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CAA. See Clean Air Act CAAA. See Clean Air Act Cabinet level, defined, 2:147 Cadmium health hazards of, 1:248 as priority pollutant, 2:117 from smelting, 2:205 from World Trade Center terrorist attack, 2:235 CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards, 1:189-190, 1:218 CAFOs (Concentrated animal feeding operations), 1:26, 2:308 Calcium carbonate, acid rain and,

1:3 California asthma studies in, 1:49 Corona, 2:223

pervious concrete use in, 2:77 regulatory agencies, 1:23 See also Los Angeles smog California Air Resources Board, 1:23

Callicott, J. Baird, 1:211 Calypso (ship), 1:116, 2:132-133 "Calypso" (song), 2:132-133 Campaign Against Pollution

(CAP), 1:204 Canada acid rain legislation, 1:5

Canada (continued)

on bioaccumulation, 1:52 consumerism in, 2:22 Environment Canada, 1:121,

1:193-194 NAFTA and, 2:56-57 National Pollution Release

Inventory, 2:184-185 National Water Resource

Institute, 1:291 parliamentary government in, 1:233

petroleum use in, 2:101-102 sewage sludge standards in, 2:190

See also specific towns and provinces Cancer, 1:65-70, 1:66, 1:68, 1:69, 1:255

endocrine disruptors and, 1:176 in Louisiana, 1:71, 2:141 See also Carcinogens; specific types of cancer Cancer Alley, Louisiana, 1:71,

CAP (Campaign Against

Pollution), 1:204 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, 2:310

Car emissions. See Vehicle emissions Carbamates, 2:96-97, 2:98 Carbaryl, 2:96-97 Carbofuran, 2:97 Carbon, in fossil fuels, 1:215-216 Carbon dioxide (CO2), 1:72-73, 1:73

chemical structure of, 1:72 from coal burning, 1:102 emissions trading of, 1:175 from fossil fuels, 1:216 global warming and, 1:242 IR spectroscopy for, 2:196-197 Kyoto Protocol on, 1:34-35 Persian Gulf War and, 2:239 from vehicle emissions, 1:182, 2:107, 2:274, 2:276 Carbon monoxide (CO), 1:73-75, 1:74

air quality standards on, 2:118, 2:195

catalytic converters and, 1:86-87, 2:198

controlling emissions of, 1:37 as criteria pollutant, 1:33, 1:35 emissions trading and, 1:174 IR spectroscopy for, 2:197 from petroleum, 2:106 from vehicle emissions, 1:182, 2:273, 2:275 Carbon sequestration, 1:106 Carbon tetrachloride, 1:67, 1:145 Carbon-14, 2:161 Carbonyl groups, 2:114 Carcinogens, 1:66-70, 2:251 from chemical accidents, 1:127 defined, 1:45, 2:99 electromagnetic fields,

1:171-172 in groundwater, 2:309 PBT chemicals, 2:93 PCBs, 2:92 PERC, 1:145 tobacco smoke, 2:244 from World Trade Center terrorist attack, 2:235 See also Hazardous air pollutants; specific chemicals and products Careers, in environmental protection, 1:75-82, 1:76, 1:78, 1:80 Caribou, 1:43 Carmody, Kevin, 2:35 Carpets, 1:269, 2:112 Carrying Capacity Network, 2:140 Cars. See Automobiles Carson, Rachel, 1:8, 1:9, 1:82-84, 1:83, 1:119, 1:202, 1:239-240, 1:252, 2:34, 2:228, 2:328, 2:330 Carter, Jimmy

ANILCA and, 1:41 on Love Canal, 1:221-222 on nuclear reprocessing, 1:188 President's Council on Environmental Quality and, 2:146

Carver, George Washington,

1:84-86, 1:85 Cascades, defined, 2:242 Casings, well, defined, 1:292 Catalysts, 1:189, 2:275 Catalytic, defined, 2:91 Catalytic converters, 1:86, 1:86-87, 2:198, 2:233 See also Vehicle emissions Cataracts, 2:266

C-BA (Cost-benefit analyses), 1:114-116

CCA (Chromated copper arsenate), 1:43 CCHW (Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes), 1:205, 1:222

CDC. See Centers for Disease

Control CEC (Commission for

Environmental Cooperation), 1:194, 2:21-22, 2:57 CEC (Council on Environmental

Quality), 2:122, 2:146-147 Cellular phones, cancer and, 1:67,

1:171-172 Center for Health, Environment and Justice (CHEJ), 1:220, 1:222, 2:61

See also Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes Center for the Defense of Free

Enterprise, 2:323-324 Centers for Disease Control

(CDC), 2:14, 2:38, 2:243, 2:309 Centrifugal scrubbers, 2:199 Centrifuges, 2:233 CEQ (Council on Environmental

Quality), 2:122 CERCLA. See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

Ceres Principles, 2:8 Cerrell Report, 2:143 Certification, international, 1:286, 2:8

See also Laws and regulations Cesium-137, 1:134, 2:211 Cesspools, defined, 1:292 CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbons), 1:87-88, 1:245 chemical structure of, 1:87 EPA on, 2:263 global warming and, 1:242 Montreal Protocol on, 1:34,

1:261, 2:257 nongovernmental organizations and, 2:71-72 ozone layer and, 2:87 replacements for, 1:280-281 CFR (Code of Federal

Regulations), 2:12, 2:78, 2:166 Champion International Corporation, 2:227

Chavez, César E., 1:88-89, 1:89, 1:202, 2:1-2 Chavis Jr., Benjamin F., 1:198 ChE (Cholinesterase), 2:96 Checks and balances, 1:231 CHEJ (Center for Health, Environment and Justice), 1:220, 1:222, 2:61 Chelating agents, 2:13, 2:211 Chelyabinsk-7, 2:286 Chemical accidents and spills, 1:124-129, 1:125, 1:127, 1:173, 1:206

See also Oil spills Chemical fertilizers, 1:26-27 Chemical oxidation, for chemical spills, 1:128 Chemical pollution, 1:263-265,

1:294-295, 2:22, 2:35 Chemical products, 1:122, 2:233 See also specific products and classes of products Chemical warfare, 2:281 Chemically active, defined, 1:245 Chemicals household, 1:266 nontoxic, 1:236 in water treatment, 2:321 See also specific chemicals Chemistry environmental, 2:193-194 green, 1:235-237 Chemosynthesis, 2:106 Cher, 2:133 Cherney, Darryl, 1:161 Cherniak, Martin, 1:220 Chernobyl disaster, 1:40,

1:134-135, 1:187, 1:264 Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, 2:309, 2:312

Cheshire, Ohio, 1:183 Chicago, Illinois, 1:21-22,

2:202-203 Chicken manure, 1:29 Chicxulub crater, 1:132 Children cellular phones and, 1:172 environmental diseases in,

1:251, 1:253-254 heavy metals and, 1:257 lead poisoning in, 2:13-15,

2:49, 2:251-252 noise pollution and, 2:66-67 toxin sensitivity in, 2:251-252 See also Infants

China, birth control in, 2:137, 2:140

The China Syndrome, 1:40, 1:135, 2:133

Chisso chemical plant, 1:294 Chloramination, defined, 1:255 Chlordane, 2:94, 2:96, 2:247 Chlorinated aromatic compounds, 2:209

Chlorination, 1:255, 2:270, 2:300,

2:316, 2:320-321 Chlorine, 2:87, 2:195 Chlorobornanes. See Toxaphene Chlorofluorocarbons. See CFCs Chloroform, as carcinogen, 1:67 Chloroparaffins, 2:93 Chlorophenol-based pesticides, 1:122 Chloropicrin, 2:97 Cholera, from water pollution, 1:259-260, 2:208-209, 2:310, 2:311, 2:316 Cholinesterase (ChE), 2:96-97 Chomophores, 2:114 CHP (Combined heat and power), 1:189

Christmas Day Bird Count, 1:90 Chromated copper arsenate

(CCA), 1:43 Chromatography, 2:192, 2:193-194 Chromium, 2:134

health hazards of, 1:257 as priority pollutant, 2:117 Chronic, defined, 1:134 Chronic toxicity, 1:127, 2:92,

2:250-251 Chrysotile, 1:45 Cigarette butts, 2:315 Cigarette smoke. See Tobacco smoke

Circumstances, of life, 2:131 CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), 2:257 Citizen science, 1:89-90 Citizen suits, 1:90-91, 1:191 Citizens environmental responsibilities of, 1:290, 1:291 on hazardous material control, 2:184

Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes (CCHW), 1:205, 1:222

Citizens for the Environment,

2:324 Citric acid, 2:211 A Civil Action, 1:69, 1:90, 1:109, 2:133

Civil rights, 1:197-198 Civil rights movement, 2:154 Civil wars, 2:284, 2:286 Claims, defined, 2:51 Clamshell Alliance, 1:40 Clarifiers, defined, 2:300 Clean Air Act (CAA), 1:91-92 acid rain and, 1:3, 1:5, 1:5 amendments to, 1:204 on chemical accidents, 1:126 Earth Day and, 1:149 on electric power plant emissions, 1:102 EPA and, 1:23

federal government power and,

1:33-34, 2:122-123 Forest Service and, 2:259 on HAPs, 1:103 incentives and, 2:158-159 incineration and, 1:271 lawsuits, 1:191 media coverage and, 2:35 medical wastes and, 2:39 Nader, Ralph and, 1:239 Nelson, Gaylord and, 2:62 New Left and, 2:63 passage of, 1:8, 1:261, 2:121 on point sources, 2:117-118 on scrubbers, 2:199 as single-medium approach,

2:125-126 smelting and, 2:206 state laws and, 1:231 wise-use movement on, 2:324 World Trade Organization and,

2:326 See also Air pollution Clean Air Act (England), 1:261,

1:285 Clean fuels, 1:183 Clean Water Act, 1:8 Clean Water Act (CWA), 1:92-93, 2:10, 2:121-123, 2:302-303, 2:304

amendments to, 1:204 on beneficial use, 1:50, 1:149 EPA and, 1:23 Forest Service and, 2:259 history of, 2:302 mass media and, 2:35

Clean Water Act (CWA) (continued)

medical wastes and, 2:39 on mining, 2:49 Nader, Ralph and, 1:239 Natural Resource Damage

Assessment and, 2:61 Nelson, Gaylord and, 2:62 on nonpoint source pollution, 2:75

on ocean dumping, 2:80 passage of, 1:260, 2:306-307 permits and, 2:9 on point sources, 2:116 vs. Rivers and Harbors

Appropriations Act, 2:191 as single-medium approach,

2:125-126 states and, 2:122 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and, 2:258 on wastewater and surface water, 2:316 on whistleblowing, 2:322-323 wise-use movement on, 2:324 See also Water pollution Cleaner technologies, 2:232, 2:275,

2:276 Cleaning coal, 1:102 Cleanup, 1:93-100, 1:94, 1:95 vs. abatement, 1:1 of brownfields, 1:62 of chemical spills, 1:128 of dredged sediment, 1:143-144 of Love Canal, 1:221 of military bases, 2:286 of oil spills, 1:139-140, 2:314 of Superfund sites, 2:225-227 voluntary programs, 1:286 from World Trade Center terrorist attack, 2:235-236 See also Abatement Clearwater, 1:201 Cleveland, Ohio, 1:253 Climate change, 1:18-19, 1:224-229, 2:6, 2:49, 2:254 See also Global warming Climate Change Convention (United Nations), 1:152, 2:6, 2:257

Clinical wastes. See Medical wastes Clinton, Bill

CEQ and, 2:147 Chávez, César and, 1:89 ecoterrorism and, 1:160

on environmental justice, 1:199, 2:143

EPA reforms and, 2:159 on green products, 1:238 on World Trade Organization, 1:239 Clive, Utah, 2:166 Clofibric acid, 1:112 Cloracne, 2:92

The Closing Circle: Man, Nature and Technology, 1:104-105, 1:204, 2:328, 2:330 Closures, mine, 2:47 Clothing, 2:181-182, 2:182, 2:183, 2:212

Coagulation, in water treatment, 2:320

Coal, 1:100-103, 1:102, 1:215-216 air pollution from, 1:102-103, 1:261 ash, 1:168-169 cleaning, 1:102 electricity from, 1:166-167, 1:167

gasification, 1:67, 1:167 mercury from, 2:43 mining, 1:101

power plants, 1:180, 1:180-185,

2:107 smog and, 2:206-207 states' usage of, 1:224 worldwide resources of, 1:180 Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, 2:55

Coal-bed methane, 2:49 Coast Guard. See U.S. Coast Guard

Coastal Zone Management Act, 2:9

Coastal zones, 2:201 Cobalt, 1:256-257, 2:235 Code of Federal Regulations

(CFR), 2:12, 2:78, 2:166 Codes of conduct, corporate, 2:7-8 Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2:6

Codify, defined, 2:146 Coffee, shade-grown, 1:238 Cogeneration, for energy efficiency, 1:189 Cohn, Gary, 2:36 COINTELPRO, 1:161 Coke, defined, 1:102

Colborn, Theo, 1:103-104, 2:330 Cold War, 1:38-39, 1:187,

2:286-287 College students, 2:150-151 Colleges, environmental careers in See also specific colleges and universities Colonization, European, 2:142 Colorado River dams, 1:9-10 Columbia Journalism Review, 2:35, 2:36

Combined heat and power (CHP), 1:189

Combined sewer overflows

(CSOs), 2:301 Combustion, 1:271-272, 2:129-130 defined, 2:88 dioxin from, 1:122 indoor air pollution from, 1:275 mercury from, 2:43 for municipal solid wastes, 2:216 See also Incineration Commercialism, 2:135 See also Materialism Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), 1:194, 2:21-22, 2:57 Commission for Racial Justice

(CRJ), 1:198, 2:288 Commission on Global

Governance, 2:224 Commission on Human

Settlements (United Nations), 2:15

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), 1:24, 1:152-153, 2:228 Committee for a Sane Nuclear

Policy (SANE), 1:39 Common Sense Initiative, 2:128 Commoner, Barry, 1:104-105,

1:105, 1:204, 2:328, 2:330 Communications specialists, 1:77-78

Community Service Organization

(CSO), 1:88 Community Strategy on Waste (European Environment Agency), 2:217 Community water systems (CWS), 2:270

Competition, environmental regulations and, 1:183-184

Competitive and Green: Sustainable Performance in the Environmental Age, 2:135 Complex emergencies, defined, 1:132

Compliance, defined, 2:55 Composting, 1:55, 1:105-109, 1:207, 1:108, 2:173-174, 2:213, 2:215-216 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 1:109-110, 2:10, 2:225 on brownfields, 1:62 environmental justice and, 1:199

on friable asbestos, 1:47 heavy metals and, 1:258 Love Canal and, 1:220, 1:222, 1:263

on military base cleanup, 2:286 mining and, 2:48 Natural Resource Damage

Assessment and, 2:61 passage of, 1:13-14, 1:206, 2:122, 2:123 Compression Ignition Direct

Injection engines, 1:189 Computer models, defined, 2:31 Computers lead in screens, 2:14 recycling, 2:172-173 Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), 1:26, 2:308

Concordance, defined, 1:255 Concrete, pervious, 2:77 Condea Vista (Conoco), 1:71 Condensation scrubbers, 2:199 Condensers, defined, 2:240 Confederation

European, 1:231-232 in pre-Revolutionary U.S., 1:231

Conference on Environment and Development. See Earth Summit Conference on the Human

Environment (United Nations), 1:13, 1:151, 1:205, 2:72, 2:80 Conferences. See Treaties and conferences Conflict resolution, 2:153-155 Congeners, defined, 1:122, 2:91 Congress (U.S.), 2:16-18

Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ

Consensus, electoral, 1:239 Consensus building, 1:24, 1:110,

2:174-175 Consent orders, defined, 2:286 Conservation careers in, 1:78-79 energy, 1:184, 2:170, 2:179 groundwater, 1:244 See also Recycling Conservation easements, defined, 2:62

Conservationists, 1:78-79, 1:84 Consolidated Edison, 1:10 Constructed wetlands, 2:303 Consulting firms, environmental, 1:82

Consumer pollution, 1:111-114, 1:112

Consumerism, 2:19-23, 2:20 Consumers of electricity, 1:169 petroleum pollution and, 1:139, 1:141

plastic wastes and, 2:111, 2:111-113 Containment, 1:99 defined, 1:95 double, 1:292 Contaminants, defined, 2:205 Control rods, defined, 1:135 Convent, Louisiana, 1:71, 1:209 Convention for the Application of Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade, 2:6, 2:7, 2:257 Convention on Biological

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 2:257

Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 2:6, 2:257 Convention on the Law of the Sea

(United Nations), 2:6 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter. See London Convention

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 2:257 Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, 2:257 Conventions, 2:254

See also specific conventions Conversion, 1:98-99, 1:248-249 defined, 1:95

of landfill gases to energy, 2:3-4 Conway, Gordon R., 1:241 Cooling ponds, 2:240-242, 2:241 Cooling towers, 2:242-243 Cooperative enforcement,

1:192-193 Copper, from smelting, 2:205 Copper oxide regenerative scrubbers, 2:199 Copper sulfate, 2:97 Coprecipitation, for arsenic removal, 1:44 Coral bleaching, 2:313 Coral reefs, 2:313, 2:314 Corona, California, 2:223 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, 1:189-190, 1:218

Corporate codes of conduct, 2:7-8 Corporation for Public Access to Science and Technology (CPAST), 1:180 Corps of Engineers. See U.S. Army

Corps of Engineers Corps of Engineers Modernization and Improvement Act of 2002, 2:258

CorpWatch, 1:237-238 Corrective justice, 1:210 Corrosion, of underground storage tanks, 2:266, 2:268 Corruption, political, 2:154 Costa Rica, 2:231-232 Cost-benefit analyses (C-BA),

1:114-116 Costs environmental business,

1:285-286 of pollution, 1:157-159 pollution economics and, 1:154 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), 2:122, 2:146-147

Counterculture defined, 1:148, 2:63 environmental activism and, 1:202

Counterterrorism Division (FBI), 1:160-161 Court adjudication, 1:110 Cousins, Norman, 1:39 Cousteau, Jacques, 1:11, 1:116,

1:116, 2:132-133 Cousteau Society, 1:11 Cover crops, 1:27 CPAST (Corporation for Public Access to Science and Technology), 1:180 Creeping disasters, 1:132 Crime, environmental, 1:194-196, 1: 195

Criminal law, in environmental cases, 1:192 Criteria pollutants, 1:33, 1:92, 2:106

air quality standards for, 2:118 defined, 1:175 See also specific pollutants CRJ (Commission for Racial

Justice), 1:198, 2:288 Cronkite, Walter, 2:34 Crop rotation, 1:25-26, 1:27-28 Carver, George Washington and, 1:84 defined, 1:84 Crude oil, 2:101-107 See also Petroleum Cruel Tales of Japan: Modern Period, 1:294

Cryptosporidiosis, 1:117-118,

1:118, 2:310, 2:321 Cryptosporidium, 1:117, 1:118, 2:321 CSD. See Commission on

Sustainable Development CSO (Community Service

Organization), 1:88 CSOs (Combined sewer overflows), 2:301 Cultivars, defined, 1:25 Curing stage, of humification, 1:107

Customary international law, 2:5 Cuyahoga River, 1:7, 1:92, 1:203,

1:260, 2:304, 2:306, 2:307 CWA. See Clean Water Act CWS (Community water systems),

2:270 Cyanophenols, 2:98

Cyclodiene organochlorines, 2:96 Czech Republic light control policy, 2:31 postindustrial site development in, 1:63

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