Figures

1 Material dimensions of the industrial economy 3

2 The Earth as a closed thermodynamic system 13

3 The ecosystem as an open thermodynamic system 15

4 The material economy as an open thermodynamic system 19

5 Energy consumption per capita in Britain 1700-1990 27

6 Consumption of raw materials by type in the

US:1900-89 29

7 Global toxic emissions from manufacturing by sector (1990) 31

8 Growth in GNP in three industrialised nations 1950-90 38

9 Material flows from the provision of services 59

10 Structure of the service system 62

11 Timing of environmental management strategies 65

12 Simple industrial material flows 66

13 End-of-pipe treatment of air and water emissions 67

14 End-of-pipe treatment of solid wastes 68

15 Industrial pollution prevention—improved material efficiency 69

16 Industrial pollution prevention—input substitution 72

17 System effects of pollution prevention measures 74

18 Product-life extension strategies 78

19 Providing services: improved material efficiency 80

20 The industrial economy as an ecosystem 83

21 Economics of environmental protection—the traditional view 91

22 Economics of preventive environmental protection 101

FIGURES

23

Mercury flows through the chloralkali process

115

24

Chlorine as an industrial feedstock

118

25

Complex network of material demands and environmental

impacts

122

26

Benefit flows from third-party energy service companies

133

27

Passenger transportation services in Sweden, 1950-90

136

28

Distribution of environmental loads during the life-cycle

of a washing machine

140

29

Aspects of the theory of 'natural' dematerialisation

146

30

Inequality in the distribution of incomes in the

UK: 1950-90

172

31

Trends in sustainable economic welfare in three industrial

countries: 1950-90

173

32

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs

186

33

Human-scale development: matrix of fundamental

human needs

187

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