Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Read more here...

Home Based Recycling Business Summary

Rating:

4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Michael R. Meuser
Official Website: www.recyclingsecrets.com
Price: $27.00

Access Now

My Home Based Recycling Business Review

Highly Recommended

This is one of the best books I have read on this field. The writing style was simple and engaging. Content included was worth reading spending my precious time.

As a whole, this book contains everything you need to know about this subject. I would recommend it as a guide for beginners as well as experts and everyone in between.

More Tips for Easy and Effective Recycling

To get the most out of recycling, keep these things in mind If you have to drop them off, make the trip to the recycling center part of your routine. Schedule a regular day and combine the drop-off with other errands. Wheeled containers or a dolly makes it easier to move recycling bins around. The kitchen is probably where the most recyclable items get used. So if you store your recycling bins in another room, keep another bin in the kitchen to collect recyclables you'll sort later. Go online to find a recycling center near you. In the U.S., go to www. earth911.com in the U.K., go to www.recycle-more.co.uk, and then click Bank Locator.

Reusing and Recycling Play It Again

Using less of everything Reusing materials and containers Recycling when all else fails eusing and recycling may not be strictly cost effective because both W require extra labor and time on your part, and you don't often get anything in return aside from the knowledge that you've helped the environment. Nevertheless, recycling makes sense for our society as a whole, and that should be enough motivation. For the most part, your recycling regimen will be dictated by what's available in your community. Some cities have no recycling at all. Some have extensive programs that include free containers (often these are different colors for different materials, like cans, bottles, newspapers, and so on.) You'll need to do some research to find out what kind of recycling your utility system offers.

Does recycling save money

Now we come to the bottom line What's the economic impact of recycling For manufacturers, recycling is good news, because it's cheaper and requires less energy to use recycled materials than to produce new ones from scratch. Industries that benefit from recycling include steel mills, companies that work with nonferrous metals (like aluminum), paper and paperboard mills, and plastic converters. Take aluminum cans as an example. Making one ton of aluminum requires nearly 9,000 pounds of bauxite and 1,020 pounds of petroleum coke as fuel. Recycling aluminum, on the other hand, requires 95 less raw material and 90 less energy. Another benefit to companies is increased demand When people like you buy recycled products, you support the manufacturers' recycled product line. That's a great example of voting with your wallet. Recycling is also good for the economy because it creates jobs According to the National Recycling Coalition, in the U.S. alone, the 236-billion-a-year recycling industry...

Environmentally Friendly Recycling

While we are not aware of any recycling process that is 100 environmentally friendly, recycling done correctly can dramatically reduce the impact that the use of computers and other electronic equipment have on the environment. Several organizations are working to ensure that recycling and the handling of e-waste are done in a responsible manner, with minimal impact on the environment. It is also your responsibility as a consumer to ensure that the vendor you use to recycle your end-of-life equipment does what you expect them to do and does not simply transfer the problem somewhere else.

California Electronic Waste Recycling

The California legislature passed the Electronic Waste Recycling Act of 2003 to address the growing problem of e-waste from computer and television video display devices. The act requires that an e-waste fee be collected at the time the product is sold to help pay for the safe recycling of what the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) has determined to be covered electronic devices or CEDs. CEDs are defined as display devices that measure more than 4 inches diagonally. These include new or refurbished MAINE'S HOUSEHOLD TELEVISION AND COMPUTER MONITOR RECYCLING LAW In 2003, a comprehensive e-waste law was passed in Maine to create a partnership among local and state governments, the manufacturers of electronic equipment, and consumers to ensure that all e-waste is recycled or properly disposed of. The legislature wrote that the purpose of this section is to establish a comprehensive electronics recycling system that ensures the safe and environmentally sound handling,...

Does recycling really reduce greenhouse gas emissions

Hand in hand with the issue of energy savings is the question of whether recycling keeps greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere and helps to reduce global warming. Again, the answer is yes Materials produced from recycled steel, copper, glass, and paper have net carbon emissions four to five times lower than when those things are produced from virgin materials. For paper, we're talking 73 less and for aluminum, 95 less. According the U.S. EPA, increasing America's recycling rate from its current rate of 32 to 35 would reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2 million metric tons each year compared to what would be emitted if those recyclables were buried in landfills. That's the equivalent of taking more than 3.7 million cars off the road.

Composting Recycling Organic Materials

Composting is a method of recycling organic materials, such as certain food waste and yard clippings, directly into the soil. Although there are many ways to make composts, the basic idea is to mix yard clippings and food waste into a pile with soil and let it decompose worms, insects, and other organisms RECYCLING The Netherlands recycled more than three quarters (77 )of the approximately 65 million tons of garbage it generated in 2000. Public pressure to reduce dioxin emissions from incineration plants and pollution from landfills led to landfill taxes beginning in 1995 and a landfill ban on combustible waste in 1997. In addition, government-owned incineration plants were operated below full capacity at the same time as incentives to expand the recyclables market and encourage end-of-life producer responsibility were initiated. Mandatory separation of different types of industrial wastes, with recycling of construction and demolition waste within a government financed...

Texas Electronic Waste Recycling

In 2007, the Texas House passed House Bill 2714, the Electronic Waste Recycling Act, which requires computer manufacturers that sell in Texas to offer consumers free and convenient recycling of the computers sold in the state. The act defines computer equipment as desktop and laptop computers, monitors (display devices without a tuner), and the accompanying keyboard and mouse made by the same manufacturer.

How External Recycling Works

External recycling involves three basic steps Primary recycling is the reprocessing of materials into the same type of product, such the recycling of used glass bottles into new glass bottles. Secondary recycling is the reprocessing of materials into different but similar products, such as processing corrugated cardboard boxes into cereal boxes. Tertiary recycling is the reprocessing of a material into a product that cannot be recycled again for example, when mixed office paper is reprocessed into bathroom tissue. 3. Marketing and sale of new items. One of the most challenging parts of recycling is creating markets for recycled items. Recycling programs depend on their ability to advertise and sell recycled items at competitive prices. Recycling does not accomplish its goals if recycled items are not used.

Recycling And Embodied Energy

In most cases, refurbishment would be the preferred option, provided that the core of the building can be reused without extensive demolition. Refurbishment is essentially the recycling of a building. Recycling is an issue that needs careful thought in relation to environmental impact. It only makes environmental sense to recycle if it can be done easily that is, without requiring the input of a lot of energy, if the building can be thermally upgraded and if such recycling is not repeated too frequently.

The National Recycling Coalition Recommendations

The National Recycling Coalition lists several steps that purchasing departments of organizations can use in their waste-reduction strategies The EPA reports that 232 million pounds of waste were generated in 2000. The amount of waste produced per person has grown over the last thirty-five years, from 2.7 to 4.6 pounds per day. In 1999, waste reduction saved over fifty million tons of municipal solid waste from being dumped into landfills. see also Abatement Composting Green Lifestyle Recycling Reuse Technology, Pollution Prevention. National Recycling Coalition. (1999). Purchasing Strategies to Prevent Waste and Save Money. Alexandria, VA Author.

Invested energy and recycling

In fact, invested energy is a big force in favor of recycling. From an economic standpoint, recycling may not seem like such a great idea. It takes time on your part and requires you to set up systems and stick with them. But you're not just saving money when you recycle you're saving invested energy, and all the pollution and environmental costs that go with it.

Longer term perspectives mineral sequestration and CO recycling

Carbon dioxide recycling includes all possible uses in industrial or biological processes. Unfortunately the quantities of CO2 which can be recycled in that way are limited. Currently, the main application in the chemical industry is the production of urea, which requires around 80 million tons of CO2 per year 92 . A significant outlet is provided by the agro-food industry which, in Europe, consumes around 2.7 million tons of CO2. A CO2 rich atmosphere is used for accelerating the growth of plants cultivated in greenhouses. This outlet is also limited, but it is possible to widen the applications of the biomass produced in a CO2 enriched atmosphere by investigating new applications in the agro-food, chemical and energy industries.

Provincial and municipal recycling and production of biofertilizers

Whereas agrochemicals were rationed and distributed to the farm, organic inputs could be obtained at will, where available, but had to be sought out. Some institutes and regions were supporting farmers to access organic inputs more than others. Agricultural Enterprises in one municipality in Havana, for example, were assisting in the recycling of farm byproducts purchasing manure and maize husks from specialized livestock or mixed crop farms and transporting them to where they would be returned to the land or for use as livestock feed. In this case, they were supporting the local integration of crops and livestock between rather than on-farm. Another Enterprise was producing its own compost from wastes collected throughout the region, and selling this to farmers. Yet another, at provincial level, was producing bioterra - composted sugarcane residue - and providing it free for collection by municipal Enterprises. In banana-growing regions in the east of the country, state farms and...

Recycling Petrodollars

In May 1973, with the dramatic fall of the dollar still vivid, a group of 84 of the world's top financial and political insiders met at Saltsjobaden, Sweden, the secluded island resort of the Swedish Wallenberg banking family. This gathering of the Bilderberg group heard an American participant, Walter Levy, outline a 'scenario' for an imminent 400 percent increase in OPEC petroleum revenues. The purpose of the secret Saltsjobaden meeting was not to prevent the expected oil price shock, but rather to plan how to manage the about-to-be-created flood of oil dollars, a process US Secretary of State Kissinger later called 'recycling the petrodollar flows.' emphasis added Beginning in the mid-1970s the American Century system of global economic dominance underwent a dramatic change. The oil price shocks of 1973-1974 and 1979 suddenly created enormous demand for the floating dollar. Oil-importing countries from Germany to Argentina to Japan all were faced with how to acquire export-based...

Internal and External Recycling

Most people associate recycling with items such as newspapers, magazines, plastics, aluminum, and glass. The recovery, reprocessing, and reuse of materials from used items is called external recycling and requires public participation. A second type of recycling, internal recycling, is the reuse of waste materials from manufacturing and does not involve the general public. For example, the manufacture production of copper items results in wasted copper pieces with internal recycling, these pieces are melted down and recast. Although internal recovery is possible in many industries, it is most common in the metal industry. Because industrial waste accounts for 98 percent of all waste in the United States, many critics of recycling advocate that more attention should be paid to internal recycling than external recycling.

Maryland Statewide Computer Recycling Pilot Program

The Statewide Computer Recycling Pilot Program enacted in Maryland in 2005 is designed to encourage computer manufacturers to establish takeback programs to collect and recycle, refurbish, or reuse end-of-life computers. It applies to any computer manufacturer that sells more than 1,000 computers a year in the state. Manufacturers are charged an initial 5,000 registration fee to sell computers in Maryland. Manufacturers that establish such recovery programs are required to pay a 500 annual fee after the initial 5,000 registration. The fees are distributed to local governments to support local e-waste collection efforts. In addition, the law requires the Maryland Department of the Environment to study and compare the impact of cathode-ray tube disposal and to review the effectiveness of the computer recycling pilot program. The law is scheduled to expire at the end of 2010. Massachusetts in April of 2000 became the first state to ban the disposal of CRT displays, mostly because of...

Reduced Use and Recycling

There is growing concern about the excess use of plastics, particularly in packaging. This has been done, in part, to avoid the theft of small objects. The use of plastics can be reduced through a better choice of container sizes and through the distribution of liquid products in more concentrated form. A concern is the proper disposal of waste plastics. Litter results from careless disposal, and decomposition rates in landfills can be extremely long. Consumers should be persuaded or required to divert these for recycling or other environmentally acceptable procedures. Marine pollution arising from disposal of plastics from ships or flow from storm sewers must be avoided. Disposal at sea is prohibited by federal regulation. Recycling of plastics is desirable because it avoids their accumulation in landfills. While plastics constitute only about 8 percent by weight or 20 percent by volume of municipal solid waste, their low density and slowness to decompose makes them a visible...

The History And Current Strength Of Recycling

Recycling has become a major part of MSW management in the United States, and it will likely continue to grow, although at a slower pace than in the past. Recycling, however, did not enjoy immediate success. It started out as a do-good activity but eventually became a necessity for municipal governments. For a quarter-century after the first Earth Day (April 22, 1970), recycling advocates pleaded their case to skeptical decision-makers in the interest of environmental benefit. In the early years of recycling, the economy was unable to use all the plastic, paper, and other materials that were recovered. Many private recycling companies were not able to make a profit. Instead of earning money from recycling, the programs cost them money. Some cities even started dumping their recycled materials into landfills because they could not sell them. Many city leaders felt that money spent on recycling should be used in other areas instead, such as education. Critics of recycling pointed to the...

Recycling What Goes Around Comes Around

Recycling is a good idea that's been around for a while. Modern recycling was born in the environmental movement of the 1960s and '70s. To coincide with the very first Earth Day April 22, 1970 the Container Corporation of America, a major producer of recycled paperboard, sponsored a contest for art and design students to create a logo that symbolized the recycling process. UCLA student Gary Dean Anderson won with his triple-arrow design that has become one of the most recognized symbols on the planet. In the 1970s, concern over rising energy costs led companies to consider recycling as a way to save money. Combined with a growing interest in protecting the environment and concerns over pollution and wasteful use of resources, the recycling movement gained momentum. Beginning in the early '70s, cities and towns passed recycling laws, arranged for curb-side recycling pick-up, and set up recycling drop-off centers. States and countries banned certain kinds of recyclable materials from...

Recycling the Right Way Saves Everybody Energy

In 2005, over 80 million tons of paper were recycled, but that's only a small fraction of all the paper that gets used. Americans also go through 4 million single-use plastic bottles every hour, yet only one in four gets recycled. So what stops folks from recycling Mainly inconvenience. Thus, the best way to make recycling a reality is to set up a system that's convenient and easy to use. Aside from the more obvious candidates for recycling, here are some important items to recycle l Appliances These can almost always be recycled. Call your trash collectors and they may pick them up right at your door. Or you can donate them when the new equipment is delivered (most appliance stores have active recycling programs they get some money for the old stuff, but more power to them). l Old batteries Even the rechargeable ones can be recycled, which makes a lot of sense. For information on recycling batteries, including those from laptops, cellphones, camcorders, and the like, visit...

Waste Minimization and Recycling

Recycling and waste minimization may be the best ways to deal with hazardous waste. Waste minimization reduces the volume of waste generated, whereas recycling means that less hazardous waste requires disposal. Techniques for waste minimization may include audits, better inventory management, production process equipment modifications, and operational maintenance procedures. Raw material changes, volume reductions, nonhaz-ardous material substitutions, reuse, or recovery also reduce hazardous waste production. For example biodegradable, nontoxic lactate esters are solvents manufactured from renewable carbohydrate sources that can be substituted for toxic halogenated solvents. The EPA's Industrial Toxics Project is a nonregulatory program initiated in 1990 to achieve, voluntarily, overall reductions for seventeen toxic chemicals reported in the government's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), including cadmium, lead, mercury, trichloroethylene, and toluene. The recycling of waste through...

Does recycling actually save energy

It obviously takes energy to recycle. The process involves sorting, processing, and transporting materials. So does recycling save more energy than it uses Consider these facts Recycling plastic bottles uses about 70-75 less energy than creating new ones from scratch. Recycling paper uses about 40-45 less energy than making new paper from trees (and each three-foot-high stack of newspaper you recycle saves one tree). Recycling glass uses about 21 less energy than producing new glass. As these figures show, the answer is a resounding yes. Plus, recycling fosters a cradle-to-cradle approach to resources (page 84).

Expost compensation revenue recycling approach

As noted in the introductory chapter (Andersen, Chapter 1, 3 ff) it makes a significant difference whether revenues are recycled via a lowering of income taxes for wage earners, or via a lowering of employers' social security contributions. The so-called tax interaction effect (Bovenberg and de Mooij, 1994) would suggest that revenue recycling under the second method is more desirable, as inflationary impacts can be minimized. On the basis of a more detailed review of revenue recycling methods in Europe's ETR countries (cf. Speck and Jilkova, Chapter 2, 24 ff), it is possible to make the following observations tax-free allowance for income as well as to complicated formulae for exempting basic consumption of electricity and gas (Vermeend and van der Vaart, 1998 11). In the second phase, the Dutch stuck more closely to the fiscal conventionalists' advice and reduced employers' social security wage component, but they also reduced corporate taxes. In Germany, ecological tax reform split...

Recycling Programs

As you saw in Table 9-1, HP's recycling efforts go back to 1971. Though the company started with recycling computer printouts, over the years its efforts have evolved to include inkjet cartridges, computers, and most other devices. Programs are geared at customers and businesses, and they give several options for customers who want to get rid of old equipment. Since 1987 the company has been recycling technology products and currently offers recycling services in 45 countries. HP uses company-approved recycling vendors to handle product that cannot be reused. Recyclers dismantle equipment and process materials to extract as much value as possible. NOTE In Europe, HP was key in the creation of the European Recycling Platform and Nordic Electronics Recycling Association. This helped the company comply with European Union producer responsibility recycling legislation. Recycling vendors must meet HP's supplier code of conduct and global recycling standards. These standards require vendors...

Recycling

You've likely got some recycling measures in place already. Most companies do, but not every company is as strict as the next one. At some places, recycling simply means throwing soda pop cans into a separate bin. Other companies separate out plastic, different colors of glass, and office paper. Still other places get downright radical about what they recycle. No matter where you are on the recycling continuum, there's likely someplace else you can find to recycle. If your company is already especially militant about recycling, we're probably not going to tell you anything you don't already know. But if you do need some tips, consider these issues.

Recycling Companies

If you've decide to go the recycling route, you should bear in mind certain considerations when making a selection. Naturally, you want to save money, but you also want to go with a recycler who is environmentally responsible (not all are a lot of that stuff in China came from unscrupulous recyclers). You also want to find a company that is accountable and maintains good records about what they did with your old machines. In this section, we talk about factors to consider when selecting a recycler.

Recyclingof Sorts

How can I be so bold on this claim First, other countries with extensive nuclear power operations, notably France, United Kingdom, and Japan, all operate reprocessing facilities to some degree. It's not like we're reinventing the wheel or anything reprocessing is a form of recycling. I freely acknowledge most people who feel good about recycling their bottles and cans do not feel good about reprocessing nuclear fuel. However, for the most part, they don't realize that we already reprocess significant amounts of nuclear material.

Increasing Recycling

Although a majority of Americans express favorable attitudes toward recycling (Dunlap & Scarce, 1991), the amount of material recycled in the United States falls far short of what is considered possible. People fail to participate in recycling programs for a variety of reasons, including indifference and the perceived nuisance of doing so (Howenstine, 1993 Vining & Ebreo, 1990 Vining, Linn, & Burdge, 1992). Several studies have shown that logistic factors, such as the design and placement of receptacles for deposit of trash or materials for recycling, can have an effect on litter control and recycling behavior (Finnie, 1973 Geller, Brasted & Mann, 1979-1980 Humphrey, Bord, Hammond, & Mann, 1977 Jacobs, Bailey, & Crews, 1984 Luyben & Bailey, 1979 Reid, Luyben, Rawers, & Bailey, 1976). Stern, & Dietz, 1995 Schultz & Oskamp, 1996 Scott, 1999). Reasons for recycling also vary not least among them is the intrinsic satisfaction people get from being frugal or...

Recycling energy

Recycling waste energy can take two approaches. In the first case, power plants are sited at an industrial facility that produces a stream of waste energy, such as gas that is normally flared, hot exhaust or high-pressure gas or steam that must be decompressed back to atmospheric pressure. These plants, known in the literature as 'bottoming cycle cogeneration plants', convert the waste energy streams into electricity. The resulting electricity is typically sold back to the industrial host for use on site, thus avoiding the need for transmission and distribution wires and avoiding the losses associated with transmitting the same power over great distances. In the second case, explained in more detail below, power plants burn fuel to generate electricity and then recycle the inevitable waste heat to replace the supply of thermal energy from a separate boiler. These local power plant facilities convert 33-45 per cent of the fuel's potential energy to electricity, just like their larger...

Breakdown by waste type of municipal solid waste generated

Note Total MSW was 236 million tons (before recycling). source Figure 3. 2003 Total MSW Generation 236 Million Tons (Before Recycling), in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, http www.epa (accessed August 4, 2005) Note Total MSW was 236 million tons (before recycling). source Figure 3. 2003 Total MSW Generation 236 Million Tons (Before Recycling), in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, http www.epa (accessed August 4, 2005)

ETR in the Netherlands

In 1998, an ETR was implemented based on revenue neutrality. Revenues, generated mainly by the Regulatory Tax on Energy, are recycled back to the economy (households and industry) by applying different recycling measures that took effect in 1999. The recycling measures targeting households were Various recycling options were also in place for Dutch industry

An Old Idea Is Rediscovered

There is nothing new about recycling. People have found ways to reuse pottery, gold, silver, and bronze for thousands of years. Old swords were melted and reshaped to use as plows. Gold and silver jewelry were melted down and reshaped into other forms. As recently as one hundred years ago, traveling peddlers in the United States and Europe collected rags, bones, and scrap metal waste from household garbage and sold them to manufacturers to make into new products. During the early twentieth century, Americans relied less and less on recycling. By the 1950s the United States was labeled a throw-away economy because Americans were consuming increasing amounts of goods that ended up in garbage landfills. Recycling was revived in many Western countries back in the 1960s and 1970s as the public became interested in conservation and looked for ways to reduce damage to the environment. In the United States, the first Earth Day in 1970 is often viewed as the official beginning of the modern...

Environmental Compliance Label For A Portable Handset

Ment functions for its full life and is not discarded as out of fashion. The surplus equipment is sent to a recycling company that separates component materials and sends the results to be recycled or for final disposal. In this way, the Green Supply Chain becomes more of a Green recycling loop. From time to time, electronic equipment ceases to work. If the device is under warranty, then the manufacturer can send a replacement part. In some cases, the broken part must be returned to the manufacturer as proof of the defect or for recycling. If the component is inexpensive or has little reuse value, the repairperson is told to dispose of it. This is called a field destroy replacement. These parts must be included in the regular waste stream to the electronics recycling company.

Regulations Adopted Around the World

Many countries have acted sooner and gone much further than the United States in enacting laws and regulations requiring some recycling of materials used in the manufacturing of various products. More densely populated areas, such as Japan and the European Union (EU), are running out of available landfill capacity much quicker than is the United States. As a result, they are mandating recycling to reduce the amount of material going into landfills. Some of these laws affect the computer industry indirectly, such as general restrictions on what can be landfilled, and others directly, such as prohibiting the disposal of CRT monitors. There are several reasons why you should be aware of recycling regulations in other parts of the world. First, landfill capacity in the United States is not limitless and, sooner rather than later, we will have the same issues as do other areas of the world. Second, many of these regulations impact how products are made by manufacturers that are...

Measure The Percentage Of Devices Sent To A Recycler

The third option is to use a hardware recycling company. These organizations shred the devices to physically separate the materials used to create it. These materials are then recycled for reuse instead of mining fresh material from the earth. The recycler will also ensure the proper disposal of potentially toxic materials that cannot be reused. Many electronic equipment recycling companies will also prepare used equipment with remaining useful life for sale or donation. Another service available is the total management of IT assets from proposal to disposal, if desired.

Sources for map and commentary

Cointreau, Sandra, Solid Waste Recycling Case Studies in Developing Countries, Washington DC World Bank, 1987 Levenson, Howard, Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, personal communication Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), OECD Environmental Data Compendium, 1989, Paris OECD, 1989 World Resources Institute lnstitute for Environment and Development, World Resources 1988-89, New York Basic Books, 1988 World Action on Recycling Materials for Energy from Rubbish (WARMER), Tunbridge Wells, personal communication Worldwatch Institute, State of the World 1989, New York Norton, 1989.

Regulations in the United States

At present, no Federal mandate requires the recycling of computers and other e-waste. While there have been several attempts to develop a Federal policy covering e-waste, it has been left up to the individual states to enact their own electronics recycling, reuse, and recovery programs. The Federal government has encouraged the recycling of CRT displays by exempting intact CRTs from hazardous waste regulations (see RCRA below). Although the individual states decide how to handle their e-waste, several Federal laws do indirectly effect how e-waste can be disposed of, as computers and other IT assets can contain a significant amount of toxic materials. Unbroken CRTs To encourage recycling, the EPA does not consider unbroken CRTs to be hazardous waste unless they are stored for more than one year. The one-year storage limit applies only to Broken CRTs Again to encourage recycling, broken CRTs are not regulated as hazardous waste as long as the following conditions are met

The Role of Government

The oldest recycling law in the United States is the Oregon Recycling Opportunity Act, which was passed in 1983 and went into effect in 1986. The Act established curbside residential recycling opportunities in large cities and set up drop-off depots in small towns and rural areas. A growing number of states require that many consumer goods sold must be made from recycled products. In addition, many states have set recycling recovery goals for their MSW. In 1989 the state of Maine adopted a goal to achieve 50 recycling by the year 1994. Although the deadline was later extended, the state has not been able to achieve it as of 2005. Officials blame the dramatic population growth in southern Maine that boosted the MSW generation rate. For recycling programs to work, there must be markets for recycled products. To help create demand, some states require that newspaper publishers use a minimum proportion of recycled paper. Many states require that recycled materials be used in making...

What Things Are Recycled

Some recycling centers have systems to reprocess newer products such as compact and floppy disks. Aluminum. Aluminum cans are the most widely recycled metal. In 1999 roughly two-thirds of all aluminum cans produced in the United States were recycled. However, not all forms of aluminum are recycled. For example, aluminum foil can be recycled, but not all recycling centers are set up to process it. Paper. Paper recycling is one of this country's most successful recycling programs. By weight, more paper is recycled each year than all other materials combined. The success of this program is in part due to the successful marketing and sale of recycled paper. Recycled paper is widely used today. Unfortunately, paper can only be recycled a limited number of times, because the paper fibers become too short to continue reprocessing after awhile. Newspaper. Every part of a newspaper can be recycled including the newspaper and inserts. Newspaper recycling has been profitable for...

Unintended Consequences

Solutions to environmental problems occasionally create unintended consequences, that is, solving one problem creates another. Scientists and engineers must carefully evaluate potential negative results before implementing new remediation programs. For example, burying wastes in landfills may cause groundwater contamination, incinerating wastes reduces waste volumes but can cause air pollution, and excavating abandoned waste sites as part of a remediation effort may expose workers to contamination. Recycling can have a net negative environmental impact if air pollution associated with transportation outweighs environmental benefits. Stimulating the biod gradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in contaminated groundwater can lead to the formation of vinyl chloride, a more hazardous chemical. Two examples are described here MTBE and disinfection by-products.

Keep Up to Date with Global Issues

It's important to know what's going on in the global community as far as regulation is concerned. The European Union's Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) regulations and California's Electronic Waste Recycling Act (EWRA) are likely to impact your supply chain. For instance, because of EWRA, it is prohibited to sell devices in California banned by Europe's RoHS. This includes monitors that contain the heavy metals restricted by RoHS. If you keep up on global regulation issues, you can see how they affect your own supply chain often for the better.

Manufacturer Programs

The term recycle is defined by dictionary.com as to treat or process (used or waste materials) so as to make suitable for reuse. We normally think of recycling as taking a product back to its raw material form and then using the reclaimed raw material to make a new product (such as the recycling of paper). However, when many people apply the term recycling to computer equipment, it can also mean giving the equipment to others who can use it (such as donating it to a school or charity) or reusing still functional parts to make a new system (technically remanufacturing). All of these options are preferable to dumping the equipment into a landfill, but this chapter focuses on how design affects the feasibility of breaking down equipment so that the raw materials can be recovered.

Beyond calculating and all over the world

Another helpful site for individuals is provided by the fossil fuel multinational BP. It covers relatively few countries, but they do include China and South Africa. You can pass your cursor over various on-screen icons and find information about ways to reduce your carbon emissions. There are three main areas At Home, In the Store, and On the Road. The At Home info-icons include renewables, lighting, domestic appliances like fridges, home insulation, heating and cooling, energy-efficiency and recycling. In the Store offers advice on seasonal sense, local logic, packaging principles and recycling reason (In many cases, products made from recycled materials require less energy to produce compared with those made from original materials. For example, it can take almost 75 per cent less energy to make items from recycled steel than it does from new steel.) else in an industrialized country. One notable exception is on the Carbon Footprint site. It allows you to work out the emissions...

Output welfare and equilibrium in EGEM

The form of the wage equation determines how much workers are able to offset the rise in consumption prices due to energy taxation with higher real wages if wage increases outstrip productivity growth, unemployment and inflation is likely to increase in the medium term. Disregarding long run output effects, revenue recycling through direct taxation should leave real disposable income to consumers unchanged. However, the dynamics of price adjustment can lead to increases in perceived purchasing power, and inflationary or deflationary spirals in the short to medium term. The form of the wage equation is critical when tax recycling through employers' labour tax contributions is modelled. The imposition of a carbon tax effectively reduces workers' real wages if it is not recycled, because the rise in the aggregate price level is uncompensated. If the tax is recycled through employers' labour tax contributions then in a perfectly competitive market, and ignoring changes in factor usage,...

Understand the Process

Processes for purchasing, orienting new employees, waste segregation, and recycling all have emission implications. Some of these processes will be more fully developed than others, creating different types of opportunities. For example, on a campus without a sophisticated or comprehensive recycling program, recycling may be a good place to start building credibility for subsequent climate change advocacy.

Work with Related Issues

Sometimes it is strategically important to explain the relationship between climate change goals and other campus initiatives such as recycling or environment, health, and safety. In addition it may be strategic to establish a link with larger university priorities such as regulatory compliance, cost containment, or religion. Recycling An effective recycling program is a minimum standard for an institution that takes environmental issues seriously. If recycling containers are not available or if there are other concerns, we hear comments. When we hear about it, it is sometimes linked to issues of energy and commitment why should I turn down the heat when the custodian just mixed my recycling with the trash How much can usefully be said about the relationship between climate change and recycling depends to an extent on the audience. A great deal has been written about attributes of recycling, and some assessments raise questions about net gains or benefits.2 As with many complex...

Waste the policy response

Waste management has become one of the priorities of EU environmental policy. The first laws in this area were adopted in the mid-1970s, but the development of EU policy has accelerated over the past decade, reflecting a rise both in political and public interest in the problem, and concern about the mixed record in bringing it under control. The emphasis of EU policy has been on waste prevention, recycling and reuse, improving disposal conditions, and regulating the transport of waste. However, despite the adoption of 85 laws and the elaboration of strategies and a broad variety of policy objectives, the EU does not yet have a common waste management policy. Policy activities have focused on five main areas as follows.

Terrestrial biosphere feedbacks

The terrestrial biosphere has the potential to feed back to climate by altering the albedo of the land, and by altering evaporation. Trees have a much lower albedo than does the bare ground. Cooling might lead to the demise of forests, increasing albedo, and driving temperatures down further. Trees also mine ground water and evaporate it from their leaves. The Amazon rain forest is said to perpetuate its own existence by extracting ground water and evaporating it to the air, rather than allowing it to escape through rivers to the ocean. By recycling the water to the atmosphere, the forest increases the rate of rainfall that keeps the rain forest healthy.

Individual State Regulations

While the U.S. government has not been at the forefront of environmental law on e-waste, individual states have begun enacting legislation to address the growing problem. An advantage to this approach is that many different ideas on how to best handle e-waste are implemented and the merits can be compared the disadvantage is that consumers and, especially, manufacturers have to keep track of a different sets of rules for each state in which they do business. One hopes that at some point the best ideas will sort themselves out and a federal program will be adopted to make compliance easier. Below are details on selected state programs. Figure 2-1 lists all states that have some sort of electronics recycling reuse legislation currently in effect.

The Dilemma Of Substitution

For instance, suppose that a particular factory reduces its use of a particular toxic compound by an internal recycling measure. We know from thermodynamics that energy is required to close a material cycle. This means that the factory is likely to be using more energy as a result of the measure than it was before. Suppose that this energy is provided by electricity. The toxic emissions from the factory itself will certainly be reduced by the recycling measure, but more electricity is needed to close the cycle. So, in a sense, we could say that we have substituted electricity for the toxic compound in question within the industrial process. Since we know that the generation of electricity is a polluting activity, we could also say that we have substituted toxic pollution with sulphur pollution and carbon pollution (if it is a coal-fired electricity generation plant, for instance). This is not the end of the story, however, because by recycling the toxic compound we have reduced the...

Crafting a More Balanced Global Economy

Petrodollar recycling was unusual in that it was a severe shock to international economic stability. Yet insofar as the oil shocks were a symptom of US hegemonic decline, similar shocks can be expected in the future. International institutions do not have the capability to handle such threats to stability, and US unilateralism will prevent the strengthening of multilateral cooperative regimes.

Design for Environment

HP has integrated environmental considerations into its product designs, taking into account such issues as energy efficiency, provisions for reuse, and recycling. HP introduces new materials to meet customer expectations, to capitalize on emerging technologies, and to substitute for materials of concern. Design for Recyclability (DfR) features facilitate disassembly and recycling ' HP offers a variety of take-back options, including asset recovery, donation, leasing, remarketing refurbishment, trade-in and recycling ' Materials selection and identification increase value at end-of-life and facilitate recycling ' Design features increase ease of disassembly, recycling and material reuse

Plant Biomass Production

The reason for the Earth recycling all of her material parts can be explained by looking again at Fig. 2.5. The Earth is powered by the sun's radiation that crosses the outer boundary of her atmosphere and reaches her surface. The Earth can export into outer space long-wave infrared radiation.15 But, because of her size, the Earth holds on to all mass of all chemical elements, except perhaps for hydrogen. By maintaining an oxygen-rich atmosphere, life has managed to prevent the airborne hydrogen from escaping Earth's gravity by reacting it back to water (and destroying ozone). In a mature ecosystem, one species' waste must be another species' food and no net waste is ever created, see Fig. 2.9. The little imperfections in the Earth's surface recycling programs have resulted in the burial of a remarkably tiny fraction of plant carbon in swamps, lakes, and shallow coastal waters16, see Fig. 2.15. Very rarely the violent anoxic events would kill most of life in the oceanic waters and...

Other IT Related Disposal Issues

Because of their bulk, computers and printers get most of the attention when recycling issues are addressed, but other items that are a part of the IT food chain can also have a major effect on an organization's environmental impact. Consumables, such as paper and toner cartridges, and portable media, such as CDs and DVDs, while small in size are used in large quantities in most organizations. Other devices, such as flash drives, PDAs, and cell phones, are regularly upgraded to the latest and greatest devices. And probably most important of all is the data that is stored on all of these devices. If the data is not handled correctly at disposal time, the cost to the organization can be significant. Consumable items are used as part of the delivery of information technology services. Much of these consumables support the production of documents used for the creation and dissemination of information. These consumables include paper, toner cartridges, inkjet cartridges, staples, and paper...

Case Study New Anglian Water Housing Project

The idea of large-scale effluent recycling came from Anglian Water's involvement in household grey water studies, from which it became clear that recycling water on a small scale with existing technology was not practical and could not guarantee a sufficiently high quality of water. The concept was as follows to collect all wastewater (referred to as black water) from a development of houses via a conventional sewer and treat this using conventional sewage treatment technology. Approximately 60 per cent of this water would then be discharged to the environment, and 40 per cent would be further treated to a standard that could be used for toilet flushing via a separate dedicated main.

Shockley Queisser Formulation

By assuming that an ideal cell did have black-body properties, they were able to very simply calculate the net rate of recombination in the cell taking into account photon recycling effects. By considering such a cell in thermal equilibrium (no external light on it and no voltage applied to it), they realised it would have to be emitting Planckian black-body radiation at these energies, of the same type as treated in Chap. 2. Moreover, From Eqs. (4.2) and (4.7), all radiative recombination in the cell should increase exponentially with applied voltage. Since photon recycling effects would remain proportionately the same, this meant Shockley and Queisser could now calculate the net recombination rate at any voltage. This leads instantly to the ideal solar cell equation with unity ideality factor (N 1) and Io given by The interesting feature of this expression is that I0 no longer depends on cell volume. Although the total number of radiative recombination events increases with volume,...

Macroeconomic Costs Of Carbon Abatement

Improving labour productivity to increasing energy efficiency. As fossil fuels will continue to be used in the foreseeable future, so carbon tax revenues will be substantial. If these revenues are recycled into reducing other economic distortions, such as employers' labour taxes (as opposed to being given back to households in a lump sum), then the net effect on macroeconomic output could be minimal or even positive (Barker 1994). The potential for positive output effects from recycling carbon taxes is theoretically contentious as some economic models deny such an effect is possible (Ligthart and Van der Ploeg 1994, Bovenberg and Goulder 1994). These negative results are usually driven by an initial assumption that the labour market clears at the given wage (i.e. there is no involuntary unemployment) and existing mixes of taxation are roughly optimal. Relaxation of these assumptions can generate models which allow recycling of tax revenue to offset completely the direct costs of...

Processing the Cometr tax data

Two new classifications were added to the E3ME model so that it could cope with the new tax data. These were the CT (COMETR Tax) classification, and the CR (COMETR Revenue-Recycling) classification. The CR classification (see Table 7.2) handles the various revenue recycling mechanisms employed in the ETRs considered in COMETR. 7.3.2 Rates, revenues, and recycling The revenue recycling is an important part of the modelling in E3ME, and in some cases has a larger economic impact than the energy taxes. Therefore it is important that the scenario results demonstrate the most accurate profile of revenue recycling possible, and are not biased by any changes in the overall level of taxation. To achieve this target, the revenue recycling data were converted to shares of revenue received and the shares were set to sum to 1, ensuring that tax receipts equal revenue recycling payments. revenue recycling is stored as shares and used to make changes to other taxes in millions of EUR or investment...

Scenarios specified to model ETR

Revenue recycling These scenarios allow the ETR to be decomposed country by country into three components the full tax, the exemptions, and compensation via recycling. these are the OECD, Eurostat, and the IEA. These data include the effects of ETR in the 1990s, and any accompanying exemptions and revenue recycling methods. The forecast part of the baseline solution, which is used for the ex-ante analysis, is derived from a combination of DG TREN's Energy and Transport Trends to 2030 (with emissions data published by the EEA), and the IEA's energy price assumptions.

Building related illness

Over recent years there has been awareness of the phenomenon 'sick building syndrome', more accurately termed 'building-induced sickness'. Factors like off-gassing from plastics in furnishings and fittings or the frequency of fluorescent lights have been implicated. Poorly designed heating and ventilation systems have also been identified as culprits, aside from the most spectacular problem of Legionnaires disease. There have been numerous horror stories of badly maintained systems providing a comfortable habitat for all manner of unmentionable life forms as well as closed systems recycling bacteria and viruses resulting in high levels of absenteeism.

Wasteto Energys Growth Prospects

All the processes mentioned here are becoming more efficient just as environmental restrictions on incinerators and landfills are tightening around the world. So in the aggregate waste-to-energy will see dramatic growth in coming years, though in early 2008, it isn 't yet clear which technologies will be the eventual winners. U.K.-based Alkane Energy, the leader in methane generation plants, is a solid choice in that segment. But as with so many other clean technologies, the innovative smaller players (i.e., the potential growth stocks) face competition from deep-pocketed giants (see Table 17.1). Garbage firms Waste Management, Allied Waste, and Covanta, for instance, operate dozens of traditional incineration plants and recycling operations and will no doubt aggressively adopt new waste- to-energy technologies as they become viable.

Geothermal Heating System

A geothermal reservoir is an aquifer with hot water or steam. The production well is used to withdraw hot water from the geothermal reservoir and the injection well is used to recycle the water. Recycling helps maintain reservoir pressure. If the geothermal reservoir is relatively small, the recycled, cooler water can lower the temperature of the aquifer. The electric pump in the figure is needed to help

Environmental Outreach

IBM is also careful in choosing its suppliers by only doing business with suppliers that also try to be green. In 1972, IBM started evaluating suppliers of hazardous waste services, and in 1980, management started evaluating production related suppliers. In 1991, the company did even more, expanding its environmental evaluations of suppliers by adding a requirement that its product recycling and product disposal suppliers be evaluated. The main reason for pushing these evaluations was to ensure

The Nature of the Continental Shelf

Waters provide important ecological services as well, including the recycling of nutrients from the land, modulation of regional climates, and the assimilation of waste products. Beyond the utilitarian goods and services, the continental shelf is where you can get a sense of the vastness of the sea that oceanic feeling. Shelf waters and sediments also host an astonishing array of creatures, some in almost unimaginable abundance.

From Russia with Energy

Material suitable for nuclear fuel rods. In fact, we've been doing just that. It's called the Megatons to Megawatts nuclear nonproliferation program. It is one of the more successful outcomes of the thawing of the Cold War. According to public information available from United States Enrichment Corp. (USEC), the equivalent of 11,500 nuclear warheads have been eliminated by recycling them into nuclear fuel. Bomb-grade uranium compounds are shipped halfway around the world, very carefully I assume, and converted in U.S. facilities into fuel-grade uranium.

Extending The Life Of Products

4 recycling of raw materials from products to provide material inputs to the manufacture of other goods. Loop 3 Re-conditioning rebuilding of goods Loop 4 Recycling of raw materials Loop 3 Re-conditioning rebuilding of goods Loop 4 Recycling of raw materials During the recycling loop material products have to be collected and reprocessed to separate out raw material components. These raw materials can then be used as inputs to the manufacture of new products. The energy of collection, separation, treatment and redistribution can make the recycling loop the least efficient of the loops from a materials perspective. Nevertheless, the energy and materials required for recycling may often be less than those required to extract and process primary raw materials. Much of the success of these strategies depends on the existence of an appropriate infrastructure within the industrial economy. For example, we need decentralised collection and distribution networks to reduce the transportation...

New water technologies

It appears that Australian policy is to supply water to a population which business has imagined at between 50 million and 200 million51 by recycling water, desalinating it, and building new dams, in a kind of Saudi or Israeli vision of a twenty-first-century desert economy. All of these schemes which population stabilization and decline would mitigate and avoid, stand to cost the current population socially, physically, and financially, but the benefits (almost exclusively financial) will be focused on only a few. The situation is put to the people as one which will save them from catastrophe, so few question these costs, which they are coached to believe are inevitable.

Involve Students Directly

The Eco-Reps program is modeled after a Dartmouth program, and is a hybrid between a regular course and an internship. Students who are Eco-Reps have a noncredit class every other week and participate in several field trips. Each class is organized around a particular topic, including recycling and waste prevention, climate change, water resources, food and the environment, and consumption. Box 10.3 outlines a sample Eco-Reps program. There are seven 2-hour meetings throughout the semester. Eco-Reps engage in on-campus greening activities. Typical activities include checking on the recycling program (e.g., bin placement, contamination, and so on), talking to students, conducting surveys, putting up posters, and organizing awareness-raising events. Continue to check recycling in the dorm (30 minutes). In one of the first meetings, students were asked to evaluate and monitor recycling in their dorm. Each week, part of the Eco-Reps' responsibility will involve checking to make sure that...

Recycledcontent Materials

When you think of a green building, if you're like most people, recycling and building with recycled-content materials would likely spring to mind as a key characteristic. In the LEED system, credit is given to projects in which recycled-content represents more than 10 of the total value of all building materials (excluding equipment). This includes structure roof, floors and load-bearing walls rough and finish carpentry insulation (sometimes cotton-batt insulation is made from recycled jeans) doors and windows architectural metal, rebar, fly ash in concrete, steel structural beams, internal walls and floor coverings. The purpose of the LEED standard is to encourage the development of a local and regional economy that values recycling and that creates new materials with the same performance characteristics (strength, weight, durability, etc.) as virgin materials. In that way, we will begin to close the loop of resource flows in the economy and not incur the energy and pollution costs...

Introduction Global Environmental Challenges

As the volume and scope of environmental problems becomes more generally understood and popularly recognized, a new way of thinking about the world's environmental challenges is emerging. This altered way of thinking is moving away from the practice of use and disposal and toward the notions of reuse, recycling, conservation, and sustainable consumption. The idea of using raw materials for the production of products that are disposed of when no longer wanted is gradually losing support. The newer way of thinking focuses on An obvious fact, but one well worth restating, is that those who consume more have the greatest impact on use and disposal or reuse, recycling, conservation, and sustainable consumption. With the total value of goods and services produced valued at 10.2 trillion in 2001, the U.S. economy is by far the largest in the world. While 72 of that economy operates solely in the private sector, government spending accounts for 28. This simple fact means that U.S. federal,...

Conservation Responses

Perhaps the ultimate forest-rainfall system is the Amazon Basin. Here rainfall in the east is recycled many times through the forests of the basin, and, in fact, much of western Amazonia might not be moist forest without the rainfall generated (Betts et al., 2004). Bush (1996) has suggested that preserving this moisture-recycling is probably more critical in setting conservation goals for the Amazon than are species-based concerns. Bush's suggestion is supported by the results of Webb et al. (2005) in the Atlantic Forest, a system with much less pronounced moisture-recycling than the Amazon. If the Amazon has a stronger forest-rainfall effect, it seems likely that the correlation between rainfall effect and scale will be even stronger, requiring even larger reserves. The type of reserve needed to maintain forest cover may be very different from that needed for conservation of biodiversity, however. It is forest cover and physical properties that are important in the forest-rainfall...

Encourage Faculty and Staff to Take Personal Actions

Should introduce the Energy Star website and explain the link between purchasing decisions and greenhouse gas emissions. Because many people associate recycling with personal environmental action, making the link between climate action and recycling can be useful. Staff and faculty need recycling programs that are convenient and visible.

Generation materials recovery composition and discards of municipal solid waste in millions of tons and percent of

Recovery for Recovery for source Adapted from Table 1. Generation, Materials Recovery, Composting, and Discards of Municipal Solid Waste, 1960-2003 (in millions of tons), and Table 2. Generation, Materials Recovery, Composting, and Discards of Municipal Solid Waste, 1960-2003, in Percent of Total Generation, in Municipal Solid Waste Generation, Recycling, and Disposal in the United States Facts and Figures for 2003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DC, April 2005, (accessed August 4, 2005)

Water Reallocation In A Context Of Evolving Watermanagement Institutions

Water Recycling* * Recycling creates an opportunity for reallocation unless treatment-plant effluent proceeds directly to an ocean outfall or saline sink. Water Recycling. Water recycling involves the advanced treatment of postconsumer flows and its reallocation to urban, suburban, and agricultural uses. Unless the original wastewater outfalls are located along a coastline or above an unusable saline aquifer, recycling represents a reallocation from instream flows, groundwater recharge, and or downstream uses to other (typically local) uses. Money flows from new users to agencies involved in wastewater treatment or water supply. Numerous authorities oversee recycling-based reallocation, including water supply, environmental protection, and public health agencies (Haddad, 2000).

Summary and conclusions

Six EU member states introduced environmental tax reform (ETR), in the form of carbon taxes with revenue recycling, during the 1990s and after. The purpose of this chapter was to highlight ex post the sectors that could be vulnerable under such reform and to explore the nature of their vulnerability. Were they price-takers and, if so, on which markets, and were technological opportunities available that they could call upon in order to reduce vulnerability Initial screening based on intensities of energy expenditure and other characteristics was undertaken for all sectors to select those six in which price-setting behaviour would be investigated. about loss of competitiveness. Relocation of production is a feared outcome of the introduction of environmental regulations. An advantage of ETR over environmental regulations lies in the availability of tax revenues that can be used in ways that reduce the inclination to relocate. Any special targeting of revenue recycling and mitigating...

Mobros Two Months of Fame

Ever had photographer's cheesecake Mid-Nineteenth century photographers concocted the recipe. A photographic process from the Nineteenth century, callotype prints used egg whites, but not egg yolks. Because resourceful, thrifty photographers didn't want to throw useful items away, the egg yolks were recycled into photographers' cheesecake (recipe in Endnotes1). Of course, humans have a long history of recycling. Archaeological records indicate that early humans reshaped broken metal tools into new ones and re-carved broken pendants of exotic stones into smaller ones. Market forces encourage people to be thrifty with scarce resources. As someone once said, I recycled before it became trendy. They used to call it being cheap. As we mine more of a virgin ore, the mineral becomes scarcer, the price rises, and because we're cheap we recycle more. Many of us also feel better because we're helping the environment. Recognizing that a plastic bottle thrown into the ocean takes 450 years to...

Decisions and Social Context

Over the last several decades, sociologists have investigated the public's increasing concern about the environment, but they have had little success explaining attitudes toward the environment or the adoption of proenvironment behaviors like recycling. Derksen and Gartrell (1993) examine the role of social context in the link between individual attitudes about the environment and recycling behavior by comparing communities that vary in their access to recycling programs. Results show that people with access to a structured recycling program have much higher levels of recycling than do people lacking such access. Furthermore, individual attitudes toward the environment affect recycling behavior only in the community with easy access to a structured recycling program. Individual concern about the environment enhances the effect of the recycling program, but does not overcome the barriers presented by lack of access.

Cradletocradle Design

Cradle-to-cradle design was introduced in 2002 by architect William McDonough and chemist Dr. Michael Braungart as a method for evaluating products that could be safely used without any harm to people or the environment, based on known data. The evaluation criteria for products include material properties, specifically toxicity and carcinogenicity, persistence and toxicity in the environment, and use of heavy metals material reuse potential, either in recycling or composting efficient or renewable energy use, including use of 100 solar income in manufacturing water use, stormwater and wastewater discharge in manufacturing and instituting strategies for social responsibility as evidenced by third-party assessments and certifications.33 One of the early successes of this effort was creating a fabric for a chair manufacturer that was durable and attractive but that could be composted at the end of its useful life. Another product developed from this point of view is a commercial carpet...

Life after the crisis

The lack of resources soon instigated recycling and energy-efficient campaigns the use of bicycles and larger public buses (camelos), a national school campaign to collect recyclable materials in exchange for school supplies, active neighbourhood recycling centres, new factories to produce domestic items from recycled materials, and a nationwide environmental education campaign. There has been a tendency to interpret this phenomenon as a proactive choice by Cuban authorities to 'go green', and no more so than through the major postcrisis success story the rise of urban organic agriculture.

Applications of the Behavioral Approach

We can approach contingency management in several ways. Some approaches focus on the fact that contingencies are not yet powerful enough to change behavior, in part because they are still invisible. For example, we do not yet pay the true costs for most of our consumer purchases because current pricing does not reflect the resource depletion, pollution, and human poverty produced alongside the products. To make such costs more visible, we can urge lawmakers to institute real cost pricing mechanisms that represent the true contingencies that at present are invisible to us. We can provide cues and feedback for ourselves and others to facilitate behavior change, such as signs over light switches and photocopiers, information regarding energy use, or rewards for recycling. amine energy use, conservation measures, recycling procedures, and so forth, and we can take initiatives to influence our schools, workplaces, communities, and municipal agencies.

From Norms to Environmentally Appropriate Behavior

This experiment explains something Deborah could never figure out about the neighborhood where she once lived in south London. The streets were constantly blowing with litter, and she often observed Londoners contributing even more to it. She was revolted by such behavior, and thought her fellow neighbors crass and insensitive. A more social psychological explanation would be that the litter continued by virtue of the norm it expressed. Analogously, Deborah recently attended a convention of the American Psychological Association in Chicago, where she noticed recycling containers placed in some hallways, but not in others. Notably, there were no containers at the convention registration desk, as there had been at previous conventions, so people weeding out their folders had no place to recycle. Many looked for bins with what appeared to her to be frustration and annoyance. Previous placement of the containers had communicated a norm for recycling behaviors, but when the containers were...

Industrial Energy Systems Analysis

Therefore, to avoid a piecemeal approach, the required scope for consideration of the industrial energy systems is given in Figure 1.3. It is obvious and common sense, that this covers all aspects of energy supply including distribution, metering and monitoring control arrangements, end-use and recycling if there is any.

Green Operations and Maintenance

This chapter provides practical recommendations for green building operations and maintenance procedures in the areas of groundskeeping, building systems, waste reduction and recycling, indoor air quality management, pest prevention and control, and healthy housekeeping.1

The Free Marketeers Responsibility

Pimentel opposes economic growth Hassett and his free market friends would like to see more of it. Pimentel is the darling of extremist anti-immigrant agitators Hassett has published articles advocating a moderate immigration policy. Pimentel advocates democratic but nevertheless state-ordained population control Hassett, as a classical liberal follower of F. A. Hayek,21 could not be suspected of supporting such a program, and I have little doubt that he must regard the rest of Pimentel's social ideas with an appropriate degree of revulsion. Without question, Hassett chooses to trot out Pimentel not because he is a Pimentelist, but because he sees an advantage in recycling a discredited study to make a political point.

An Enlightenment Scale Opportunity

Part of the reason people tend to focus on tangible, individual actions like recycling soda bottles is that the scale of the climate problem is so large that those who do understand it are already half-inclined to give up. What does it mean to cut CO2 emissions by 90 percent It's hard to fathom what that world would look like. So a key component of solving the problem becomes attitude. How do we think about climate change in a way that empowers us instead of scaring the pants off us

Building a Greener World

Environmental management makes business sense, as greener and cleaner products and processes meet consumer demands, result in enhanced product marketability, decrease future environmental liabilities, and, ultimately, lower costs. Environmental management fosters a competitive business advantage through efficiency in production, minimum generation of waste, and a more productive and healthy work force. Companies used to be more concerned with end of the pipe solutions to environmental compliance regulations. Now, as Sandra Woods, vice president of Environment, Health & Safety Systems of Coors Brewing Company, quotes Chairman of the Board Bill Coors, All waste is lost profit. Coors sells its spent grain as fertilizer and recycles its aluminum scraps and cans at its subsidiary, Golden Recycling.

Comparing calculators

The European Commission's My Carbon Footprint, starts with a challenge To find out how much carbon you can save, just mark the changes you would be willing to make in each of our four categories. Our calculator will then work out how many kilos of CO2 you can save each year and give you the chance to make a public pledge to reduce your personal carbon footprint. The four categories are turning down household appliances, switching them off, recycling, and travel. You do not actually measure your current emissions, but rather estimate the potential savings you would make by applying the measures proposed. The Commission's site comes in all official EU languages and provides links to national carbon calculators in a range of European countries. National calculators are often geared to the specific energy situation of that country and are consequently more accurate than general-purpose calculators that do not ask you to specify your location. Broadly speaking, a GHG calculator is always a...

American Consumer Advocate And Environmentalist

One of the consumer activist's first major accomplishments involved the formation of the Public Interest Research Groups (PIRGs) in the 1970s. These student-led groups, funded by college activity fees and supported by paid professional staffs, serve as law offices working in the public's interest. PIRGs operate today in twenty-four U.S. states, tackling issues such as recycling, pollution, and public health and safety.

Pollution Prevention Act of USC et seq

Where pollution cannot be prevented, it should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible. 3. Treatment. In the absence of feasible prevention and recycling, pollution should be treated to applicable standards prior to release or transfers. 7. Require an annual toxic chemicals source reduction and recycling report for each owner or operator of a facility already required to file an annual toxic chemical release form under Section 313 of SARA. Pollution prevention also includes other practices that increase efficiency in the use of energy, water or other natural resources, and protect our resource base through conservation. Practices include recycling, source reduction, and sustainable agriculture (EPA, 1997).

The emerging components of a new type of agricultural system

In the early 1990s, desperation had allowed for a 'try anything' approach which embraced support for the recycling and re-use of agro-industrial wastes, as well as the testing out of alternative agricultural concepts such as permaculture. By the late 1990s, a more sophisticated approach prevailed that was focused around a broadly interpreted concept of integration. Within this, some components of the agricultural support system still adhered to the industrialized perspective, whilst other components embraced an alternative, localized, ecological perspective, and these co-existed in contradictory fashion. Some remnants of the industrialized system remained but were requiring change, such as the top-down extension model and the centralized seed system. Other components of the industrialized system were kept for their continued applicability, such as the supply of agrochemicals. Similarly, some more ecological components had been adopted prior to the Special Period, such as research on...

Evolution of analysis

The main results from these modelling studies by country are reproduced in Chapter 6. The IPCC Third Assessment (IPCC 2001) numbers on the costs of Kyoto drew heavily on this set of studies, whilst noting that the models generally 'do not include carbon sinks, non-CO2 gases, the CDM, negative cost options, ancillary benefits, or targeted revenue recycling'. This rather serious set of limitations goes some way to explaining the gulf between many of these

The economic costs of reducing energy use

The economic costs of imposing a carbon tax can be overstated if the efficiency gains resulting from the recycling of carbon tax revenue (by replacing the most inefficient taxes on other factors of production) are not considered. The optimal mix of public revenue raising occurs when the welfare gain from increasing carbon taxes, and recycling revenues, equals that from decreasing taxation on any other factor of production consumption. If the optimal level of energy taxation, not taking into account climate change externalities, is less than the Pigouvian environmental tax (i.e. direct marginal damage cost of CO2), then the optimal tax, including the externality costs, will be below the Pigouvian level. This is because taxing energy involves a loss in income as well as a gain in environmental quality. The tax would only be set at the Pigouvian level if reducing energy use imposed a pure welfare cost, rather than a production externality. These issues are addressed in a few models such...

Environmental policy to optimize material chains

The preceding sections showed that many measures are available to improve the efficiency of material use in economies. We have also shown that focusing on more efficient material management is likely to be an effective instrument to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Some of the measures are already part of national policy plans, like material recycling and environmentally friendly product design. However, material policies are very seldom designed from the viewpoint of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. That would be trend-breaking in itself. Other measures that may improve life-cycle efficiency of materials would be stimulating chain responsibility instead of product responsibility, setting strict standards for recycled content in products and reusability of products, setting up systems for taking back used products in order to enhance recycling rates and stimulating repair facilities to extend the useful life of products.

Material substitution the case of biomass

Management of the entire material product chain covers measures like material recycling, product re-use (such as refillable plastic or glass bottles), material cascading (using discarded materials for the highest possible functions), extension of the useful life of products (because of modular design and increased fitness for repair and maintenance) and also improved waste management (e.g., choosing between incineration and material recycling).

Reducing Energy Waste

In addition to focusing on reducing wasted energy, AEP is conscious of downstream vendors and the ability to recycle IT purchases. Staff takes this into consideration as part of the total cost of the IT life cycle. Specifications are under consideration at this point. If the item has resale value, AEP's asset recovery group takes possession of the material. Cell phones and accessories are sent to a recycling vendor that pays AEP for materials it can resell. Other electronic items are properly recycled through Intechra LLC, which kept more than 155,000 pounds of AEP's electronic waste from landfills through a combination of remarketing and proper recycling.

Thinking Globally and Locally

We're trying to get the departments to buy recycled paper, Shields said. We are also working on a small campaign to get the fraternities to recycle. We're starting small and we've gotten the recycling bins to ZBT and AEPi yesterday. We're starting with the land that's owned by Tufts.

Opportunities For Technological Interventions And Climate Science Applications

Gleick (2003) describes the rise of soft path approaches that complement physical infrastructure with lower cost community-scale systems, decentralized and open decision making, water markets where actually needed, equitable pricing, application of efficient technology, and environmental protection. Given the lack of sites left for new dams on the Colorado and the economic and environmental costs associated with dams, soft path approaches are widely viewed as viable alternatives to supply enhancement. The Council of State Governments (2003) in a recent report identified several such soft path mechanisms being employed to different degrees to combat overuse. These include pricing structures to promote water use efficiency measurement of water usage audits of commercial, domestic, and industrial uses water reuse and recycling management of water system pressure retrofitting and replacement of water fixtures promotion of water-efficient appliances improving infrastructure quality...

Land degradation and desertification

Land degradation generally implies deterioration in key properties such as soil nutrients, organic matter and moisture status, to the point where productivity is reduced and, over wide areas, recovery on a timescale of years or even decades is unlikely. There are huge areas where the combination of marginality, abusive exploitation and environmental variability has led to the high levels of degradation noted above. Erosion of topsoil removes the nutrients stored in the surface layers of the soil, especially those retained within the organic matter generated by the decomposition of the vegetation. This, in turn, reduces moisture-holding capacity. Any form of exploitation that leads to depletion of the soil nutrients at a rate exceeding the rate of their renewal eventually leads to soil degradation as the ecosystem shifts to one based on a lower level of nutrient recycling and availability.

Highperformance Buildings

Many people have begun using the term high-performance buildings instead of green buildings or sustainable buildings because they want to emphasize what is gained from these projects, not what is given up.68 High-performance also appeals to Americans we want everything turbo-charged and super-sized. A high-performance building is one in which energy and water efficiencies are high, indoor air quality is high, recycling rates are high, etc. This is a much easier concept to explain to most executives than a green building, which still sounds vaguely like a tree-hugger term. In my view, high-performance buildings are those that save at least 50 of the energy use of a standard building, compared with a database called the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Database, last updated in 2003.69 (The next survey will be conducted in 2007.) The table below shows an example of the information that's available from this database.

Waste Management And Control

Waste Management And Control

Get All The Support And Guidance You Need To Be A Success At Understanding Waste Management. This Book Is One Of The Most Valuable Resources In The World When It Comes To The Truth about Environment, Waste and Landfills.

Get My Free Ebook