1 Some of this literature is summarised in T.Jackson, Efficiency without Tears—'no-regrets' energy policy to combat climate change, Friends of the Earth, London, 1992. The book by Schipper and Meyers, Energy Efficiency, also discusses some of the impediments to energy efficiency.
2 For example the United Nations Environment Programme's Industry and Environment Programme Activities Centre in Paris operates the computerised database ICPIC as an international clearing house for information on pollution prevention in industry.
3 This summary of full-cost accounting—sometimes also called total-cost accounting—is adapted from the Alaska Health Project report and from Chapter 9 of Jackson, Clean Production Strategies, and references therein.
4 For example, see M.Jacobs, The Green Economy, Pluto Press, London, 1991, and M.Sagoff, The Economy of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1989.
5 Others are cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium and antimony.
6 The most vociferous lobby for a chlorine phase-out is Greenpeace International, who have campaigned for a complete ban on chlorine production. See, for instance, J.Thornton's The Product is the Poison: the case for a chlorine phase-out, Greenpeace, Washington, DC. See also 'Chlorine under Pressure', p. 4 in The Chemical Engineer, 9 March 1995.
7 'Pathogen' is a term applied to disease-carrying or disease-causing microorganisms such as those which are present in raw sewage.
8 One of the reasons for the historical preference of the chloralkali process over lime causticisation is that the feedstock for the former (brine) is considerably more plentiful than the feedstocks for the latter (lime and soda ash).
9 Another, more worrying manifestation of the problem of lost revenues for bulk materials producers is the opening up of overseas markets. As environmental regulations tighten in the industrial world, there is an increased pressure on bulk materials producers to find new markets elsewhere. All too often this leads to the transfer of materials and material products which have been banned in industrial nations to overseas markets, where environmental regulations are less stringent.
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