Nongovernmental Organizations NGOs

Collaborative efforts among the public have played an important role in shaping the political and social values and hence public policy of the United States. Organizing with others who share a similar vision enhances the potential for change. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) accomplish just that. Established outside of political parties, NGOs are aimed at advocating the public's

ORGANIZATION

FOUNDING BUDGET

FOCUS

ACCOMPLISHMENTS

Conservation International

Izzak Walton League of America

National Audubon Society

National Wildlife Federation

Natural Resources Defense Council

Nature Conservancy

Wilderness Society

Wildlife Conservation Society

World Wildlife Fund Sierra Club

Environmental Defense Fund

Greenpeace USA

Friends of the Earth

1987 $50,000,000

1922

1905

1936

1970

$3,000,000

$44,000,000

$96,000,000

$30,632,992

1951 $245,000,000

1935

$14,700,000

1895 $95,000,000

1961 $60,000,000

1892 $43,000,000

1967 $39,000,000

1971 $19,266,530

1969

$3,000,000

To preserve and promote awareness about the world's endangered biodiversity.

To protect and promote sustainable resource use.

To restore and protect the natural habitat of birds and other wildlife for the benefit of human interest and biodiversity. The largest member-supported conservation group working to protect wildlife and ecosystems. Using science and law to protect the planet's wildlife and wild places. To protect aquatic and terrestrial habitats for the survival of biodiversity. Protect the remaining wilderness in the United States by keeping roads, loggers, and oil drilling efforts out of wilderness areas.

Support international survival strategies as well as habitat conservation projects.

Protect and preserve endangered species. To educate and enlist people to protect the environment through lawful means, and address key issues including commercial logging, urban sprawl, and water quality. Create solutions to environmental problems including policies to reduce fossil fuels.

Nonviolent direct action to expose environmental threats.

To protect Earth from environmental disaster through toxic waste cleanup and groundwater protection.

Working with the Cambodian government to create a one-million-acre protected area. Sponsored scientific research of coral reefs off Indonesia. Helped create the world's largest national rain forest.

Helped create the Land and Water Fund. Were instrumental in the protection of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Everglades National Park, and Isle Royale National Park. Involved the public in bird counts across the United States to track populations. Has opened nature centers to promote understanding of birds.

Function in forty-six states to promote the protection of species and their environments. Worked in the western United States to prevent urban sprawl and sustainable forestry.

Worked with the EPA to restrict pesticide use, prevented the development of a large airport near the Florida Everglades, and have helped design a plan to restore Yosemite. Own over a thousand preserves and have protected more than fourteen million acres of land in the United States.

Helped block oil exploration near Arches National Park, created the Wilderness Act, which was passed in 1964, and the Conservation Act which was passed in 1980.

Formed Jackson Hole Wildlife Park in 1956, led the national campaign to reintroduce bison to the Kansas grasslands, and created the Bronx Zoo.

Launched Wildlands and Human Needs projects to address the needs of people living in fragile ecosystems.

Assisted in preserving the North Grove Calaveras Big Trees, fought to return Yosemite to federal management, and worked to create the National Park Service.

Won a ban on DDT use, prevented the development of a resort on former state park land that would endanger native species.

Drew attention to ocean incineration of toxic waste, resulting in a ban of the practice; also, won an end to sperm whale hunting, halted the testing of nuclear arms off Florida.

Conducted lab tests proving that genetically altered food not approved for human consumption was being sold, won a federal court case that prevented Army Corps of Engineers from illegally issuing permits for developers to fill in wetlands.

concerns and pressuring governments to do a better job. These organizations may range from a handful of local citizens enacting recycling in their community to a million-member-strong organization with a budget of $20 million.

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