The ultimate morality of ecoterrorism remains uncertain, mirroring the larger debate of whether the use of violence is justified for a good cause. Most

Arson damage at a ski resort in Vail, Colorado. (© Affleck Jack/Corbis Sygma. Reproduced by permission.

mainstream environmental groups decry sabotage tactics in favor of public education, and law enforcement agencies will continue to prosecute those responsible for acts of ecoterrorism. However, there are those who believe that without such tactics, economic pressures will destroy the environment and all its resources. see also Activism; Terrorism.


Abbey, Edward. (1975). The Monkey Wrench Gang. New York: HarperCollins.

North American Animal Liberation. (2001). 2001 Year-End Direct Action Report. Courtenay, BC: North American Animal Liberation Front Press Office.

Pittman, Alan. (2001). "Ecotage: Sabotage to Save the Earth Generates Backlash." Eugene Weekly 20(10), March 8, 2001.

Richman, Josh. (2002). "Bombshell Verdict: Earth First Activists Win $4.4 million from Cops." Oakland Tribune, June 12, 2002, pp. 1, 9.

Zakin, Susan. (1993). Coyotes and Town Dogs: Earth First! and the Environmental Movement. New York: Viking.

Internet Resources

Barcott, Bruce. (2002). "From Tree-Hugger to Terrorist." New York Times Magazine, April 7, 2002. Available from

Chadwick, Benjamin. (2000). "Jamming the Gears: Are These Front-Line Fighters Eco-Heroes or Eco-Terrorists?" E Magazine, 11(5). Available from http://

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2002). "Congressional Statement ofJames F. Jarboe, Domestic Terrorism Section Chief, Counterterrorism Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation on the Threat of Eco-Terrorism before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health." Available from

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2002). "History of the FBI." Available from

Gallup Poll. "The Polling Report, March 5-7, 2001." Available from http://

North American Earth Liberation. (2001). Frequently Asked Questions about the Earth Liberation Front (ELF). Portland, OR: North American Earth Liberation Front Press Office. Available from

Southern Poverty Law Center Web site. "From Push to Shove." Available from http://

Elizabeth L. Chalecki

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment