urea-formaldehyde resins. Consider the new Steel-case Think chair, which is up to 99 recyclable by weight. Disassembly for recycling takes about five minutes using common hand tools. The chair has up to 44 recycled content. It holds the NF Environnement label in France for environmental quality and is Greenguard Indoor Air Quality certified in the US.

Conclusion the scope of the green agenda

When most people speak of the green movement they often use the term broadly, to cover almost any action based on environmental concern. This might include applying environmental criteria to what we buy in shops, signing a petition in favour of the conservation of endangered species, or sabotaging a digger used to destroy a forest. As the discussion above shows, not all such action is necessarily social movement action. A limitation of the broad use of the term green movement is that the distinctiveness of the more radical groups within this broad spectrum tends to get lost. If we want to understand the actions of those who are prepared to burn diggers we need criteria that separate them from those who are not prepared to do more than drive to the recycling centre. There is also the reverse danger that the ideas of the radicals may be seen as definitive of environmentalism and wrongly ascribed to those whose activism extends only as far as joining a conservation group to gain cheaper...

What are the most important findings for mobile air conditioning

Emissions from vehicles continuing to use MAC systems with CFC-12 are about 531 g yr-1 vehicle-1 when all types of emissions are included (fugitive emissions represent 220 g yr-1 vehicle-1). Recovery and recycling are performed for CFC-12 in end-of-life of vehicles in some countries, but the CFC-12 will still eventually be released into the atmosphere following these practices unless it is destroyed. The annual emissions (2002) from the global fleet of air-conditioned CFC-12-based vehicles are about 514 MtCO2-eq yr-1 (fugitive emissions represent 213 MtCO2-eq yr-1). Projections suggest

Role of Energy Conservation

Energy conservation can and must play an important role in future energy strategy, because it can ameliorate adverse impacts on the environment rapidly and economically. Figure 1.18 and Figure 1.19 give an idea of the potential of energy efficiency improvements. Figure 1.18 shows that per capita energy consumption varies by as much as a factor of three between the U.S.A. and some European countries with almost the same level of human development index (HDI). Even taking just the OECD European countries combined, the per capita energy consumption in the U.S.A. is twice as much. It is fair to assume that the per capita energy of the United States could be reduced to the level of OECD Europe of 4.2 kW by a combination of energy efficiency improvements and changes in the transportation infrastructure. This is significant because the U.S.A. uses about 25 of the energy of the whole world. The present per capita energy consumption in the U.S.A. is 284 GJ, which is equivalent to about 9 kW...

Is There A Nowaste Solution

The danger now seems to be that we are moving towards an unrealistic vision of what environmental management is to mean. Such a requirement is much stronger than anything imposed by nature. No natural ecosystem has 100 per cent internal material closure except the planet as a whole. In fact, younger ecosystems tend to recycle fewer materials than more mature ecosystems. More mature ecosystems may recycle more than half of the materials they use.11 But this recycling is always less than 100 per cent. For the rest, the ecosystem relies on the global material cycles which are powered by the sun. This complex system of materials reuse is carefully regulated by the availability of solar energy. But nowhere in this careful scheme of things is there any suggestion of complete internal materials cycling.

Pollution Prevention

Reduces the amount of any hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant entering any waste stream or otherwise released into the environment (including fugitive emissions) prior to recycling, treatment, or disposal and Rhode Island RI DEM performed more than 250 site assessments that resulted in elimination of more than 40 million tons of industrial waste. reviews at Iowa small businesses since its inception in 1988. Approx. 87 million lb of hazardous and solid waste have been reduced as a result. Even recycling efforts, important as they are, focus attention on the back end of the pollution process, after waste has been produced. Recycling is an end-of-pipe solution.

Waste combustion plant with pollution control system

Source Waste Combustion Plant with Pollution Control System, in Let's Reduce and Recycle Curriculum for Solid Waste Management, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1990 source Waste Combustion Plant with Pollution Control System, in Let's Reduce and Recycle Curriculum for Solid Waste Management, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1990 Municipal solid waste Most experts believe that incineration can never serve as a primary method of garbage disposal because it produces (1) residue that must then be transferred to a landfill and (2) poisonous gases, primarily dioxin and mercury, which are increasingly being found to be dangerous. Incineration may, however, be useful to augment landfill and recycling. WTE plants also have these problems. Mercury is largely impossible to screen with pollution-control devices such as scrubbers (an air pollution device that uses a spray of water or reactant to trap pollutants). In the process of burning paints,...

Introduction A Consuming Issue

Consumer awareness of environmental issues is slowly rising, but contradictions remain. A recent study found that while 78 of the public say they are willing to do more to avert climate change, the majority were taking only tokenistic actions at present (e.g. recycling) and were not inclined to question 'sacrosanct' behaviours such as

Corporate Transnational Environmental Crime

In response to the growing problem of developing nations being the depositories of hazardous waste, representatives of 117 nations gathered in Basel, Switzerland in 1989 to develop a treaty addressing the issue of toxic waste exportation. The Basel Convention calls for signing nations to accurately label all international waste shipments, in order to stop waste shipments to nations that have banned the toxic substance. However, there are several loopholes. One is that the treaty does not address waste shipments intended for recycling 37 . Therefore, thousands of tons of waste are disguised as recyclable waste and shipped across several international borders.

Sustainable development contexts innovation and community action

'Community Action 2020', will build on Local Agenda 21 to be 'a catalyst for thinking globally and acting locally in communities across England' (ibid.). It promotes local food initiatives, community energy efficiency schemes, recycling projects and Fairtrade activities, plus participation in decision-making, volunteering, capacity-building, information-sharing and community mentoring (DEFRA, 2005b). This represents a growing policy focus on the social economy (the 'third sector' between the private and public sectors, comprising social enterprise, cooperatives and mutuals plus voluntary and community organisations) as a source of sustainability transformation, active citizenship, and public service delivery (HM Treasury, 2002a). The social economy represents 'a wide family of initiatives and organisational forms - i.e. a hybridisation of market, non-market (redistribution) and non-monetary (reciprocity) economies' (Moulaert and Ailenei, 2005 2044 see also Dobson, 1993). As such it...