End notes

1 Distributed storage facilities may be used by utilities to improve local grid stability or they may be used by consumers to make their own supplies more secure.

2 The Commercial World of Energy Storage: A Review of Operating Facilities (under construction or planned), Septimus van der Linden, 1st Annual Conference of the Energy Storage Council, Houston, 2003.

3 This process is called recuperation and it reduces fuel consumption by around 25%.

4 This is a simplification. Some advanced cells utilise pastes or solid electrolytes.

5 Normally the electrolyte will permit a charged molecule, an ion, to pass but will not conduct electrons.

6 The processes occuring here is somewhat different to the simple electrochemical process described above but the principle is similar.

7 A hydrogen economy is one in which hydrogen replaces oil, gas and coal as the main fuel in automotive, heating and many power generation applications. It is seen as one option for a sustainable energy future.

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