Contents

Preface to the first edition page ix

1 The climate system 1

1.1 Solar radiation 2

1.1.1 The effective temperature of the Earth 4

1.2 The atmosphere 4

1.2.1 The greenhouse effect

1.2.2 Reflected radiation 12

1.3 The oceans 12

1.3.1 Chemical composition of the oceans 13

1.3.2 Ocean circulation 16

1.4 The cryosphere 19

1.5 The biosphere 21

1.6 Thegeosphere 22

1.7 Timescales and feedbacks 24

1.8 Variation of the climate system over time 26

1.9 Numerical modelling of the ocean and climate system 31 Further reading 34

2 Physical interaction between the ocean and atmosphere 35

2.1 Radiation 36

2.1.1 Solar radiation 36

2.1.2 Long-wave radiation 39

2.2 Heat exchange through latent and sensible heat 41

2.2.1 Latent heat 41

2.2.2 Sensible heat 43

2.3 The oceanic heat balance 45

2.4 Oceanic forcing by air-sea exchange of moisture and heat 48

2.4.1 Moisture exchange 48

2.4.2 Heat exchange 48

2.5 Temperature, salinity and density 51

2.6 Basic forces within the atmosphere and ocean 53

2.6.1 Hydrostatic balance 54

2.6.2 The Coriolis force 54

2.6.3 Geostrophy 57

2.7 Tidal forces and their influence 58

2.8 Momentum transfer and drag 60

2.9 Waves, the production of aerosols and condensation nuclei 62

2.9.1 Wave formation and characteristics 63

2.9.2 Breaking waves and marine aerosols 65

2.9.3 Condensation nuclei 66

2.10 The Ekman spiral and Langmuir circulation 67

2.10.1 The Ekman spiral 67

2.10.2 Langmuir circulation 69

2.11 Wind-driven circulation of the ocean 71

2.11.1 The ocean gyres 71

2.11.2 Coastal upwelling 74

2.11.3 The tropical surface circulation 75

2.11.4 The Indian Ocean monsoonal circulation 78

2.11.5 The polar regions 80

2.11.6 Oceanic eddies 81

2.12 The thermohaline circulation 82

2.13 Oceanic impact on the marine atmospheric circulation 85

2.13.1 Hurricanes 86

2.13.2 Mesocyclones 89 Further reading 90

3 Chemical interaction of the atmosphere and ocean 91

3.1 Solubility of gases 91

3.2 Gas exchange across the air-sea interface 94

3.3 The carbon cycle 97

3.3.1 The carbon cycle 97

3.3.2 Oceanic control of carbon dioxide -principal processes 98

3.3.3 Oceanic control of carbon dioxide - geographical variations 101

3.4 Oxygen in the ocean 103

3.5 The transfer of particles 106

3.5.1 Aerosols, plankton, and climate 106

3.5.2 Sea spray, clouds, and climate 108

3.5.3 Mechanisms for precipitation formation 114

3.6 Photochemical reactions in sea water 116

3.7 Chemical tracers 117 Further reading 120

4 Biogeochemical interaction of the atmosphere and ocean 122

4.1 Phytoplankton 122

4.1.1 Phytoplankton growth 122

4.1.2 Geographical variation 125

4.1.3 Vertical variation and ocean colour 128

4.1.4 Iron from aerosols 129

4.2 Climatically active products of marine biological processes 130

4.2.1 Carbon compounds other than CO2 130

4.2.2 Nitrogeneous compounds 131

4.2.3 Sulphureous compounds 132

4.2.4 Iodic compounds 133

4.3 Bio-geochemical cycles 134

4.3.1 The carbon cycle 134

4.3.2 The nitrogen cycle 135

4.3.3 The phosphorus cycle 136

4.3.4 The oxygen cycle 136

4.3.5 The sulphur cycle 136

4.4 DMS and climate 136 Further reading 140

5 Large-scale air-sea interaction 141

5.1 Tropospheric pressure systems and the ocean 141

5.1.1 The physics of large-scale extra-tropical interaction 143

5.1.2 Maritime climates 146

5.1.3 Interannual variability in the atmosphere and ocean 150

5.1.4 Oceanic influence on extra-tropical cyclogenesis 157

5.2 ENSO: Ocean-atmosphere interaction in the tropics 159

5.2.1 Characteristics of ENSO 161

5.2.2 ENSO and air-sea coupling 167

5.2.3 The ENSO cycle 170

5.2.4 The impact of ENSO in the tropics beyond the

Pacific basin 174

5.2.5 The impact of ENSO in the extra-tropics 176

5.2.6 ENSO and the Indian Monsoon 177

5.2.7 Seasonal forecasting of El Nin o 179

5.2.8 Other tropical air-sea interactions 179

5.2.9 The extra-tropics 181

5.3 Abrupt change in the thermohaline circulation 182

5.3.1 Freshwater moderators of North Atlantic overturning 182

5.3.2 Thermohaline catastrophes 183

5.3.3 The potential impact of the Mediterranean Outflow on climate 184

Further reading 186

6 The ocean and natural climatic variability 187

6.1 The oceanic role in the geological evolution of climate 187

6.1.1 The Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic 187

6.1.2 The Cretaceous: a case study 190

6.1.3 Tertiary climates 191

6.2 The ocean and Quaternary glaciation 194

6.2.1 Interglacial termination 197

6.2.2 Glacial termination 199

6.3 The ocean and Holocene climate 205

6.3.1 The Climatic Optimum 205

6.3.2 The last 5000 years 207

6.4 Marine climate change during the twentieth century 209

6.4.1 The instrumental record 212

6.4.2 Global trends in marine climate 214

6.4.3 Marine climate change over the Pacific Ocean 216

6.4.4 Marine climate change over the Indian Ocean 216

6.4.5 Marine climate change over the Atlantic Ocean 217 Further reading 219

7 The ocean and climatic change 221

7.1 Natural variability 221

7.1.1 Solar variability 221

7.1.2 Orbital changes 223

7.1.3 Volcanic impact on climate 223

7.1.4 Cometary impact 224

7.1.5 Internal climatic instability 226

7.2 Anthropogenic forcing of climate 226

7.2.1 Trace gases 227

7.2.2 Aerosols 231

7.2.3 Land surface albedo changes 234

7.2.4 Climatic feedbacks 234

7.3 The climate of the future 240

7.3.1 Climate evolution over the twenty-first century 241

7.3.2 Detection of climatic change 244 Further reading 246

Appendices 247

A Useful constants and the electromagnetic spectrum 247

B Periodic Table and electron orbital configuration 249

C Stability, potential temperature and density 254

D Rossby waves in the atmosphere and ocean 256

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

257 263 269

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable Energy Eco Friendly

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment