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1 It could certainly be argued that some kinds of goods are provided for their own sake. Even in this case, it is possible to construe this as a provision of services. I shall return to this point at a later stage in the book.

2 The term 'organic' is being used here in the second of the two ways identified in Chapter 1, namely to refer to procedures and practices which are holistic in nature.

3 This diagram is adapted from procedures outlined in the UNEP (1991) Technical Report Series no. 7, Audit and Reduction Manual for Industrial Emissions and Wastes, UNEP, Paris; and from the Alaska Health Project guide: Profiting from Waste Reduction in Your Small Business, Alaska Health Project, Anchorage, AL, 1988. Both of these publications are invaluable for small companies setting out to identify pollution prevention opportunities.

4 Note, however, the discussion relating to this process change in Chapter 6 below.

5 In the diagram it is assumed that the hazardous material in question goes to the aqueous waste stream. But it might as well have gone to air emissions or to the solid waste stream.

6 It has also reduced a number of other environmental burdens associated with raw material extraction and processing.

7 For an overview of energy efficiency trends in the different sectors of use, see L.Schipper and S.Meyers, Energy Efficiency and Human Activity: past trends and future prospects, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992.

8 These four strategies are examined in more detail in a number of other places. See, for example, Chapter 14 in Jackson, Clean Production Strategies; see also the (1982) OECD report on Durability and Product Life Extension and W.Stahel's (1986) paper 'Product Life as a Variable', in Science and Public Policy, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 185-93.

9 For further discussion of the cascade concept see W.Stahel and T.Jackson, 'Optimal Utilisation and Durability', Chapter 14 in Jackson, Clean Production Strategies. See also R.Clift and A.Longley, 'An Introduction to Clean Technology', Chapter 6 in R.Kirkwood and A.Longley (eds), Clean Technology and the Environment, Blackie A&P, London,1995.

10 This process is sometimes called away-grading or down-grading.

11 In the absence of appropriate avenues for recycling materials, a further possibility is the recovery of energy from the calorific content of the materials.

12 For more detailed discussions on the concept of material intensity per unit of service (MIPS) the reader is referred to a special edition (vol. 2, no. 8) of the Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 1993.

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