Entrepreneurship

The verbal model hypothesizes that a norm entrepreneur suggested a change in appropriate understandings of participation requirements during the ozone depletion negotiations. A norm entrepreneur advocated for universal participation. Further, the verbal model claims that some states add this suggestion to their rule model they change their understanding of what a global response to ozone depletion requires. This adding may occur through varied processes persuasion, socialization, or coercion....

Life with Norm Entrepreneurs

In contrast to the dichotomous patterns exhibited when the system lacks norm entrepreneurs, their presence creates different patterns. First, norm entrepreneurs are able to influence which rule rises to dominant status when the noise precision levels would otherwise lead to stability around Population Predictions Low Noise, Entrepreneur Present T'nTTinw w 'm < TI wf TT'r, pwr ' FIT 1 I Ut Jfc il* Ji& i* Jil* iilfc. UM.tmJl Al the dominant rule. See Figure 4.4 for a demonstration of this...

The Evolution of the Normative Context The Breakdown of North Only Participation on the Road to Montreal

The normative context that the United States acted within was relatively stable in 1986-87, though the seeds for the major transition to universal participation were sown. The negotiations that would yield the Montreal Protocol in 1987 transpired with a clear, intersubjective understanding that ozone depletion was a problem that required Northern participation in negotiations and solutions. Southern nations made up less than one-third of the participants at all three of the pre-Montreal...

The Foundations Of The Global Governance Of Climate Change Ihe Initial Normative Context Universal Participation

Before 1988 it would be curious to discuss climate change as existing within a normative political context. To this point, climate change was primarily a scientific issue and scientists were the main protagonists in climate change conferences. As the issue began to attract political attention the normative context stressing universal participation became clear. The seeds of this understanding were evident at conferences in 1988 and in the IPCC process. By 1989, universal participation was well...

The Initial US Rule Models Uncertainty Economics and Universality

The rule model shaping U.S. negotiating positions and behavior remained remarkably stable in the years that climate change emerged as a political issue.67 There were two components to the U.S. rules. First, and underlying all else, the United States was committed to universal participation in negotiations and efforts to address climate change. Universal participation was positively reinforced during the latter ozone depletion negotiations and this understanding matched the social context....

Chapter Ozone Depletion

See Haas 1992 Rowlands 1995 Litfin 1994 Parson 1993 and Hamp-son 1995. 2. James Rosenau coined the categories sovereignty free and sovereignty bound in an attempt to move beyond state-centric thinking. See Rosenau 1990. 4. International Environment Reporter 1986e, 331. 5. Obviously, this is a simplification the rule model that the United States was using at this time was not somehow natural or static, rather, it is a snapshot of an evolving rule model. 6. Article 8 in Vienna Convention,...

Implications For The Governance Of Ozone Depletion And Climate Change

However, even given its simplicity, it produces complex patterns and demonstrates that stylized norm entrepreneurs can play a role in forging intersubjective agreement and that they contribute to norm evolution as well as emergence. It shows in a general, formal way that norm entrepreneurs can alter the dynamics of a system of interacting agents sometimes catalyzing the emergence and evolution of norms. While not an empirical test of the NLC, the modeling exercises and...

Modeling The

Norm entrepreneurs, political entrepreneurs, and moral entrepreneurs have all been called upon in explanations of the emergence of cooperation, norms, conventions, coalitions, and agreements. However, it is not enough to assert the efficacy of norm entrepreneurs or to merely correlate the existence of a norm entrepreneur with the emergence of norms, conventions, or cooperation.17 Most entrepreneurship studies endeavor to show how norm entrepreneurs transmit their ideas and persuade actors to...

Reach

A second refinement of the NLC that emerges from this modeling analysis regards the reach of the norm entrepreneur. Finnemore and Sikkink already highlight the importance of the organizational platform in explaining the efficacy of the entrepreneur. This analysis confirms that importance. Powerful norm entrepreneurs (the more agents she can make a suggestion to) lead to a greater number of norms over time. This is not surprising as the model was built assuming the importance of the...

Reach of the Entrepreneur

While the above results are valuable, they are just the beginning. Just how robust are the effects of norm entrepreneurs found in these initial analyses Under what conditions do norm entrepreneurs have which effects To begin to answer these questions, I undertook sensitivity analysis on the model in order to assess the importance of entrepreneur reach.441 investigated the impact of limited reach the effects if the norm entrepreneur could not influence the whole population, but rather just a...

Life Without Norm Entrepreneurs

When norm entrepreneurs are absent from the system, two types of macro patterns emerge in the simulations. Depending upon the noise levels in the system, the simulation exhibits a strict dichotomy between stability and volatility in the system. Figures 4.2 and 4.3 are typical runs without norm entrepreneurs. As the noise in the system increases the simulation switches from stable to volatile. Each figure reports the average predictions group outcome made in each round by the agent population...

Universal Participation As Conventional Wisdom

In academic treatments, universal participation has become an accepted necessary factor in regime building.1 Downs et al. claim that the acceptance of universal participation as necessary is a hallmark of the transformational approach to regime design.2 This approach is based on the idea that participating in a regime can transform the states that join, and that the regime will thus grow stronger over time. Inclusive, broad participation is thus a major prescription because it ensures the...

Modeling Social Constructivist Insights What Can Be Learned

The childhood activity that gives the model its name is a simple, abstract representation of sophisticated processes of social construction much as the Prisoner's Dilemma is an abstract representation of collective action problems. Agents in the norm life cycle and in this model strive to behave appropriately pick the correct number . Rather than being an objective criterion, the appropriate behavior is defined by the intersubjective social context group outcome in the model the social context...

Modeling the Norm Life Cycle

The verbal model developed in the previous chapter is a potential explanation for the transitions in participation requirements in the ozone depletion and climate change cases. It presents a series of conjectures about how a universal participation norm could emerge and evolve in these issues. In this chapter, I assess those conjectures formally through agent-based modeling ABM techniques. I pursue formal analysis for two reasons. First, it is crucial to assess the plausibility of the claims...

Universal Participation and the Development of US Stalling Strategies

Before the formal negotiations convened in 1991, the consequences of the U.S. understanding of climate change as a requiring a universal response were clearly evident. However, the question remains Did the United States internalize universal participation, especially given their recalcitrant stance and implicit threat to not participate in the climate change regimes The short answer remains yes. The universal participation requirement was the understanding of climate change that served to shape...

Empirical Expectations

Incorporating CAS insights into the norm life cycle provides a simple, flexible framework for structuring inquiry that is grounded in micro-level processes. I can discern rule models in the agents of interest, observe the rule models producing behavior, and observe the evaluation of the outcomes. In this way, I can trace the evolution of both actors and social norms and explain the emergence and evolution of the universal participation norm. When approaching the empirical record with the...

Earth Summit Rio June

The United States along with most of the UN states came together in Rio in 1992 for the historic United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development UNCED . A centerpiece of this conference was to be the signing of the FCCC. The United States managed to dictate the terms of the agreement as a condition for observing it, and thus the document sets no specific goals or timetables for reducing carbon dioxide.185 However, neither the binding targets nor the South-North debate ended when...

Progression Of The Analysis

Constructivism International Relations

The rest of this book serves as an assessment of the claims made in this first chapter, and the analysis proceeds in clear stages. First, it is necessary to justify the need for a norms-based analysis of participation in ozone depletion and climate change. If I used a different theoretical lens, I might claim that universal participation is not a norm at all, but a result of the strategy of powerful actors with given interests, or determined directly by the objective scientific knowledge of...

Acknowledgements

I could not have completed this research and volume without the benefit of the expertise and aid of numerous people. I would be remiss if I did not thank Mary Durfee for diverting me from environmental engineering and sending me into the world of IR. At The George Washington University, Marty Finnemore, Jim Rosenau, and Susan Sell provided incredible support and guidance throughout the research process. Their advice and encouragement have been a continual source of motivation and direction....

Conclusion

To conclude, it is crucial to clearly differentiate between what this book claims and what it does not. First, I do not claim that eventually solving climate change and other global environmental problems can be accomplished with less than universal participation. Obviously, both ozone depletion and climate change are problems with global extent that emerge from diverse and numerous activities. Solving climate change, especially, will likely require participation at multiple levels...