Figure 3.1 Flow diagram of a traditional coal-fired power plant 21 Figure 3.2 Coal-fired power station boiler steam cycles:
Figure 3.3 Section through a modern steam turbine.
Source: Toshiba Industrial and Power Systems &
Services Company 25
Figure 3.4 Flow diagram for a circulating fluidised-bed power plant.
Source: Tri-State Generation and Transmission
Association, Inc. 34
Figure 3.5 Flow diagram of an IGCC plant.
Source: Tampa Bay Electric Company 36
Figure 4.1 Block diagram of a gas turbine for power generation 47
Figure 4.2 Cross section (photograph) of a gas turbine.
Source: Courtesy of Solar Turbines Incorporated 49
Figure 4.3 Block diagram showing advanced gas turbine cycles: (a) reheating, (b) intercooling and (c) recuperation. LP: low pressure; HP: high pressure 51
Figure 4.4 A block diagram of a combined cycle power plant 54
Figure 5.1 Block diagram of piston-engine-based CHP system which is a closed-loop head-recovery system 67
Figure 5.2 Block diagram of steam turbine CHP system 68
Figure 5.3 Block diagram of gas-turbine-based CHP system 69
Figure 6.1 The strokes of a four-stroke cycle 77
Figure 6.2 The Stirling engine 81
Figure 7.1 The principle of the fuel cell 92
Figure 7.2 Diagram of a PEM fuel cell 96
Figure 7.3 Block diagram of a MCFC 98
Figure 7.4 Block diagram of a SOFC/gas turbine power plant 101
Figure 8.1 Run-of-river hydropower scheme.
Source: Mott MacDonald 108
Figure 8.2 Hydropower scheme with dam and reservoir.
Source: Mott MacDonald 109
Figure 8.3 Hydropower turbines: (a) Pelton, (b) Francis and
(c) propellar turbines 111
Figure 9.1 Cross section of a typical tidal barrage 125
Figure 9.2 Bulb turbine 128
Figure 10.1 Cross section of a pumped storage hydropower plant 137
Figure 10.2 Diagram of a CAES plant 140
Figure 10.3 Diagram of a typical flow battery 145
Figure 11.1 A horizontal axis wind turbine 159
Figure 11.2 A vertical axis wind turbine 159
Figure 11.3 A wind turbine drive train 162
Figure 12.1 A direct-steam geothermal power plant 176
Figure 12.2 A flash-steam geothermal power plant 177
Figure 12.3 A binary geothermal power plant 179
Figure 13.1 A solar trough system 188
Figure 13.2 An integrated-solar-thermal/combined cycle power plant utilising solar troughs 189
Figure 13.3 A solar tower system 190
Figure 13.4 A solar dish 192
Figure 14.2 Block diagrams of (a) an open cycle OTEC plant and
(b) a closed cycle OTEC plant 208
Figure 14.3 Wave energy conversion devices.
(the pendulor); (d) Heaving buoy device (the hosepump) 211
Figure 14.4 Horizontal and vertical axis ocean current energy converters. (a) Horizontal axis turbine (axial flow) and
(b) Vertical axis turbine (cross flow) 216 Figure 15.1 Layout of a direct-fired biomass combustion system 225
Figure 15.2 Layout of a biomass-gasification combined cycle plant 227
Figure 16.1 Block diagram of a mass-burn power-from-waste plant 241
Figure 16.2 Block diagram of a waste pyrolysis plant 242
Figure 17.1 Diagram of a BWR 256
Figure 17.2 Diagram of a PWR 257
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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.