Conclusion

The United States is at a major nuclear power crossroads. One path, the path of inaction or status quo, will result in a slow erosion of this nation's nuclear power electric generation capacity. If no new reactors are built in the years to come, the current U.S. reactor base will slowly be decommissioned once each reactor's 40-year operating license or 20-year license extension expires.As each of the 103 nuclear reactors is decommissioned, this will put additional strain on other U.S. electricity generation assets, namely conventional generation, which is fueled by increasingly hard-to-find quantities of fossil fuels. In the worst-case scenario, conventional fuel generation won't be able to keep pace with demand growth and severe electric power shortages will result.

The other path at this important nuclear crossroad leads to the further expansion of U.S. nuclear power assets.This nuclear expansion is ongoing on a global basis. Nuclear energy's improving clean-power image is prompting greater numbers of nations to consider the technology as part of their twenty-first-century energy solution.These countries include nations such as Tanzania, Portugal, and Mexico. While the developing African nation of Tanzania may not have the financial resources to actually construct such a facility, the western European nation of Portugal, which in October 2004 dismissed the introduction of nuclear power, is now tak ing a fresh look at the technology due to increased domestic power consumption and rising energy and oil imports. The Portuguese do have some previous experience with nuclear energy: Uranium was mined in the nation for about 50 years, but these mining operations ceased in 2001 for economic reasons.

One possibility being considered is a joint project by Portugal and Spain which calls for the construction of a large LWR. This has great potential since the two nations recently unified their electricity transmission grids, which will assist in the distribution of electricity produced by the jointly owned nuclear unit.

On the North American continent, Mexico is taking a fresh look at building a second nuclear power plant, 10 years after the second of its twin 654-megawatt BWRs at Laguna Verde began commercial operation. In 2005, the Mexican Ministry of Energy charged the Federal Energy Commission, or CFE, to analyze a policy shift that would emphasize "alternative generation portfolios." This makes it possible for the Mexican government to explore nuclear technology options due to its lower lifetime operation costs.

Simply stated, if new reactor technology is good enough for Tanzania, Portugal, and Mexico, it should be good enough for further expansion in the United States. For decades, the U.S. fleet of 103 reactors has generated millions of kilowatt-hours of relatively low-cost electricity from steam produced from the nuclear fission process. The U.S. nuclear industry is under very stringent oversight by the NRC, which has resulted in decades of safe performance.While the U.S. nuclear industry hasn't received a license for a new commercial reactor for decades, and there was little interest for a time in building new reactors, operators have made tremendous strides in the efficient operation of these assets.

After decades in suspension relative to rapid global growth, the U.S. nuclear industry has begun to show the early signs of rebirth. Several factors are responsible for what many are calling a "nuclear renaissance." Steadily increasing demand for electricity, greater global competition and rising prices for limited supplies of fossil fuels, improvements in reactor safety technology, changing public perceptions regarding energy generation requirements, increased emission concerns and global warming fears, and increased government funding have all been catalysts for U.S. nuclear expansion.

With numerous electric utilities considering constructing nuclear reactors in response to growth forecasts for future electricity demand, the prospects are indeed very bright for the U.S. nuclear power industry. While nuclear power won't be the solution to all future U.S. generation demand growth, the industry is favorably positioned and now benefits from both energy security and economic issues. Nuclear power will never replace the United States' extensive coal-fired, natural gas, and alternative fuel electricity-producing assets. It will, however, play an increasingly important role as part of this nation's diverse mixture of power generation assets. This diversity of generation assets will enable the United States to literally power its economic expansion and maintain its citizens' standard of living well into the twenty-first century.

Appendix A

U.S. Reactors

Table A.1 U.S. Reactor List

Capacity

MW(E) Reactor Grid Commercial

Capacity

MW(E) Reactor Grid Commercial

Reactor Name

Type

Net

OperatorA

SupplierB

Connection

Operation

Arkansas

Nuclear 1

PWR

840

ENTERGY

B&W

8/17/1974

12/19/1974

Arkansas

Nuclear 2

PWR

1,000

ENTERGY

CE

12/26/1978

3/26/1980

Beaver Valley 1

PWR

821

FIRSTENERGY

West

6/14/1976

10/1/1976

Beaver Valley 2

PWR

831

FIRSTENERGY

West

8/17/1987

11/17/1987

Braidwood 1

PWR

1,185

EXELONG

West

7/12/1987

7/29/1988

Braidwood 2

PWR

1,177

EXELON

West

5/25/1988

10/17/1988

Browns Ferry 1

BWR

1,065

TVA

GE

10/15/1973

8/1/1974

Browns Ferry 2

BWR

1,118

TVA

GE

8/28/1974

3/1/1975

Browns Ferry 3

BWR

1,114

TVA

GE

9/12/1976

3/1/1977

Brunswick 1

BWR

872

CPL

GE

12/4/1976

3/18/1977

Brunswick 2

BWR

811

CPL

GE

4/29/1975

11/3/1975

Byron 1

PWR

1,194

EXELON

West

3/1/1985

9/16/1985

Byron 2

PWR

1,162

EXELON

West

2/6/1987

8/21/1987

Callaway 1

PWR

1,137

AMERUE

West

10/24/1984

12/19/1984

Calvert Cliffs 1

PWR

845

CONSTELL

CE

1/3/1975

5/8/1975

Calvert Cliffs 2

PWR

858

CONSTELL

CE

12/7/1976

4/1/1977

Catawba 1

PWR

1,129

DUKE

West

1/22/1985

6/29/1985

Catawba 2

PWR

1,129

DUKE

West

3/18/1986

8/19/1986

Clinton 1

BWR

1,026

AMERGEN

GE

4/24/1987

11/24/1987

Columbia 2C

BWR

1,108

Comanche Peak 1

PWR

1,084

Comanche Peak 2

PWR

1,124

Cooper

BWR

757

Crystal Rver 3

PWR

838

Davis Besse 1

PWR

873

Diablo Canyon 1

PWR

1,087

Diablo Canyon 2

PWR

1,087

Donald Cook 1

PWR

1,016

Donald Cook 2

PWR

1,077

Dresden 2

BWR

850

Dresden 3

BWR

850

Duane Arnold 1

BWR

562

Enrico Fermi 2

BWR

1,111

Farley 1

PWR

833

Farley 2

PWR

842

Fitzpatrick

BWR

825

Fort Calhoun 1

PWR

476

Grand Gulf 1

BWR

1,263

H.B. Robinson 2

PWR

710

Hatch 1

BWR

856

Hatch 2

BWR

883

Hope Creek 1

BWR

1,049

Indian Point 2

PWR

NPPD

PROGRESS

FIRSTENERGY

PGEC

PGEC

IMPCO

IMPCO

EXELON

EXELON

NUCMAN

DELED

SOULH

SOULH

ENTERGY

OPPD

ENTERGY

SOULH

SOULH

PSEG

ENLERGY

GE

5/27/1984

12/13/1984

West

4/24/1990

8/13/1990

West

4/9/1993

8/3/1993

GE

5/10/1974

7/1/1974

B&W

1/30/1977

3/13/1977

B&W

8/28/1977

7/31/1978

West

11/11/1984

5/7/1985

West

10/20/1985

3/13/1986

West

2/10/1975

8/27/1975

West

3/22/1978

7/1/1978

GE

4/13/1970

6/9/1970

GE

7/22/1971

11/16/1971

GE

5/19/1974

2/1/1975

GE

9/21/1986

1/23/1988

West

8/18/1977

12/1/1977

West

5/25/1981

7/30/1981

GE

2/1/1975

7/28/1975

CE

8/25/1973

6/20/1974

GE

10/20/1984

7/1/1985

West

9/26/1970

3/7/1971

GE

11/11/1974

12/31/1975

GE

9/22/1978

9/5/1979

GE

8/1/1986

12/20/1986

West

6/26/1973

(Continued)

Capacity MW(E)

Reactor Name Type Net

Indian Point 3

PWR

985

Kewaunee

PWR

539

LaSalle 1

BWR

1,146

LaSalle 2

BWR

1,147

Limerick 1

BWR

1,134

Limerick 2

BWR

1,134

McGuire 1

PWR

1,100

McGuire 2

PWR

1,100

Millstone 2

PWR

866

Millstone 3

PWR

1,131

Monticello

BWR

569

Nine Mile Point 1

BWR

621

Nine Mile Point 2

BWR

1,135

North Anna 1

PWR

925

North Anna 2

PWR

917

Oconee 1

PWR

846

Oconee 2

PWR

846

Oconee 3

PWR

846

Oyster Creek

BWR

619

Palisades

PWR

767

Palo Verde 1

PWR

1,243

TableA.l (Continued)

Reactor Grid Commercial

Operator

Supplier®

Connection

Operation

ENTERGY

West

4/27/1976

8/30/1976

NUCMAN

West

4/8/1974

6/16/1974

EXELON

GE

9/4/1982

1/1/1984

EXELON

GE

4/20/1984

10/19/1984

EXELON

GE

4/13/1985

2/1/1986

EXELON

GE

9/1/1989

1/8/1990

DUKE

West

9/12/1981

12/1/1981

DUKE

West

5/23/1983

3/1/1984

DOMINION

CE

11/9/1975

12/26/1975

DOMINION

West

2/12/1986

4/23/1986

NUCMAN

GE

3/5/1971

6/30/1971

CONSLELL

GE

11/9/1969

12/1/1969

CONSLELL

GE

8/8/1987

3/11/1988

DOMINION

West

4/17/1978

6/6/1978

DOMINION

West

8/25/1980

12/14/1980

DUKE

B&W

5/6/1973

7/15/1973

DUKE

B&W

12/5/1973

9/9/1974

DUKE

B&W

9/18/1974

12/16/1974

AMERGEN

GE

9/23/1969

12/1/1969

NUCMAN

CE

12/31/1971

12/31/1971

APS

CE

6/10/1985

1/28/1986

Palo Verde 2

PWR

1,335

APS

Palo Verde 3

PWR

1,247

APS

Peach Bottom 2

BWR

1,112

EXELON

Peach Bottom 3

BWR

1,112

EXELON

Perry 1

BWR

1,235

FIRSLENERGY

Pilgrim 1

BWR

685

ENLERGY

Point Beach 1

PWR

512

NUCMAN

Point Beach 2

PWR

514

NUCMAN

Prairie Island 1

PWR

522

NUCMAN

Prairie Island 2

PWR

522

NUCMAN

Quad Cities 1

BWR

864

EXELON

Quad Cities 2

BWR

864

EXELON

R.E. Ginna

PWR

498

CONSTELL

River Bend 1

BWR

978

ENLERGY

Salem 1

PWR

1,121

PSEG

Salem 2

PWR

1,119

PSEG

San Onofre 2

PWR

1,070

SCE

San Onofre 3

PWR

1,080

SCE

Seabrook 1

PWR

1,159

FPL

Sequoyah 1

PWR

1,150

LVA

Sequoyah 2

PWR

1,127

LVA

Shearon Harris 1

PWR

900

CPL

South Texas 1

PWR

1,280

SLP

South Texas 2

PWR

1,280

SLP

CE

5/20/1986

9/19/1986

CE

11/28/1987

1/8/1988

GE

12/18/1974

7/5/1974

GE

9/1/1974

12/23/1974

GE

12/19/1986

11/18/1987

GE

7/19/1972

12/1/1972

West

11/6/1970

12/21/1970

West

8/2/1972

10/1/1972

West

12/4/1973

12/16/1973

West

12/21/1974

12/21/1974

GE

4/12/1972

2/18/1973

GE

5/23/1972

3/10/1973

West

12/2/1969

7/1/1970

GE

12/3/1985

6/16/1986

West

12/25/1976

6/30/1977

West

6/3/1981

10/13/1981

CE

9/20/1982

8/8/1983

CE

9/25/1983

4/1/1984

West

5/29/1990

8/19/1990

West

7/22/1980

7/1/1981

West

12/23/1981

6/1/1982

West

1/19/1987

5/2/1987

West

3/30/1988

8/25/1988

West

4/11/1989

(Continued)

Capacity MW(E)

Reactor Name Type Net

St. Lucie 1

PWR

839

St. Lucie 2

PWR

839

Surry 1

PWR

810

Surry 2

PWR

815

Susquehanna 1

BWR

1,105

Susquehanna 2

BWR

1,140

Lhree Mile Island 1

PWR

786

Lurkey Point 3

PWR

693

Lurkey Point 4

PWR

693

Vermont Yankee

BWR

506

Virgil C. Summer 1

PWR

966

Vogtle 1

PWR

1,152

TableA.l (Continued)

Opera torA

Reactor Supplier®

Grid Connection

Commercial Operation

FPL

CE

5/7/1976

12/21/1976

FPL

CE

6/13/1986

8/8/1983

DOMINION

West

7/4/1972

12/22/1972

DOMINION

West

3/10/1973

5/1/1973

PP&L

GE

11/16/1982

6/8/1983

PP&L

GE

7/3/1984

12/12/1985

AMERGEN

B&W

6/19/1974

9/2/1974

FPL

West

11/2/1972

12/14/1972

FPL

West

6/21/1973

9/7/1973

ENLERGY

GE

9/20/1972

11/30/1972

SCEG

West

11/16/1982

1/1/1984

SOULH

West

3/27/1987

Vogtle 2 Waterford 3 Watts Bar 1 Wolf Creek Total

PWR PWR PWR PWR

99,209

SOUTH ENTERGY TVA WOLF

West CE West West

4/10/1989 3/18/1985 2/6/1996 6/12/1985

5/20/1989 9/24/1985 5/5/1996 9/3/1985

AOperator Name Codes: AMERUE = Amerenue;AMERGEN = Amergen Energy Co.; APS = Arizona Public Service Company; CONED = Consolidated Edison Co.; CONSTELL = Constellation Nuclear Group; CPL = Carolina Power & Light Co.; DETED = Detroit Edison Co.; DOE/PRWR = Department of Energy and Puerto Rico Water Resources; DOMINION = Dominion Generation; DPC = Dairyland Power Cooperative; DUKE = Duke Power Co.; ENERGYNW = Energy Northwest; ENTERGY = Entergy Nuclear; EXELON = Exelon Nuclear Co.; FIRSTENERGY = First Energy Nuclear Operating Co.; FPC = Florida Power Corp.; FPL = Florida Power & Light co.; IMPCO = Indiana Michigan Power Co.; IPL = Interstate Power and Light Co.; NAES = North Atlantic Energy Service Corp.; NMPC = Niagara Mohawk Power Corp.; NNEC = Northeast Nuclear Energy Co.; NPPD = Nebraska Public Power District; NUCMAN = Nuclear Management Co.; OPPD = Omaha Public Power District; PGEC = Pacific Gas & Electric Co.; PROGRESS = Progress Energy Corp.; PP&L = Pennsylvania Power & Light Co.; PINN = Pinnacle West; PSEG = Public Service Electric & Gas Co.; RCPA = Rural Cooperative Power Assoc.; RGE = Rochester Gas & Electric Corp.; SCE = Southern California Edison; SOUTH = Southern Nuclear Operating Co.; STP = STP Nuclear Operating Co.;TXU = TXU Electric Co.;TVA = Tennessee Valley Authority;VYNPC = Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp.; WOLF = Wolf Creek Nuclear Operation Corp.

BReactor Supplier Names Codes: B&W = Babcock & Wilcox Co.; CE = Combustion Engineering Co.; GE = General Electric Company

(U.S.);WEST = Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

CColumbia, formerly Washington Nuclear Power, Unit 2 (WNP-2).

Source: Energy Information Administration.

Appendix B

U.S. Reactor Shutdown List

Table B.1 U.S. Reactor Shutdown List

Capacity

NRC

MW(E)

NSSS

Construction

First

Grid

Commercial

Shutdown

Code

Reactor Name

Type

Net

Gross

OperatorA

SupplierB

Start

Criticality

Connection

Operation

or Cancel

US-155

BIG ROCK POINT

BWR

67

71

CPC

GE

1-May-60

27-Sep-62

8-Dec-62

29-Mar-63

29-Aug-97

US-4

BONUS

BWR

17

18

DOE/PRW

GNEPRWR

1-Jan-60

1-Jan-64

14-Aug-64

1-Jun-68

US-144

CVTR

PHWR

17

19

CVPA

WEST

1-Jan-60

1-Mar-63

18-Dec-63

1-Jan-67

US-10

DRESDEN-1

BWR

197

207

COMED

GE

1-May-56

15-Oct-59

15-Apr-60

4-Jul-60

31-Oct-78

US-1

ELK RIVER

BWR

22

24

RCPA

AC

1-Jan-59

1-Nov-62

24-Aug-63

1-Jul-64

1-Feb-68

US-16

ENRICO FERMI-1

FBR

65

61

DETED

UEC

1-Aug-56

23-Aug-63

5-Aug-66

29-Nov-72

US-267

FORT ST.VRAIN

HTGR

330

342

PSCC

GA

1-Sep-68

31-Jan-74

11-Dec-76

1-Jul-79

29-Aug-89

US-213

HADDAM NECK

PWR

560

587

CYAPC

WEST

1-May-64

24-Jul-67

7-Aug-67

1-Jan-68

4-Dec-96

US-133

HUMBOLDT BAY

BWR

63

65

PGEC

GE

1-Nov-60

16-Feb-63

18-Apr-63

1-Aug-63

2-Jul-76

US-3

INDIAN POINT-1

PWR

257

277

CONED

B&W

1-May-56

2-Aug-62

16-Sep-62

1-Oct-62

31-Oct-74

US-409

LACROSSE

BWR

48

55

DPC

AC

1-Mar-63

11-Jul-67

26-Apr-68

7-Nov-69

30-Apr-87

US-309

MAINE YANKEE

PWR

860

900

MYAPC

CE

1-Oct-68

23-Oct-72

8-Nov-72

28-Dec-72

1-Aug-97

US-245

MILLSTONE-1

BWR

641

684

NNEC

GE

1-May-66

26-Oct-70

29-Nov-70

1-Mar-71

1-Jul-98

US-130

PATHFINDER

BWR

59

63

NSP

AC

1-Jan-59

1-Jan-64

25-Jul-66

1-Oct-67

US-171

PEACH BOTTOM-1

HTGR

40

42

PEC

GA

1-Feb-62

3-Mar-66

27-Jan-67

1-Jun-67

1-Nov-74

US-312

RANCHO SECO-1

PWR

873

917

SMUD

B&W

1-Apr-69

16-Sep-74

13-Oct-74

17-Apr-75

7-Jun-89

US-206

SAN ONOFRE-1

PWR

436

456

SCE

WEST

1-May-64

14-Jun-67

16-Jul-67

1-Jan-68

30-Nov-92

US-320

THREE MILE

PWR

880

959

GPU

B&W

1-Nov-69

27-Mar-78

21-Apr-78

30-Dec-78

28-Mar-79

ISLAND-2

US-344

TROJAN

PWR

1095

1155

PORTGE

WEST

1-Feb-70

15-Dec-75

23-Dec-75

20-May-76

9-Nov-92

US-29

YANKEE NPS

PWR

167

180

YAEC

WEST

1-Nov-57

19-Aug-60

10-Nov-60

1-Jul-61

1-Oct-91

US-295

ZION-1

PWR

1040

1085

COMED

WEST

1-Dec-68

19-Jun-73

28-Jun-73

31-Dec-73

1-Jan-98

US-304

ZION-2

PWR

1040

1085

COMED

WEST

1-Dec-68

24-Dec-73

26-Dec-73

17-Sep-74

1-Jan-98

AOperator Name Codes: COMED — Commonwealth Edison Co.; CONED — Consolidated Edison Co.; CPC — Consumers Power Co.; CYAPC — Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Co.; DETED — Detroit Edison Co.; DOE/PRWR — Department of Energy and Puerto Rico Water Resources; DPC — Dairyland Power Cooperative; GPU — General Public Utilities; MYAPC — Maine Yankee Atomic Power Co.; NSP — Northern States Power; PEC — Philadelphia Electric Co.; PGEC — Pacific Gas & Electric Co.; PORTGE — Portland General Electric Co.; PSCC — Public Service Co. of Colorado; RCPA — Rural Cooperative Power Assoc.; SCE — Southern California Edison; SMUD — Sacramento Municipal Utility District;YAEC — Yankee Atomic Electric Co.

BNSS Supplier Name Codes:ACTUALLY — Allis Chalmers; B&W — Babcock & Wilcox Co.; CE — Combustion Engineering Co.; GA — General Atomic Corp.; GE — General Electric Company (U.S.); GNE/PRWRA — General Nuclear Engineering and Puerto Rico Water Resources; UEC — United Engineers and Contractors;WEST — Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

Source: Energy Information Administration.

Appendix C

Global Reactor Closings

Table C.1 Anticipated Worldwide Reactor Closures before 2010

Reactor

Nation

Design

Capacity (MW)

Projected Closure

Reason

Kozloduy 3

Bulgaria

VVER

408

2006

EU-Bulgaria agreement

Kozloduy 4

Bulgaria

VVER

408

2006

EU-Bulgaria agreement

Phenix

France

FBR

233

2009

Prototype retirement

Biblis A

Germany

PWR

1167

2008

Nuclear closure policy/law

Biblis B

Germany

PWR

1240

2009

Nuclear closure policy/law

Brunsbuettel

Germany

BWR

771

2009

Nuclear closure policy/law

Neckarwestheim 1

Germany

PWR

785

2008

Nuclear closure policy/law

Ignalina 2

Lithuania

RBMK

1185

2009

EU-Lithuania agreement

Bohunice 1

Slovakia

VVER

408

2006

EU-Slovakia agreement

Bohunice 2

Slovakia

VVER

408

2008

EU-Slovakia agreement

Dungeness A1

United Kingdom

GCR

225

2006

Aging

Dungeness A2

United Kingdom

GCR

225

2006

Aging

Oldbury A1

United Kingdom

GCR

230

2008

Aging

Oldbury A2

United Kingdom

GCR

230

2008

Aging

Sizewell A1

United Kingdom

GCR

210

2006

Aging

Sizewell A2

United Kingdom

GCR

210

2006

Aging

Wylfa 1

United Kingdom

GCR

490

2009

Aging

Wylfa 2

United Kingdom

GCR

490

2009

Aging

Source: IAEA, press notices and reports.

Source: IAEA, press notices and reports.

Appendix D

NRC Reactor Certification Status

Table D.1 Certification Process for New Reactors in the United States

Reactor Design Lead Vendor(s) Design Category Status at NRC

System 80+

Westinghouse BNFL

PWR

Certified

ABWR

GE,Toshiba, Hitachi

BWR

Certified

AP600

Westinghouse BNFL

PWR

Certified

AP1000

Westinghouse BNFL

PWR

Certified

ESBWR

GE

BWR

Pre-certification

SWR-1000

Framatome ANP

BWR

Pre-certification,

deferred

ACR700

AECL

PHWR/

Pre-certification

PWR hybrid

PBMR

Eskom

HTGR

Pre-certification,

deferred

GT-MHR

General Atomic

HTGR

Pre-certification

IRIS

Westinghouse BNFL

PWR

Pre-certification

EPR

Framatome ANP

PWR

Pre-certification

ACR1000

AECL

PHWR/

No application

PWR hybrid

decision

4S

Toshiba

Sodium-cooled

No application

decision

Note: Reactor design names are defined in the text.Vendors of ESBWR,ACR700, EPR, and IRIS vendors have indicated intentions to begin certification in the near future. Source: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Note: Reactor design names are defined in the text.Vendors of ESBWR,ACR700, EPR, and IRIS vendors have indicated intentions to begin certification in the near future. Source: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Appendix E

Guide to Alternative Fuels

Guide to Alternative Fuels

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