Mass-market P2 technologies are those that can be used in many different industries or even in consumer households. These technologies create new markets because their production creates jobs and spin-offs, and they generate ready demand from producers who want to reduce input costs. Each has the following criteria:
1. The technology is widely applicable across a variety of industry types and sizes.
2. The technology does not require very large capital expenditures.
3. The technology's usefulness has been proven through years of implementation experience.
4. The technology has demonstrated free-market feasibility, that is, a positive payback in the productivity of materials, not including reductions in disposal costs.
Each citizen of the European Union produces an average of 3.5 tonnes (3.85 U.S. tons) of total waste annually. In view of this, on May 27, 2003, the European Union Commission announced a formal communication or policy statement aimed at reducing waste generation and the use of natural resources, and developing a coherent policy on recycling. Current recycling regulations in the EU are inconsistent. For instance, cardboard and paper packaging are recycled but office paper and newsprint are not. Recycling also often costs more than landfilling or incineration. More industry involvement, tradable environmental permits, national landfill bans and taxes, pay-as-you-throw schemes, and producer responsibility initiatives are among the communication's proposals.
5. The technology can be supported in the field by local technicians with basic competence.
6. Parts for repair are locally available at reasonable cost.
Example mass-market technologies for P2 include household water-conservation fixtures, variable-speed motors, programmable heating and air conditioning controls, citrus-based solvent cleaners, plastic films for reducing heat transmission through windows, and many others.
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