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Digital Photography

Digital cameras come with lots of bells and whistles. But what matters most is picture quality, and it has improved significantly in the newest pixel takers. Instead of striking unexposed film, light entering a typical digital camera is focused onto a charge-coupled device, or CCD. This semiconductor array, consisting of many tiny picture elements (pixels), converts light energy into electron charge. A microprocessor reads the charge in each pixel as a digital signal and constructs an image of the scene. The latest digicams also minimize practical problems of early models. Optical zooming, achieved by moving the lenses, was limited in order to keep cameras compact so-called digital zoom extends the range using software processing. And faster digital-image-processing chips have sped up click-to-click time how quickly the camera can take pictures in succession to 1.5 seconds or less. DIGITAL CAMERA'S lenses focus light onto a charged-coupled device (CCD). It converts light into...

HOKs Recruiting Strategies

In addition, HOK has launched several recruiting campaigns online through its Life at HOK blog ( and through corporate pages on Facebook, LinkedIn, Flickr, Twitter, and other social networking sites. This has not only increased the frequency and value of interaction with recruits, but has also reduced face-to-face recruiting travel, not to mention dramatically reducing the amount of paper recruiting materials needed.

SPLiTTiNg The Blogs And A Wiki

When inaccurate information about the effort began appearing in the media, a few of us who had experience in the field worked out a system for answering questions from the press. Those of us with the necessary contacts networked with NGOs to get information from the ground. Blogger's native search wasn't delivering well enough, so Pim Techamuanvivit paid for a professional search tool that we plugged in. Someone came up with the idea of using Flickr16 and its tags to help the Missing Persons effort, and quickly set up a Flickr pool. A working-group page with presence indicators that keep track of things like who was doing what, and what needed to be done, was set up on space given to us by SocialText.17

Stores of compasson and bravery

She had clung on to her dad Priantha when she realised we were near to the sea. She had been in her aunt's house in Hikkaduwa which had survived the waves. But she had felt the fury of the sea. It had taken away her mother, her twin sister and two other sisters. It had taken away their home. The sea was to be feared. She did not want to go back there, photographs or no photographs. Priantha tried to explain that it would be safe, but Shanika was not convinced. It was my digital camera which changed things. Most people in the sub-continent love being photographed. The joy of seeing her own image instantly brought a smile to Shanika's face, and soon we were friends. She took photographs of her dad, her aunt and of me. Soon she was taking photographs of me by the sea, but telling me to be careful We had sad eyes when we parted. News had filtered through of the children killed in the latest bombing. The photographs kept coming in, horrific, sad, and disturbing. Mutilated bodies,...

Auditing ofliable entities

The affairs of registered persons and liable entities maybe audited under the Act. Authorised officers who are officers or employees of the Office of the Renewable Energy Regulator may be appointed by the Regulator. An authorised officer, for the purposes of substantiating information supplied under the Act, may enter any premises and exercise monitoring powers provided for under the Act. This includes, among others, searching premises, examining activities, taking photographs, videos or audio recordings and inspecting documents. The penalty for giving false and misleading evidence or documents to an authorised officer is imprisonment for 1 year.98

Runoff remote sensing

Measuring runoff involves continuous observation of a flow volume that existing remote sensing techniques are unable to achieve, but remote sensing data are used to estimate runoff. Aerial photographs are used for quantitative analysis of drainage basin networks from which selected runoff characteristics are estimated. Satellite image enlargements permit identification of channel networks by vegetation differences that support streamflow estimates for hydro-logically data scarce regions (Herschy, 1997). However, the most extensive use of remote sensing data to estimate runoff is in hydroclimatic models. The broad spatial coverage and repeat temporal coverage of satellite remote sensing data contribute to determination of physical characteristics included in models and quantification of model parameters. Such data are especially important for remote areas and or ungauged watersheds. Remote sensing of radiation, precipitation, temperature, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and other...

Global significance of seaice changes

Figure 5.10 Aerial photographs of the Arctic sea-ice cover prior to melt (left) and during the summer melt season (right). Photos Don Perovich Figure 5.10 Aerial photographs of the Arctic sea-ice cover prior to melt (left) and during the summer melt season (right). Photos Don Perovich Aerial photographs of Arctic sea-ice cover in spring and in summer are shown in Figure 5.10. The spring photo is representative of much of the year when the surface is a combination of highly reflecting snow-covered ice and highly absorbing dark areas of open water. Conditions become more complex in the summer with a mixture of melting snow, bare ice, ponds, and an overall increase in the amount of open water.

Composition and structure of the atmosphere

Venus has an atmosphere that is about 100 times denser than ours and the temperature at the surface is high enough to melt lead (see the sidebar Atmospheres of Earth, Venus, and Mars on page 2). Until recently, scientists believed that Venus had a very stable climate. They thought that the high surface temperature was due to the strong greenhouse effect (see the section Greenhouse gases and the greenhouse effect, on pages 94-104) produced by the massive atmosphere. Now they are not so sure. Photographs of the surface of Venus taken in the early 1990s by the Magellan spacecraft show a pattern of cracks. There are similar cracks on Earth, although they are much smaller. On Earth, the cracks are found in basalt rocks that were erupted from a volcano and then cooled slowly. The pattern on Venus indicates that over very long periods the surface temperature has risen and fallen by about 360 F (200 C).

Underwater television and video

Television cameras can be mounted on towed underwater sledges along with still cameras. The television signals give a continuous record of the strip of sea bottom traversed by the sledge, and colour photographs show greater detail of particular areas (Holme and Barrett, 1977). If the distance travelled by the sledge is measured, then quantitative estimates of fauna can be made.

Pacific Coast Mountains

The high, jagged peaks of America's coastal Pacific mountains are a defining feature of the West Coast and represent some of America's most spectacular and beloved scenery. The Sierra Nevada were the spiritual home of John Muir, who was instrumental in the creation of Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks in 1890. The dramatic landscapes of Yosemite were further immortalized in the stunning black-and-white photographs of Ansel Adams. In Washington, the North Cascades National Park complex encompasses the largest, most rugged alpine wilderness in the Lower 48 and is home to grizzly bears, wolves, and virgin Douglas fir and Western red cedar forests. Its 300 glaciers cover more area than glaciers in any other U.S. national park south of Alaska (Post, 1971).

Creating the Cover Image

Could tuck under Lincoln's elbow, the artist made a video then froze a frame of the video and captured it in his com-of his wife holding the arm of his assistant (8), using light- puter. The video was converted from color to gray scale ing that simulated that in the original photographs. He and composited into the Lincoln-Monroe image (9). Fully synthetic images produced by three-dimensional visualization software may, however, be free of such defects. Carefully modeled three-dimensional scenes, rendered in shaded perspective by ray tracing or radiosity (which calculate the interrehection of light within a scene), can simulate all the complex effects of light and shade that even the most demanding observer expects to see. Some fictional photographs may readily pass the internal consistency test. For a century and a half, photographic evidence has seemed unassailably probative. Chemical photography's temporary standardization and stabilization of the process of image making effectively...

Recent Pattern of Land Use Change

Information to assess cross-cutting issues, such as the size of the cropland, woodland, and urban areas, was not known or not reported correctly for decades (Tian et al. 2003). There are large discrepancies among estimates on the state and change of land use in China (Keto et al. 2000). To reduce uncertainty in the estimates of cropland, woodland, and urban areas, Liu and his colleagues have developed land-cover datasets at a resolution of 30 m for the entire nation from Landsat TM imagery for three years (1990, 1995, and 2000) using approximately 500 Landsat TM scenes per year. They have also developed land-cover datasets at a resolution of 1 1 M from a combination of landsat MSS imagery and aerial photographs for 1980.

Weather catastrophes in the modern era

This flood was still much talked about by the local people three years later, when the author started his first field studies. Moreover, in the larger towns, particularly Escuinapa and Rosario, in public buildings and in business offices such as banks, various photographs documenting aspects of the 1968 flood were displayed. They were remarkable photos one showing the Baluarte River flooding over its banks at Rosario, some 60 feet (18 m) above its normal level for that time of year others showing settlements in the rural countryside out along the flat coastal plain, water halfway up the sides of the houses, people standing in waist-deep water, no ground showing anywhere. Local residents noted that several people had drowned or had otherwise been lost, and that following the withdrawal of the high waters there were widespread food shortages which had lasted for more than a year. Furthermore, they said, much of the limited aid which the federal government attempted to provide the region...

Agencies and the media

What was the link between the agencies and the press Essentially, the agencies fed the press with the stories of youth homelessness. Agencies wrote press releases which were often reported word-for-word. The media used the agencies for their expert views and for access to homeless people for stories and photographs (personal communication from P.Toynbee). Youth homelessness agencies were certainly 'adept at providing the media with pre-packaged material that suits the journalist' just as were the environmental pressure groups commented on by Porritt and Winner (1988).

Real Science and Pseudoscience

During my argument with my friend about Paul's vital status, I tried to explain to him that science is not about collections of facts or clues. On the spur of the moment I said, Look, you can always find evidence to support any theory or idea. For example, let's say I will prove to you that John is a woman.'' And sure enough within a few minutes I had found clues to support my claim of the transgender nature of Mr. Lennon. I remember one of them was that John was holding flowers in one of the album photographs. I think he got the point.

Local Level of Analysis

One of the most difficult tasks in land-use analysis is to understand the decisions one must make about the boundaries of a population. In general, geographic boundaries are associated with a variety of factors, such as land tenure, landscape features, ethnic history, administrative boundaries, and inheritance. An analysis based on local information and maps images aerial photographs can provide more reliable information than either one alone. These boundaries, moreover, change over time in sometimes dramatic fashion that can affect the behavior of populations (Ellen 1990).

Side events and exhibits

Nevertheless, links between side events and the formal negotiations remain weak, so that it is difficult for debates at side events to have any short-term impact on the negotiation process. No formal record is kept of discussions, and there are no channels for reporting results or insights to the subsidiary bodies. However, reflecting the increasing importance attached to side events, unofficial channels have been opened up to help propagate the work of side events. Since SBSTA SBI 12 in 2000, with funding from the secretariat, the Earth Negotiations Bulletin has reported on selected side events, providing a summary of discussions, photographs, contact details, and links to relevant websites. The secretariat also provides an internet webcast on selected side events. At COP 9, the secretariat introduced an additional facility for the organizers of side events to place their presentations on the secretariat website, thereby making it available to a global audience.

Urban Rural Spatial Dynamics

High spatial resolution imagery in the form of aerial photographs has been available for close to a century in some parts of the world but is costly to acquire and process. In the past forty years, with the advent of remotely sensed satellite imagery, it has become possible to classify and analyze much larger portions of the earth's surface. Concurrently, a greater range of classification and accuracy has become possible as a result of technological improvements that have increased the range of observations of physical properties of the objects surfaces being imaged. These advantages result from the use of a wider range of the electromagnetic spectrum - beyond normal human vision - and the use of radar and laser systems (see for instance textbooks on remote sensing and image analysis by Jensen 2005 and 2007). At the same time that advancements have been made using a variety of methods to determine the physical properties of the earth's surface and the objects on it, there have also...

Global Warming Natural Hazards and Emergency Management

Cover photos Top row left image courtesy NOAA Photo Library, center image courtesy NOAA Photo Library, NOAA Central Library OAR ERL National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL), right image courtesy Greg Mathieson FEMA News Photo. Middle row center image courtesy Greg Henshall FEMA, right image courtesy NOAA Photo Library. Bottom row left image courtesy Jocelyn Augustino FEMA, center image courtesy Andrea Booher FEMA News Photo, right image courtesy Marvin Nauman FEMA.

Hydrodynamical Attraction

Fig. 5.4 Pictures of clouds (a) Cirrus cloud (NOAA Photo Library) (d) Altocumulus (NOAA Photo Library) (e) Altostratus (f) Stratus (NOAA Photo Library) (g) Fair weather cumulus (NOAA Photo Library) (h) Stratocumulus (NOAA Photo Library) (i) Cumulonimbus cloud (Note anvil-shaped top with mantle) (NOAA Photo Library)

Multinational oil companies

BP faced stakeholder pressures in 1996 over complicity in human rights abuses in Colombia. It was revealed that the company had paid millions of dollars to the Colombian army and had provided the army with photographs and other information about anti-oil protesters, which allegedly led to intimidation, beatings and disappearances (Anonymous 1997). As one interviewee said 'Colombia should not be overrated, but BP got the message eventually.' A senior BP manager - David Rice - admitted a number of years later

Framing Global Warming as a Health Issue

Understand how the dumping of an electrical lubricant into a landfill in Texas can be found in and affect the cellular function, the health, of a child in the Faroe Islands is a revolution in our thinking as profound as the photographs from space that first allowed us to see ourselves as simply a part of one fragile, finite planet, a global ecosystem.

Underwater photography

Bathysnap Design

Remote, automatically operating underwater cameras deployed on wires from research vessels have been in use since about the 1970s. Nowadays they are more often mounted on sledges, submersibles or on towed arrays of multi-instruments. They can also be mounted above baited traps. Modern cameras and lighting units provide high-resolution photographs. Cameras operating in the deep sea do not necessarily need a shutter due to the lack of light at such depths. A camera can be mounted on a sledge and towed across the sea-bed by the ship. In this case the camera is usually obliquely mounted and programmed to take photographs at set intervals. It is often easier to identify small animals from oblique, rather than straight down pictures. A recent exciting development is in free vehicle cameras that can be deployed on the sea-bed and left there, with no connection to the surface, for many months at a time. Their use in time-lapse photography at abyssal depths has been revolutionizing concepts of...

Joan Mccarthy Benwell

Acknowledgments are due to the following for photographs between pages 56-57 1, author 2, Landlife 3, Robert Tregay 4, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers 5, author 6.1, Urban Wildlife Group 7.1, 7.2, author 8.1, 8.2, Landlife 8.3, Robert Tregay 8.4, 8.5, author 9.1, British Trust for Conservation Volunteers (BTCV) 9.2, BTCV, Don Williams, Shell UK Ltd 9.3, Joan McCarthy, Benwell Nature Park 10.1, 10.2, Lin Whitfield, National Federation of City Farms between pages 162-163 1, author 2, Sun Alliance Landuse Consultants (Ian the Ruthven) 3, Leicester City Wildlife Project 4, Tyne and Wear council 5, Scottish Development Agency, Scottish Special Housing Association 6, Robert Tregay 11.1, 11.2, Greater Manchester Council 11.3, author 11.4, City of Bristol 11.5, Scottish Development Agency, Scottish Special Housing Association 13.1, Milton Keynes Development Corporation 13.2, Robert Tregay.

Make A Field Guide For Minerals

Background Have you ever used a field guide to identify a bird, flower, rock, or insect If so, you know that field guides include more than photographs. A typical field guide for minerals might include background information about minerals in general and specific information about the formation, properties, and uses of each mineral.

Failure Trigger Mechanisms

Landslide Trigger Mechanism

Deep-seated failures are not as common as shallow failures, but their occurrence is not unknown during intense tropical cyclones. From 18 to 19 May 1986, the track of Tropical Cyclone Namu passed through Solomon Islands (Fig. 8.5), traversing the islands of Malaita and Guadalcanal. TC Namu inflicted terrible destruction and shaped considerable landscape change, including numerous debris flows and deep-seated landslides. The enormous amounts of debris choked valley bottoms, leading to unprecedented river channel aggradation on both Malaita and Guadalcanal (described in Chapter 10). At least one hundred lives were lost, primarily as a result of landslides in the hills and highlands (Trustrum et al. 1990). Table 8.2 shows the number of deep-seated landslides in affected river basins in Solomon Islands. The data was observed from 119 aerial photographs

HUMANiTARiAn Workers ViSual Coverage

'Photographs offer a good reality check,' says Dr Unnikrishnan PV, an emergencies and conflicts advisor for ActionAid International. 'They can alert the humanitarian and the government system and help initiate action.' This globetrotter medic advises photographers to go beyond the roadsides and highways, to the remote corners where the real story lies, and witness the resilience of people. Walking an extra mile and getting closer to people always produces good pictures. As the famous conflict photographer James Nachtwey says about his style that a photographer has to operate in the same intimate space that the subjects inhabit.3 While dealing with people caught up in disasters and conflict, this closeness matters. It blunts the predatory edge of the camera. The photographer becomes a visitor, rather than a nosey intruder. Once the photographer knows the first name of the person she or he is shooting, it becomes a bit difficult to be offensive with the camera. The way photographs are...

Snuffing Out Nascent Hurricanes

Robert H. Simpson (1912- ) and advised by a number of prominent meteorologists, STORMFURY participants conducted scientific experiments exploring the structure and dynamics of hurricanes. They wanted to understand better, predict, and possibly eliminate some of the destructive power of these storms. Using a new silver iodide generator, they fired small canisters packed with propellant from a navy aircraft. The canisters would fall 20,000 feet (6,100 m) through a cloud, producing a plume of silver iodide seeds for about 40 seconds. Additional navy planes took meteorological observations and photographs.

The Science Of Remote Sensing

Remote sensing devices allow an interpreter to see objects at a distance or to see small objects better. Earth scientists use remote sensing to gather information about the Earth. The photographs they use are images that can be obtained from many types of remote sensing devices and that offer unique views of the Earth's surface unattainable in any other way. The most common platforms today are airplanes and satellites. The shortest wavelengths in the spectrum are gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet rays. Humans cannot see this energy (X-rays are what doctors use to take pictures of bones, and ultraviolet rays are what cause sunburn). As the wavelengths lengthens, visible light appears. These are the wavelengths that humans can see, but it is a tiny portion of the entire spectrum. Visible light can be broken into blue, green, and red light. Wavelengths longer than those of the visible spectrum cannot be seen by humans. These include infrared radiation, microwave radiation, and radio...

Divining the Downburst

At first, Ted Fujita had his doubts about wind shear as the explanation for the crash of Flight 66. But then he recalled a few striking images in photographs he had taken in April 1974 when he was investigating the worst tornado outbreak on record, the famous super outbreak of 147 tornadoes that had ravaged 11 southern and midwestern states. In some instances, uprooted trees had been felled in a small but distinct starburst pattern, not a twisted whirl but splayed out by a wind that must have shot straight down out of the clouds and burst across the ground.

Underwater observations

The aqualung is a tool that has many applications in marine biological investigations in shallow water. It makes possible many quantitative studies on distribution and growth of marine organisms by direct observation with minimal disturbance of their natural environment. The behaviour of marine animals can be recorded in their normal surroundings. Photographs can be taken of precisely selected areas and events and changes can be monitored. Divers can operate many types of underwater equipment which would otherwise have to be remotely controlled from the surface or might not be usable at all in particular localities (Kritzler and Eidemuller, 1972 Potts, 1976).

Organization of the Material

The two volumes are richly illustrated with charts, tables, maps, and line drawings. Each, along with the many photographs, was selected to amplify the text it accompanies. Historic photographs such as the one taken at noon during Donora, Pennsylvania's, killer smog are especially important they convey far more about the state of our environment at its nadir than any words could. Finally, articles include selected lists of additional resources. The lists focus on materials that students can reasonably expect to locate, and each contains at least one Internet reference.

Case Study The Moral Discourse After Kyoto

Another device was seen in captions to photographs. Many of these employed unrelated illustrations to make humorous comments which had a kind of undergraduate charm, but others were more personal and pointed.2 For example 'The Carbon Mafia Washington lawyer and fossil fuel lobbyist Don Pearlman yesterday instructing Mohammed Al-Saban (Saudia Arabia) on further obstruction of the process' (Eco, 11 November 1998). Again, the discourse is one of delegitimizing the position of those who might have legitimate interests to defend at odds with those of the EU and others advantaged by the dominant moral discourse.

Remote Sensing Impacts Weather and Climate Studies

It may have provided low-quality, grainy photographs, but TIROS-1, America's first weather satellite, was a boon to meteorologists and weather forecasters as it provided images of frontal systems and tropical storms at sea, far from surface observation posts. Over the course of the decade, more sophisticated weather satellites were launched, carrying additional sensors to measure global temperatures as well as to provide photographs of clouds.

The Multicultural Character of the Gold Rush

Photographer Carleton Watkins (1829-1916), who traveled throughout California taking pictures of mining and agricultural activities, took a famous photograph of hydraulic nozzles blasting away entire hillsides. The enormous effect was described by the 1879 newspaper article There's real pleasure about this gigantic force. The water is beaten into foam until it comes out with a wicked vicious unutterable indignation____ I t In 1917, engineer Grove Karl Gilbert (1843-1918) made a study for the United States Geological Survey of the amount of debris flowing from the Sierras through the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers and its effect on the Suisun, San Pablo, and San Francisco Bays. His report was replete with photographs showing debris-filled creek beds and buried forests. The debris spread out on either side of streams and rivers, confining the water to a narrow central channel and changing its flow. After the Sawyer decision halted hydraulic mining, tree trunks formerly under water...

Thunderstorms And Tornadoes

Lightning strikes in many spots during an intense storm. (NOAA Photo Library, NOAA Central Library OAR ERL National Severe Storms Laboratory) Lightning strikes in many spots during an intense storm. (NOAA Photo Library, NOAA Central Library OAR ERL National Severe Storms Laboratory) A tornado strikes south of Dimmitt, Texas, in June 1995. (NOAA Photo Library, NOAA Central Library OAR ERL National Severe Storms Laboratory)

Natural Systems Under Stress

Deforestation to supply fuelwood is extensive in the Sahelian zone of Africa and the Indian subcontinent. As urban firewood demand surpasses the sustainable yield of nearby forests, the woods slowly retreat from the city in an ever larger circle, a process clearly visible from satellite photographs taken over time. As the circles enlarge, the transport costs of firewood increase, triggering the development of an industry for charcoal, a more concentrated form of energy. March Turnbull

Next Generation Batteries

The first new battery model was nickel-cadmium,, or NiCd, with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and electrodes of nickel hydroxide and cadmium. NiCds are rechargeable, which makes them acceptable for digital cameras. But they lack the energy density to run a hybrid vehicle. Next came nickel-metal hydride, or NiMH, which is similar to NiCd but replaces cadmium with a hydrogen-absorbing alloy. A NiMH battery has two or three times the capacity of a comparable NiCd, which makes it adequate for the secondary role played by a traditional hybrid vehicle 's battery. But it still lacks the energy density necessary to run a plug-in hybrid or an all-electric car.


My travel agent, Babu Bhai managed to get me a flight the next day. There are no direct flights from Dhaka to Colombo and I left on 29 December, the first flight I could get, via Bangkok. I had posted an angry message in ShahidulNews in response to the tourist centric reporting in mainstream media and many friends responded. Margot Klingsporn from Focus in Hamburg wired me some money. Not waiting for the money to arrive, I gathered the foreign currency I could lay my hands on, packed a digital camera and a video camera along with my trusted Nikon F5 and left.

Edward Walter Maunder And The Unreliable

He was given the task of photographing sunspots, then using the photographs to measure their sizes and plot their positions. Maunder was a keen observer and very meticulous. He calculated that the sunspots must be very large and that distant objects, although visible, must contain much fine detail that is invisible from Earth. He used this insight to suggest that the canals that many astronomers claimed to have seen on Mars were an optical illusion a view that was unpopular at the time, but turned out to be correct. Maunder also suggested that the ancient Assyrian and Egyptian depictions of a winged god of the Sun in fact showed the outermost part of the solar atmosphere, known as the corona.

Urbanitys Dark Side

Jacob Riis, the third of fifteen children, took a boat from Denmark to New York and got a job as a police reporter at the New York Tribune and later as a photojournalist for the New York Sun. In a moment of serendipity he went looking for a project at about the time flash powder was invented. With a camera equipped with a flash, Riis was able to take pictures in dark alleys and tenements, and he set out to chronicle the life of the poor in the city's slums. The publication of How the Other Half Lives in 1890 prompted outcry and action, in particular by Theodore Roosevelt, then the New York police commissioner. What's less known is that nearly all of Riis's photographs were carefully staged. But the Dickensian message was clear The city had gone astray. It

Donating to others

Most will come to your home and pick it up. You can probably save some tax dollars if you write this stuff off, but get a receipt and don't push it too far, or you'll get audited and indicted (in America, these are often one and the same in the finest tradition of capitalism). Your best bet is to take some digital photos of your donations and store them on your computer, just in case the IRS questions your magnificent sense of benevolence.

Brain vs Brawn

Think of all the other hardware that has been, or is being, disinter-mediated and replaced by hardware that is smarter and more compatible with Internet and networked communications film-based cameras (digital cameras and processing), stereos (iPods), car radios (satellite radio), network television (cable, satellite TV). The 42-inch television I bought last year cost as much as the 14-inch Trinitron I bought in 1979 All the

GOES Goes Up

The United States launched ATS-1, the first geostationary satellite, in 1966. Although it had a television camera suitable for sending back grainy black-and-white photographs of Earth's cloud systems, its primary mission had been to test out communications systems. Because of the success of its meteorological application, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) began work on a dedicated geostationary weather satellite. NASA launched the first prototype, the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS-1), from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 17, 1974, and placed it into orbit directly above the equator at 45 W longitude (the central Atlantic Ocean). It was followed by a second prototype, SMS-2, in February 1975 (above 135 W longitude Pacific Ocean), and then by GOES-1 on October 16, 1975. Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) geosynchronous weather satellite system. Over 15,000 solar cells powered the 650-pound (295-kg) cylinder, which was 75 inches (190 cm) in diameter...


The eye is typically 25 km in diameter, but can be half or twice that. Around it is a wall of strong winds, rotating cyclonically, i.e. clockwise in the southern hemisphere. The air inside the eye is subsiding, and that is why it is cloudless, calm and warm. That is surrounded by a wall of cloud within a raging vortex of updraught. This in turn is encompassed by weaker updraughts further from the eye, creating spirals of convective rainclouds, easily seen in satellite photographs. Between the eye wall and the central subsidence there is a thin cylinder of descending air cooled by evaporation from the wall. This cooled air becomes entrained into the ascending wall near sea-level (Figure 13.12).

Recent Excavations

Donald L. (Don) Rasmussen, a geologist, paleontologist, and caver, and his son Dalton (Larry) went into the cave in 1981 in hopes of exploring new parts of the cave and digging out blocked passageways that they had seen in photographs taken by Kirk Branson a few weeks before. It was during this trip that Larry first noticed bones and teeth in the debris being excavated along the wall in the Pit area of the cave. Although the bones and teeth appeared to be from recent animals, Don recognized a horse incisor and realized they were dealing with fossils rather than modern-day animal remains. They also found dirt balls called nodules on the floor of the Pit, some of which contained bones and teeth. Rasmussen made several trips to the cave that year, accompanied at times by friends and family, and he brought home samples of the fossils and nodules for study. Exploration of the cave and the search for new fossil sites continued at a slow pace for several years.


Mid Latitude Climates East Asia

Plate 21 Hurricane Andrew, 23 August 1992, during its maximum intensity over the Bahamas. Visible image from Meteosat 3 (courtesy of NOAA, NOAA Photo Library Historic NWS Collection wea 00520). Plate 22 Ground view of the devastation caused by Hurricane Andrew in Pinewoods Villa, southern Florida, (courtesy of NOAA, NOAA Photo Library Historic NWS Collection wea 00534).

Marine phytoplankton

Many of the phytoplankton species of the North Atlantic are described in detail in volumes by Lebour (1925, 1930) and Hendey (1964). There are many excellent photographs in Drebes (1974) although the text is in German. More recent, but less detailed accounts can be found in the student texts detailed at the end of this chapter.


The manuscript of this book, as in the case of the other two volumes in the series, was read by my wife Kate McMahon Moughtin who ensured that it made sense and that it could be read easily. Many of the fine drawings, which help to clarify the meaning of the text, were made by Peter Whitehouse, while Glyn Halls turned my negatives into photographs which illustrate the text. I am also greatly indebted to the Leverhulme Trust who gave generous financial support for the preparation of the first edition of this book.


Different wavelengths of light do not penetrate equally. Infrared radiation penetrates least, being almost entirely absorbed within the top 2 m, and ultraviolet light is also rapidly absorbed. Within the visible spectrum, red light is absorbed first, much of it within the first 5 m. This is why underwater photographs taken without a flash have an overall bluish-green colour. In clear water the greatest penetration is by the blue-green region of the spectrum, while in more turbid conditions the penetration of blue rays is often reduced to a greater extent than that of the red-yellow wavelengths. This differential absorption of the solar spectrum partly accounts for the colour of the sea's surface by its effect on the spectral composition of reflected light. In bright sunlight, clear ocean water may appear very blue because the yellow and red rays are largely absorbed, and blue rays predominate in light reflected from below the surface. In more turbid coastal waters, their greener...


Meteorological satellites provide imagery that is digitized data even though the images may look like photographs. All meteorological satellites are equipped with a radiometer. The radiometer produces an image composed of a series of discrete point values in rows and columns called picture elements or pixels. The radiometer measures the intensity of the radiant energy coming from the Earth's surface and the atmosphere in a selected wavelength band identified as a channel. When the radiometer collects a predetermined amount of radiant energy it registers a count, and the number of counts is proportional to the radiation intensity. The area viewed by the radiometer at any given time is known as its footprint, and the total radiation from the footprint is assigned to a pixel located in the footprint's center. Some detail is lost in averaging characteristics within the footprint to produce a single value.


The photographs presented here are part of World View of Global Warming, Gary Braasch's documentation of the effects and the science. He interviewed each of the scientists represented in his photo section. More photographs and annotated references may be found at the project website,

Progressive Movement

Others interested in environmental problems, however, pressed for solutions within urban areas rather than outside of them. Jacob Riis, a muckraking journalist, published photographs of slum housing and their immigrant residents. His work outraged many and produced some reforms in living conditions. Upton Sinclair, perhaps one of the most famous muckrakers of the Progressive Era, published The Jungle in 1906, a startling, thinly fictionalized expos of the meat-packing industry. Filled with stories of vile, unsanitary, and dangerous conditions for workers, the book led to legislative action in the form of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. In addition, reformers strived to improve working conditions in factories, resulting in factory inspection laws and child-labor laws.

The Asian Cloud

The global warming effects that are pushing Indian fishermen to the brink of starvation are part of a larger picture. American military pilots flying over the Indian Ocean from the U.S. Air Force base on Diego Garcia first detected the presence of a large, dense cloud of sooty pollution over Asia in the 1980s. Since then, it has regularly appeared in satellite photographs and been tracked by research ships.

Pollution Travels

Two dust storms that occurred in the Gobi Desert in 1998, killing twelve people in Xinjiang, China, crossed the Pacific Ocean in 5 days, carried by the western winds that are typical for the northern mid-latitudes. They came to ground between British Columbia and California and created a small furor. Phenomena like this are described in dry scientific papers that, in rare lapses, offer some clear prose. In a study prepared by a virtual working group headed by Washington University in St. Louis, The Asian Dust Events of April 1998, it is noted, The most noticeable impact of the dust which arrived in North America on April 25, 1998 was the discoloration of the sky. Human observer reports and digital photographs indicate that from April 25 onward, the normally blue sky appeared milky white throughout the non-urban West Coast.

How science works

The star's position (measured relative to other stars) should appear to be shifted from when it is observed in the night sky. The Sun is so bright, however, that the only way to observe a star's apparent location when it is near the Sun is during a solar eclipse. Eddington's group traveled to Principe, off the coast of Africa, to photograph stars during an eclipse on May 29,1919. Comparing these photographs to photos of the same stars at night showed that the light had indeed been bent by the Sun's gravitational pull, by an amount that was close to what the theory of general relativity predicted.

Eye of the Beholder

Places where the hydro-schemes have been sited, would hardly complain that the scenery is tarnished by their presence. Some might think that a few of the Scottish dams actually add to the grandeur of their location. On the other hand, a zealot for wilderness might see only man-made artefacts that are 'polluting the landscape', but this would be an extreme view. The concept of 'wilderness' is becoming increasingly difficult to promote in today's world, which has become highly sculpted and modified by mankind, in order to support a population that has rapidly outgrown the ability of the planet to sustain it naturally. Wilderness is where modern human beings have never been and where their presence on the planet is not apparent. Where on Earth is that When one sees photographs of remote mountains, remote islands and even very remote, seemingly pristine Antarctica, showing evidence of contamination originating from human activity, it is clear that humanity's flawed stewardship of the...

Kyoto Treaty

We need to guard against things like the Kyoto process. The process is a bit like taking pictures of food and showing them to hungry people in the hope that seeing food will help diminish their hunger. International studies are, too often, complex diplomatic maneuvers that provide the illusion that action is being taken when in fact, all that is accomplished is employment for supernumerary government employees.

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Although we usually tend to think of the digital camera as the best thing since sliced bread, there are both pros and cons with its use. Nothing is available on the market that does not have both a good and a bad side, but the key is to weigh the good against the bad in order to come up with the best of both worlds.

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