Timescales Of Climatic Variation

Nested Stochastic Diagram

Climate varies on all timescales and space scales, from interannual climatic variability to very long-period variations related to the evolution of the atmosphere and changes in the lithosphere. Examples of known climatic fluctuations are shown in Fig. 2.14. In this diagram, each row represents an expansion, by a factor of ten, of each interval on the row above it. Thus, one can envisage short-term high-frequency variations nested within long-term lower-frequency variations Webb, 1991 ....

Dissolution Of Deepsea Carbonates

Aragonite Compensation Depth

Throughout the deep ocean basins of the world, a major factor affecting preservation of carbonate tests is the rate of dissolution at depth. The oceans are predominantly undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate at all depths below the upper mixed layer the zone above the thermocline Olausson, 1965, 1967 . After death of the organisms, deposition of the test on the ocean floor leads to dissolution in the undersaturated water Adelsack and Berger, 1977 . Pteropod tests composed of calcium...

Thermohaline Circulation Of The Oceans

Thermohaline Circulation

Circulation of water at the ocean surface is largely a response to the overlying atmospheric circulation which exerts drag at the surface. However, circulation of deeper waters in the oceans of the world is a consequence of density variations, which result from differences in temperature and salinity brought about by sensible and latent heat fluxes, precipitation, and runoff at the ocean surface this is termed the thermohaline circulation. In areas where surface waters become relatively dense,...