National Climate Policy

The development of wind power in selected European countries

Installed Wind Power Country

Figure 7.1 displays the development of wind power capacity in five Western European countries. The choice of countries is motivated, first of all, by the fact that the development of wind power differs among these countries. Germany, Denmark and, more recently, Spain have all experienced considerable increases in the installed capacity of wind turbines, while the corresponding developments in Sweden and the UK have been more modest. For instance, in 1991, Spain and the UK had more or less the...

The impact of national energy policy on the economics of wind power

In 2002, a national planning goal of a yearly wind power generation of 10TWh by 2015 was adopted. Before this planning goal was introduced, Sweden's wind power policy was characterized by soft formulations stating that wind power should be promoted in the Swedish energy system, without explicitly stating when and how much (Astrand and Neij, 2006). Although the cost of producing wind power has declined substantially during the last two decades, public support is still generally needed to make...

Swedens Climate Strategy A Brief Outline of Objectives and Measures

The Climate Bill approved by the Swedish Riksdag in 2002 recognized that in order to 'meet early on the challenges posed by climate change' Sweden must 'already now sharpen the climate policy' beyond the commitment in the EU distribution of national commitments Cabinet Bill 2001 02 55, p36 . The bill explicitly states that achieving the national objective stated in Sweden's Reduced Climate Impact is crucially dependent upon international cooperation and active climate strategies in other...

Climate Change in Sweden Trends Projections and Causes

Sweden Climate

According to the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute SMHI , there was a 1 Celsius C increase in average temperatures during 1991 to 2004 compared to the 'norm period' of 1961 to 1990. There is a more pronounced increase in the middle parts of the country. It furthermore seems as if the increase is higher during winter, amounting to almost 2 C in the middle and northern parts of Sweden, but with no observable changes in the southwestern areas of the country SMHI, 2005a see also...

References

Baron, J. 1997 'Biases in the quantitative measurement of values for public decisions', Psychological Bulletin, vol 122, pp72-78 Baron, J. and Greene, J. 1996 'Determinants of insensitivity to quantity in valuation of public goods Contribution, warm glow, budget constrains, availability, and prominence', Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied, vol 2, pp107-125 Biel, A. and Dahlstrand, U. 2005 'Values and habits A dual-process model', in Krarup S. and Russell C. S. eds Environment,...

Organizing for Coordinated Climate Action A Multilevel Dilemma

Even if there is both knowledge and motivation, climate policy may still stumble because there is a lack of effective organizational structures. This leads to a search for organizational alternatives that ease the transformation of knowledge and motivation into behaviour and activities more beneficial to the climate. Sweden's emphasis on local-level action to reduce climate impact clearly brings to the fore the tension between the two principal models for organizing multilevel climate...

The General Picture and the Swedish Example

Policy goals and instruments are developed to protect our common good - the climate - and to avoid negative future consequences. These goals are developed on a global or European level, but are, to a large extent, instrumented and implemented on a national or local level. International future-oriented action towards climate change is first and foremost guided by environmental values and goals. But once global or regional agreements and policies are passed on to the national and local levels for...

Local Acceptance of Climate Policy Instruments Findings and Implications for Climate Strategy Implementation

Climate policy measures differ with respect to the latitude of choice provided to local and individual actors. Car owners cannot escape paying carbon dioxide CO2 taxes every time they fill up the tank, but they can choose whether or not to heed climate information campaigns to leave the car and use collective means of transportation see, for example, Chapter 4 in this volume . In the same way, local governments can choose whether or not to initiate collaboration projects to increase their...

The complex role of stakeholder participation Legal situation and implications

The interests of those who object to wind turbine installations often gain strong legal protection and thus make the role of stakeholder participation crucial. Swedish law provides for - and encourages - stakeholders to participate in the decision-making process. Applications are sent out for comments, and consultations and public meetings are arranged in connection with the environmental impact assessment, as well as the planning and permitting procedures. The Environmental Protection Agency,...

Climate Change A Challenge to Multilevel Democratic Governance

Climate is a collective good affected by both natural and human influences. Even if the importance of human influences relative to natural cycles of change is a matter for debate, scientific evidence is gradually making it clear that human-induced climate change impacts have now begun to show in natural ecosystems. Political debate increasingly deals with how to change individual human behaviour and socio-economic processes and activities in order to avoid climate change reaching magnitudes...

Introduction

The energy production processes introduced during the 20th century - most notably those relying on the combustion of fossil fuels - have given rise to negative impacts on the global climate. Somewhat paradoxically, policy-makers worldwide now hope that future technological developments will solve the problems that technical change has caused in the past. This requires policy efforts in the energy sector to be heavily focused on innovation and technology diffusion activities as a complement to...

Sinks The international and the imperial

Nature, forests and trees never just are. They can be raw materials, tourist destinations, wilderness, local habitats, etc. It depends upon which perspective, which source of value, has priority (Benton and Redclift, 1994 Walker, 2002b). The transformation of the global carbon cycle into territorial sinks is indicative of modern practices of governmentality in that it moulds the environment to fit into the sovereign state system (Kuehls, 1998, p49). In his recent book on transnational water...

Climate Change as a Social Dilemma

Ever since Hardin's classic 'The tragedy of the commons' Hardin, 1968 , there has been vital research on the commons and their regulation. Hardin presented a pessimistic view on the human ability to manage the commons, and advocated coercion. However, later experimental for an early review, see Dawes, 1980 as well as empirical studies of local common-pool resource dilemmas e.g. Ostrom, 1990 Ostrom et al, 2002 present a more positive view. People have been shown to voluntarily cooperate to...

The EU Burden Sharing Agreement

When ratifying the Climate Convention, the EU had already declared its intention to comply jointly. When signing the Kyoto Protocol, the EU repeated its intention to jointly fulfil the quantified emission reduction commitments under Article 4 of the protocol. The member states made their so-called called Burden-Sharing Agreement in June 1998, which distributes the total common EU commitment to achieving an 8 per cent reduction in GHG emissions by 2008 to 2012 compared to the 1990 level through...

The Carbon Cycle as Political Space

Can trees save us from global warming This question is not so naive as may seem at first sight. The fact that vegetation and soils absorb carbon has been well known for a long time but in recent years the inclusion of this idea in the climate convention has been the subject of intense negotiations. The oceans and the terrestrial biosphere act as large 'sinks' for carbon that can be released to the atmosphere through many different land-use practices. The natural state is that carbon flows in a...

Responsibility Competence and Problem Ownership The Local Dilemma of Climate Strategy Implementation

The common-pool resource character of climate, and the existing distribution of authority and responsibility, create intricate problems of assigning - as well as of accepting and being able to carry out - the responsibility for climate change abatement. Greenhouse gas emissions are both international and local in origin, and they have internationally dispersed, as well as locally concentrated, effects. Finding a rational and, at the same time, politically feasible distribution of responsibility...

Allocation of trading allowances among and within the member states

The allocation of allowances to participating companies is an indirect way of distributing burdens and is therefore an issue intensively discussed within the EU. The European Commission argued for having one common allocation approach in the interest of protecting the harmonization of the internal market. Auctioning allowances in one member state while allocating them freely in another may lead to distorted competition between companies in the EU. To counter this potentially detrimental...

General public support for the National Wind Energy Policy

The occurrence of local resistance towards planned wind farms is often referred to as an important obstacle to increased wind power capacity in Sweden and elsewhere. Fears of visual intrusion, noise and land devaluation often explain these negative opinions. However, in spite of the existence of local opposition, the experiences in Sweden (and in many other countries) are that lay people generally express a positive attitude towards wind power (e.g. Krohn and Damborg, 1999 Ek, 2005). For this...

Legal preconditions for implementing the National Wind Energy Policy at the local level

The installation of wind turbines is largely conditional upon the requirements of the law. Swedish law grants a significant amount of discretion to the local authorities. In the case of wind power development, the system of rules governing the use of land (and water) areas, as well as the assessment of the environmental impacts of turbines, is of particular interest. In Sweden, the development of wind turbines is primarily regulated in the Environmental Code. The code states that the...

Territorial planning regulations and the consequences of the municipal planning monopoly

Even if a wind power project passes the legal hurdles outlined in the Environmental Code, the project must also be in compliance with the physical planning provisions laid down in the Planning and Building Act. The Swedish physical planning system has a significant influence on the potential for a broad implementation of wind power, not least since it, in principle, implies that the municipalities must in some way assent to i.e. plan for the establishment of wind turbines at a certain location...

Planning for Wind Power in Denmark A Comparative Perspective

Danish energy policy has for long included different measures to promote the implementation of wind power. At the beginning of the 21st century, as much as 15 per cent of total electric power generation in Denmark was generated with the help of wind power IEA, no date . This is by far the highest wind power share in the world, and there are many factors which help to explain this successful development see, for instance, Buen, 2003, for an overview . Here, we focus solely on the Danish wind...

Territorializing the carbon cycle

While carbon cycle science, until the signing of the Climate Convention in 1992, had been focused on carbon flows on a hemispheric or, at best, continental scale, new research was now initiated to estimate terrestrial carbon uptake within state borders. Countries with good forestry and agricultural statistics were in a strong position to accomplish this, while other countries had to develop new methods of accounting. Since carbon cycle science at this stage could not meet the political...

Conclusions

Territoriality - that is, the idea that political authority is spatially organized and marked by clear boundaries - has a long lineage in political analysis. The linguist Paul Chilton notes that the elaboration of the sovereign state in Hobbes's Leviathan is cognitively linked to a 'container' image The political came to be imagined in spatialized terms and, specifically, through the spatial gestalt of the container which grounds the notions and feelings of identity and difference, of self and...

Conclusions and Implications

The analysis indicates that the strength and design of the different public support schemes for wind power can only to a very limited extent explain important inter-country differences in national wind power developments. Our in-depth study of the potential for future wind power development in Sweden shows, instead, that the existing and planned policy instruments to promote wind power are generally strong enough to make wind power projects economically attractive. However, the economics of...

The importance of trustworthy politicians

After discussing the importance of preferences for fair emission reductions, we now turn to the other main factor that may affect people's attitudes towards an increased CO2 tax trust in politicians.8 We offer two reasons why political trust may explain that some people tend to accept or support an increased CO2 tax while others do not. The first reason is quite simple why would people support an increased tax burden imposed on them by actors or institutions whom they do not trust The second,...

How Do Values Influence Acceptance of Policy Measures in Organizations

The primary aim of the study by Nilsson et al 2004 was to examine how values, organizational goals and norms influence willingness to accept climate change policy measures within organizations. We expected self-transcendent values to guide acceptance through organizational norms. The mediating function of norms is based on the abstract and general characteristics of values, which are assumed to require a more specific representation in order to influence attitudes i.e. acceptance . Another...

Willingness to pay versus willingness to accept

A willingness to accept measure is provided by asking respondents about the minimum compensation that they would accept for a deterioration of a resource. Following standard economic theory, the WTA measure should give almost the same results as the WTP measure Willig, 1976 . However, an abundance of research has shown that WTA bids are, in fact, between two to four times higher than WTP bids Knetsch, 2000 . Despite the fact that it is acknowledged that WTA is, in many cases, the conceptually...

Failure by the EU and member states to meet commitments

How, then, are the EU member states meeting their targets An inventory made by the European Environmental Agency in 2004 showed that most member states (EU 15) are not on track with the targets of the Kyoto Protocol (EEA, 2004). With continuing trends, they are likely not to meet their commitments under the 2002 burden-sharing decision (EEA, 2005). Only four countries are ahead of their Kyoto target path (Germany, France, Sweden and the UK). Six countries are assumed to meet their targets...