Abbreviations acronyms and terminology

AMO Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation

AO Arctic Oscillation (also known as Northern Annular Mode)

AOGCM Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model

AUPs abrupt, unprecedented and persistent climate anomalies

CCM Community Climate Model

CCSM Community Climate System Model

CFR climate field reconstruction

CLIMAP Climate: Mapping, Analysis, and Prediction

CLIMBER CLIMate and BiosphERe Group - a climate model of the

Climate System Department, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research CLIO coupled large-scale ice-ocean

COHMAP Co-operative Holocene Mapping Project

CPS composite plus scale

CSM climate space model

DATUN data assimilation through upscaling and nudging

DPSIR drivers-pressure-state-impact-response

EBM Energy Balance Model

ECBILT ECBilt is a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea-ice model containing simplified parameterizations of the subgrid-scale physical processes (an intermediate-complexity climate model)

ECHO-G ECHO-G is a global coupled atmosphere-ocean climate model consisting of two-component models, the atmospheric component (ECHAM4) and the oceanic component (HOPE-G)

ELLDB European Lake-level Database

EMICS Earth models of intermediate complexity

ENSO El Nino-Southern Oscillation

EOF empirical orthogonal function

EPICA European Programme for Ice Coring in Antarctica

ERIK GCM-based experiment run for the past 1000 years with the

ECHO-G model (the "Erik" simulation) GCM General Circulation Model

GDD growing degree days

GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

Abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology | ix

GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies

GKSS GKSS Research Centre, Hamburg, Germany

IGBP International Geosphere-Biosphere Program

IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPSL Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace [climate model of]

ITCZ Intertropical Convergence Zone

HOLIVAR European Science Programme on "Holocene Climate


LGM Last Glacial Maximum

LIA Little Ice Age

LLN-2D Louvain-la-Neuve [two-dimensional climate model of]

MCA Medieval Climate Anomaly

MIS Marine Isotope Stage

MIT-EMIC Michigan Institute of Technology - Earth System Model of

Intermediate Complexity

MoBidiC Modèle Bidimensionnel du Climat

MODIS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (NASA/EOS


MWP Medieval Warm Period

NCAR National Center for Atmospheric Research

NOA North Atlantic Oscillation

PAGES Past Global Changes

PANASH Paleoclimate and Environments of the Northern and Southern


PCI Polar Circulation Index

PDF probability density function

PDO Pacific Decadal Oscillation

PEP Pole-Equator-Pole

PMIP Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project


RegEM regularized expectation maximization

SNR signal to noise ratio

SOI Southern Oscillation Index

SSI spectral solar irradiance

TIMS thermal ionization mass spectrometry

TSI total solar irradiance

YD Younger Dryas x | Abbreviations, acronyms, and terminology

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