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Figure 3.1 Flow diagram of a traditional coal-fired power plant 21 Figure 3.2 Coal-fired power station boiler steam cycles:

(a) typical subcritical steam cycle with a conventional drum boiler and natural circulation and (b) typical supercritical steam cycle with once-through boiler 23

Figure 3.3 Section through a modern steam turbine.

Source: Toshiba Industrial and Power Systems &

Services Company 25

Figure 3.4 Flow diagram for a circulating fluidised-bed power plant.

Source: Tri-State Generation and Transmission

Association, Inc. 34

Figure 3.5 Flow diagram of an IGCC plant.

Source: Tampa Bay Electric Company 36

Figure 4.1 Block diagram of a gas turbine for power generation 47

Figure 4.2 Cross section (photograph) of a gas turbine.

Source: Courtesy of Solar Turbines Incorporated 49

Figure 4.3 Block diagram showing advanced gas turbine cycles: (a) reheating, (b) intercooling and (c) recuperation. LP: low pressure; HP: high pressure 51

Figure 4.4 A block diagram of a combined cycle power plant 54

Figure 5.1 Block diagram of piston-engine-based CHP system which is a closed-loop head-recovery system 67

Figure 5.2 Block diagram of steam turbine CHP system 68

Figure 5.3 Block diagram of gas-turbine-based CHP system 69

Figure 6.1 The strokes of a four-stroke cycle 77

Figure 6.2 The Stirling engine 81

Figure 7.1 The principle of the fuel cell 92

Figure 7.2 Diagram of a PEM fuel cell 96

Figure 7.3 Block diagram of a MCFC 98

Figure 7.4 Block diagram of a SOFC/gas turbine power plant 101

Figure 8.1 Run-of-river hydropower scheme.

Source: Mott MacDonald 108

Figure 8.2 Hydropower scheme with dam and reservoir.

Source: Mott MacDonald 109

Figure 8.3 Hydropower turbines: (a) Pelton, (b) Francis and

(c) propellar turbines 111

Figure 9.1 Cross section of a typical tidal barrage 125

Figure 9.2 Bulb turbine 128

Figure 10.1 Cross section of a pumped storage hydropower plant 137

Figure 10.2 Diagram of a CAES plant 140

Figure 10.3 Diagram of a typical flow battery 145

Figure 11.1 A horizontal axis wind turbine 159

Figure 11.2 A vertical axis wind turbine 159

Figure 11.3 A wind turbine drive train 162

Figure 12.1 A direct-steam geothermal power plant 176

Figure 12.2 A flash-steam geothermal power plant 177

Figure 12.3 A binary geothermal power plant 179

Figure 13.1 A solar trough system 188

Figure 13.2 An integrated-solar-thermal/combined cycle power plant utilising solar troughs 189

Figure 13.3 A solar tower system 190

Figure 13.4 A solar dish 192

Figure 14.1 Schematic diagram of a floating OTEC plant 206

Figure 14.2 Block diagrams of (a) an open cycle OTEC plant and

(b) a closed cycle OTEC plant 208

Figure 14.3 Wave energy conversion devices.

(a) Tarpered channel device (Tapchan); (b) Oscillating water column (OWN); (c) Pivoting flap device

(the pendulor); (d) Heaving buoy device (the hosepump) 211

Figure 14.4 Horizontal and vertical axis ocean current energy converters. (a) Horizontal axis turbine (axial flow) and

(b) Vertical axis turbine (cross flow) 216 Figure 15.1 Layout of a direct-fired biomass combustion system 225

Figure 15.2 Layout of a biomass-gasification combined cycle plant 227

Figure 16.1 Block diagram of a mass-burn power-from-waste plant 241

Figure 16.2 Block diagram of a waste pyrolysis plant 242

Figure 17.1 Diagram of a BWR 256

Figure 17.2 Diagram of a PWR 257

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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