1 C.P.Kindleberger, Economic Growth in France and Britain, 1964, p. 158 cited in Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire, p. 41.
2 Hobsbawm describes the battle for power between these two classes in his Industry and Empire. Before the industrial revolution power and social status resided with the merchants—giving rise to the description of Britain as a 'nation of shopkeepers'. This basis shifted considerably during and immediately after industrialisation.
3 See Hobsbawm, Industry and Empire, p. 31.
4 It was the enclosure movement which gradually began to give the manufacturers more of a constituency in government, because it gave the politically decisive group of landowners direct and widespread interests in the mines.
5 The concept of a 'new service economy' has been developed most extensively by O.Giarini and W.R.Stahel in The Limits to Certainty, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1989.
6 This is most obvious by considering the utilitarian roots of economic theory (Chapter 2). Money in economics served only as a proxy for a concept of 'utility'. Maximising expected utility was the way in which the philosophers translated the idea of 'bringing the greatest happiness to the greatest number'.
7 See Figure 5.4 in Douthwaite, Growth Illusion.
8 And I would certainly caution against uncritical acceptance of the claim that tourism is a legitimate route to sustainable development for developing economies.
9 The economic evidence for this is now overwhelming. See, for instance, the papers in T.Johansson, B.Bodlund and R.Williams (eds), Electricity— efficient end-use and new generation technologies and their planning implications, Lund University Press, Lund, 1989.
10 See Jackson, Efficiency without Tears.
11 This diagram is taken from an analysis by C.Cicchetti and W.Hogan (Including Unbundled Demand Side Options in Electric Utility Bidding Programs, Energy and Environment Policy Center Report no. E-88-07, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1988), which is discussed in more detail in Jackson, Efficiency without Tears.
12 More details of this kind of commercial innovation can be obtained from the Product-Life Institute in Geneva.
13 These implications and the advantages of them have been pointed out in a number of places. See, for example, W.R.Stahel, 'Product Life as a Variable', Science and Public Policy, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 185, 1986; O.Giarini and W.R.Stahel, The Limits to Certainty: facing risks in the new service economy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/London (2nd edition) 1991; Stahel and Jackson, 'Optimal Utilisation and Durability', in T.Jackson (ed), Clean Production Strategies.
14 See M.Börlin and W.R.Stahel, 'Die Strategic der Dauerhaftigkeit', Bankverein vol. 32, Schweiz Bankverein, Basel, 1987.
15 See P.Nieuwenhuis and P.Wells (eds), Motor Vehicles in the Environment, John Wiley, Chichester, 1994.
16 For a more detailed discussion of these aspects of 'car culture' see, for instance, P.Freund and G.Martin, The Ecology of the Automobile, Black Rose Books, New York, 1994.
17 This is one of the roles played by travel agents for package holidays but it is virtually unknown for domestic travel.
18 The data on which this figure is based come from a study on Ecolabelling Criteria for Washing Machines, carried out by the UK Ecolabelling Board, London, 1992.
19 This example is taken from Clift and Longley, 'Introduction to Clean Technology', in Kirkwood and Longley, Clean Technology and the Environment, where it is discussed in more detail.
20 See J.Corbett, K.Wright and A.Baillie, The Biochemical Mode of Action of Pesticides, Academic Press, London, 1984, p. 343.
21 See P.Johnson, 'Agricultural and Pharmaceutical Chemicals', Chapter 7 in Kirkwood and Longley, Clean Technology and the Environment, p. 225.
22 This example is also discussed in more detail in Clift and Longley, 'Introduction to Clean Technology', in Kirkwood and Longley, Clean Technology and the Environment.
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