Future Research Needs

This chapter discusses the vulnerability of East Asia to sea-level rise and climate change based on existing studies. The profile and characteristics of vulnerability are quite diverse, in some cases also very serious, reflecting the variety of natural and man-made systems in the region. These results also lead us to a consideration of response strategies. Vulnerability is an overall concept for coping with the adverse effects of sea-level rise and climate change. It consists of several components, such as susceptibility and resilience to environmental changes and natural disasters, and capacity of the system to adapt (IPCC 2001b). In the face of climate change, each country needs to take action in the form of engineering measures, and institutional and planning arrangements, to reduce the adverse effects. The degree and range of the possible impacts identified in this review is quite large. On the other hand, the adaptive capacity of the coastal systems and society is limited, particularly in the developing countries, and the impacts may be overwhelming. In order to obtain a clearer vision on coping with sea-level rise and climate change, we need further studies to fill gaps in the present knowledge of prediction of future global change, vulnerability in both qualitative and quantitative manners, adaptive capacity of the coastal systems, and response strategies. Concrete themes of future research needs are as follows:

1. Monitoring to detect the changes in mean sea-level, typhoon characteristics, and other elements of climate change.

2. Development of climate models and inter-comparison of models. The reliability and spatial resolution of present climate models seems to be insufficient to provide more accurate vulnerability assessments. We need closer collaboration with the modelers so that more suitable models can be developed.

3. Integrated studies of vulnerability which include both impacts of climate change and other human activities. In many areas, human intervention has more significant effects on the coastal environment. Degradation leads to decreased capacity of the natural systems to return to the original state after impact. Based on such studies, we can identify the most vulnerable systems and places in the region to develop response strategies.

4. Response strategies and options. The actions to reduce the impacts and cope with them are called adaptation. Adaptation is necessary for the safety of the future society and an important component of sustainable development in the region.

Emergency Preparedness

Emergency Preparedness

Remember to prepare for everyone in the home. When you are putting together a plan to prepare in the case of an emergency, it is very important to remember to plan for not only yourself and your children, but also for your family pets and any guests who could potentially be with you at the time of the emergency.

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