Waste incineration involves the application of combustion processes under controlled conditions to convert waste materials to inert mineral ash and gases. The three Ts of combustion (temperature, turbulence, and residence time) must be present along with sufficient oxygen for the reaction to occur:

• The burning mixture (air, wastes, and fuel) must be raised to a sufficient temperature to destroy all organic components. The combustion airflow is reduced to the minimum level needed to provide the oxygen for the support fuel (gas, oil, or coal) and the combustible wastes without forming high levels of CO and unburned hydrocarbons. This will raise the temperature to the level needed for good combustion.

• Turbulence refers to the constant mixing of fuel, waste, and oxygen.

• Residence time is the time of exposure to combustion temperatures.

• Oxygen must be available in the combustion zone.

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