The major differences in P2 technologies among countries lie in the age of the technology and the level of process control. In less developed countries, much of the technology is old and would be considered out of date and uncompetitive in developed countries. Consequently, it usually produces much more pollution per unit of output. Less developed countries also tend to use fewer process controls and instrumentation. Much of the operation is controlled by hand or based on experience, rather than real-time data. Human error thus potentially creates more waste and pollution in such situations. But there are no hard and fast rules for differences in P2 technologies between countries. In Thailand, for example, there has been significant investment in new factories in the electronics and auto parts industries. These plants use the latest technology and management practices and are much less polluting than older plants in the same industries operating nearby. see also Catalytic Converter; Energy Efficiency; Green Chemistry; Life Cycle Analysis.
European Environment Agency. (1997). Comparing Environmental Impact Data on Cleaner Technologies, Copenhagen: European Environment Agency.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2001). Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment, Washington: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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