End notes

1 World Energy Council, Survey of Energy Resources, 2001.

2 Costs for coal and coal-cleaning technologies used in this chapter are almost exclusively taken from E. Stratos Tavoulareas and Jean-Pierre Charpentier, World Bank Technical Paper No. 286: Clean Coal Technologies for Developing Countries published in July 1995. Though this report is now 8-year old, the figures still remain relevant. This is also the only available contemporary source which examines the whole range of technologies and compares them on the same basis.

3 This type of boiler is called a watertube boiler because the water circulates in tubes within the combustion gases. There is a simpler design called a firetube boiler in which the combustion gases are contained within tubes that pass through water. This type of design is used for small and domestic boilers, but is not now used in power plants.

4 It is worth noting that though new coal-fired power plants were scare in the USA during the 1990s, when there was a strong move towards gas-fired combined cycle plants, the beginning of this century has seen a renaissance in the coal-fired plant.

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