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Power Efficiency Guide

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The production of energy from a fuel source can be direct, such as the burning of wood in a fireplace to create heat, or by the conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy by the use of a heat engine. Examples of heat engines include steam engines, turbines, and internal combustion engines. Heat engines work on the principal of heating and pressuring a fluid, the performance of mechanical work, and the rejection of unused or waste heat to a sink. Heat engines can only convert 30 to 40 percent of the available input energy in the fuel source into mechanical energy, and the highest efficiencies are obtained when the input temperature is as high as possible and the sink temperature is as low as possible. Water is a very efficient and economical sink for heat engines and it is commonly used in electrical generating stations.

The waste heat from electrical generating stations is transferred to cooling water obtained from local water bodies such as a river, lake, or ocean. Large amounts of water are used to keep the sink temperature as low as possible to maintain a high thermal efficiency. The San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station between Los Angeles and San Diego, California, for example, has two main reactors that have a total operating capacity of 2,200 megawatts (MW). These reactors circulate a total of 2,400 million gallons per day (MGD) of ocean water at a flow rate of 830,000 gallons per minute for each unit. The cooling water enters the station from two intake structures located 3,000 feet offshore in water 32 feet deep. The water is heated to approximately 19°F above ambient as it flows through the condensers and is discharged back into the ocean through a series of diffuser-type discharges that have a series of sixty-three exit pipes spread over a distance of 2,450 feet. The discharge water is rapidly mixed with ambient seawater by the diffusers and the average rise in temperature after mixing is less than 2°F.

These ASTER false-color images were acquired over Joliet 29, a coal-burning power plant in Illinois. Joliet 29 can be seen in the VNIR image (top) as the bright blue-white pixels just above the large cooling pond. Like many power plants, Joliet 29 uses a cooling pond to discharge heated effluent water. In the bottom image a single ASTER Thermal Infrared band was color-coded to represent heat emitted from the surface. The progression from warmest to coolest is shown with the following colors: white, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and black. (Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/ JAROS, and U.S./Japan Aster Science Team. Reproduced by permission.)

The primary effects of thermal pollution are direct thermal shock, changes in dissolved oxygen, and the redistribution of organisms in the local community. Because water can absorb thermal energy with only small changes in temperature, most aquatic organisms have developed enzyme systems that operate in only narrow ranges of temperature. These stenothermic organisms can be killed by sudden temperature changes that are beyond the tolerance limits of their metabolic systems. The cooling water discharges of power plants are designed to minimize heat effects on local fish communities. However, periodic heat treatments used to keep the cooling system clear of thermal shock rapid temperature change beyond an organism's ability to adapt stenothermic living or growing within a narrow temperature range

Stenothermic

thermotolerance ability to withstand temperature change protein complex nitrogenous organic compound of high molecular weight made of amino acids; essential for growth and repair of animal tissue; many, but not all, proteins are enzymes planktonic that portion of the plankton community comprised of tiny plants; e.g. algae, diatoms thermal infrared imaging photographs in which contrast depends on differences in temperature effluent discharge, typically wastewater—treated or untreated—that flows out of a treatment plant, sewer, or industrial outfall; generally refers to wastes discharged into surface waters cascade waterfall; a system that serves to increase the surface area of the water to speed cooling evaporative relating to transition from liquid to gas fouling organisms that clog the intake pipes can cause fish mortality. A heat treatment reverses the flow and increases the temperature of the discharge to kill the mussels and other fouling organisms in the intake pipes. Southern California Edison had developed a "fish-chase" procedure in which the water temperature of the heat treatment is increased gradually, instead of rapidly, to drive fish away from the intake pipes before the temperature reaches lethal levels. The fish chase procedure has significantly reduced fish kills related to heat treatments.

Small chronic changes in temperature can also adversely affect the reproductive systems of these organisms and also make them more susceptible to disease. Cold water contains more oxygen than hot water so increases in temperature also decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of water. In addition, raising the water temperature increases the decomposition rate of organic matter in water, which also depletes dissolved oxygen. These decreases in the oxygen content of the water occur at the same time that the metabolic rates of the aquatic organisms, which are dependent on a sufficient oxygen supply, are rising because of the increasing temperature.

The composition and diversity of communities in the vicinity of cooling water discharges from power plants can be adversely affected by the direct mortality of organisms or movement of organisms away from unfavorable temperature or oxygen environments. A nuclear power-generating station on Nanwan Bay in Taiwan caused bleaching of corals in the vicinity of the discharge channel when the plant first began operation in 1988. Studies of the coral Acropora grandis in 1988 showed that the coral was bleached within two days of exposure to temperatures of 91.4°F. In 1990 samples of coral taken from the same area did not start bleaching until six days after exposure to the same temperature. It appears that the thermotolerance of these corals was enhanced by the production of heat-shock proteins that help to protect many organisms from potentially damaging changes in temperature. The populations of some species can also be enhanced by the presence of cooling water discharges. The only large population of sea turtles in California, for example, is found in the southern portion of San Diego Bay near the discharge of an electrical generating station.

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