Notes

B., 1998 Population, carbon emissions, and global warming the forgotten relationship at Kyoto, Population and Development Review, 24 115-130. The global per capita average carbon dioxide emission was 1.10 mt in 1970 and 1.13 mt in 1998, and the average for the period from 1970 to 1998 was 1.14 mt per capita. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, 2002 Global, regional and national carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, cement production, and gas flaring...

Solar Power Towers

Within a few years, another type of solar thermal electric power plant, the solar power tower, will enter the commercial power arena. This plant uses a field of specially designed solar-tracking mirrors called heliostats that concentrate sunlight from many angles simultaneously on a tower-mounted heat receptor. From there the energy goes to power an electric generator or to a coupled solar energy storage tank of molten salt for cloudy day and nighttime operation. Power towers have higher solar...

An Ethical Analysis of Allocation Principles for Emissions Rights

This leads us back to the problem with which we started the need for an international agreement to regulate GHG emissions and the controversy over what an acceptable allocation of rights would be. There is an extensive literature on this part of the equity debate, to which I cannot begin to do justice.11 I focus on a relatively narrow but crucial aspect whether the ethical arguments for various allocation principles are convincing. I address the fairness of various principles rather than the...

Energy Crops and Biofuels

Within two or three decades, biomass energy crops could be used to provide the United States with 100,000 MW of electrical generating capacity (12 percent of 1998 U.S. capacity). Raising the crops would take just 50 million acres. For comparison, the United States now plants 72 million acres in soybeans, and 128 million acres of cropland are projected to be idle in 2030. Today the United States has about 11,000 MW of biomass-fueled electric generating capacity. Almost all of the existing...

Fossil Fuel Emission Effects on Human Health and Ecosystems

Alternatives to fossil fuels are being considered because of the seriousness of environmental risks and economic hazards from continuing fossil fuel use. The 1990s have seen three separate policy assessments in the United States involving the effects of emissions from fossil fuel use damages and risks from acid deposition (the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program),2 an evaluation of ground-level ozone and aerosol particulate health risks (carried out by the U.S. Environmental...

Distribution of Activity Types

Climate change mitigation activities can be classified as related to energy efficiency (EEF), renewables (REN), fuel switching (FUE), fugitive gas capture (FGC), land use change and forestry (LUCF),16 agriculture, industrial processes, solvents, waste disposal, and bunker fuels. Only the first five of these activity types have been implemented in AlJs (Fig. 11.3).17 Most projects (83 percent) have been in energy-related activities (EEF, FUE, REN, or FGC). Only 17 percent of the projects have...

Business Responses Shell Oil Group

Shell Oil Group has also announced initiatives for taking action on climate change in its own operations and helping customers reduce emissions. Shell Oil Group established a new operating division in 1997 known as Shell International Renewables. This and other Shell initiatives seek to support market mechanisms that will help countries grow their economies in an energy efficient Although Shell Oil's businesses are expected to grow by 3 percent a year overall, they have taken steps to ensure...

Population and the Kyoto Protocol

The 1997 Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, if ratified, would commit 38 developed Annex B countries to cut their national GHG emissions by an average of 5.2 percent between 1990 and 2008-2012 herein after referred to as 20 1 0 .45 Developing non-Annex B nations face no specific emission limitation obligations in the protocol, on the principle that industrialized nations have contributed the most to the problem and thus have an obligation to take the first steps.46...

Total Mitigation Potential of the Agricultural Sector

In 1995, the IPCC estimated annual worldwide mitigation potential of the agricultural sector to be 1,669-3,417 million metric tons of CO2, 24-92 million metric tons of CH4, and 0.4-1.1 million metric tons of N2O Table 12.4 . Combining these estimates, total mitigation potential would be 620-1,546 million metric tons of carbon equivalent. This represents 13-33 percent of 1990 emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O from all sectors in Annex I countries,105 a sizable amount given protocol commitments...

Future Considerations

Carbon storage in agricultural soils is limited both temporally and spatially. It is generally assumed that soils, with the possible exception of those in wetlands, will eventually reach an equilibrium carbon content and not sequester above that amount.99 When that amount is reached, carbon-storing practices must be continued to prevent release of the carbon back to the atmosphere.100 Thus, unlike some reductions in GHG emissions, activities that increase carbon storage will not yield benefits...

Tax Incentives

A wide range of advanced energy-efficient products have been proven and commercialized but have not yet become firmly established in the marketplace. A major reason for this is that conventional technologies get locked in they benefit from economies of scale, consumer awareness and familiarity, and existing infrastructure that make them more attractive to consumers, while alternatives are overlooked although they could be financially viable once mass produced and widely demonstrated. In this...

Patterns of Change at the US DOE

In Fig. 18.7 we compare DOE energy technology R amp D with two measures of total DOE patents. The first measure, patents assigned to the DOE, roughly followed DOE energy technology funding between 1978 and 1996 with a lag . As illustrated in the figure, patents assigned to the DOE increased between 1978 and 1985 and then decreased steadily through 1996. The second measure, patents assigned or related to the DOE, is defined as all patents in the Patent and Trademark Office bibliographic...