As of December 31, 1999, smoke-free indoor air laws of one type or another had been enacted in forty-five states and the District of Columbia. Smoking in private work sites is limited in twenty states and the District of Columbia. Forty-one states and the District of Columbia have laws restricting smoking in state government work sites. Thirty-one states have enacted laws that regulate smoking in restaurants, and out of these, only Utah and Vermont completely prohibit smoking in restaurants.
Most European countries have regulations that either ban or restrict smoking to designated areas in public places such as government/private work sites, health care facilities, and educational facilities. Japan and Singapore also have enacted laws that restrict smoking to designated areas, whereas other Asian countries such as India have no regulations in place. South Africa introduced a ban on tobacco smoking in public places, including the workplace, in 1999. see also Asbestos; Asthma; Cancer; Health, Human; Indoor Air Pollution.
American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. (1998). Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice, 23rd edition. Cincinnati, OH: Author.
Wadden, Richard A., and Scheff, Peter A. (1983). Indoor Air Pollution: Characterization, Prediction and Control. New York: Wiley.
American Lung Association. "Trends in Tobacco Use." Available from http://www. lungusa.org/data.
National Cancer Institute. "Health Effects Associated with Tobacco Smoke." Available from http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact.
National Tobacco Information Online System. "Laws and Regulations." Available from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/nations.
Ashok Kumar and Sunil Ojha
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