Monsoon

Literature Cited

Agriculture-fertilizer interface in the Asian and Pacific Region Issues of growth, sustainability, and vulnerability. Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, Extension Bulletin. Taipei Food and Fertilizer Technology Center. Bouwman, A. F., D. S. Lee, W. A. H. Asman, F. J. Dentener, K. W. Van der Hoek and J. G. J. Olivier. 1997. A global high-resolution emission inventory for ammonia. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 11 561-587. Brown, L. R. 2001. Dust bowl threatening China's future,...

Introduction

The East Asian monsoon is an integral part of the global circulation system. During the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, a persistent high pressure system develops as a result of the cold air mass in the high latitudes of Eurasia. This generates southward surface flow along the east of the Tibetan Plateau forming the strongest winter monsoon in the world. This monsoonal flow commonly penetrates as far south as the South China Sea and can even generate cross-equatorial flow. In summer,...

Climate change impacts in Asian countries

Flooding, one of the main natural disasters in China, occurs frequently, not only in southern China where a humid monsoon climate prevails but also in arid and semiarid northern China. Changes in risk of flooding are considered to be one of the potential impacts of climate change, since some studies indicate an increase in frequency intensity of heavy rain. On the other hand, the additional investment in infrastructure for preventing flood disasters in the early decades of this century have the...

Thermaldynamical Effects Of The Tibetan Plateau On The East Asian Monsoon

Mechanism Monsoon

GUOXIONG WU, QIONG ZHANG, ANMIN DUAN and JIANGYU MAO 1. Introduction The Tibetan Plateau Qinghai-Xizang Plateau extends over the latitude-longitude domain of 25-45 N, 70-105 E, with a size of about one quarter of the Chinese territory and a mean elevation of more than 4,000 m above sea level. Surface elevation changes rapidly across the boundaries of the Plateau, especially the southern boundary. Strong contrasts exist between the western and eastern parts of the Plateau in land surface...

Monsoon Evolution at Tectonic Time Scales

Long-term monsoon records in deep-sea sediments have been developed from Deep Sea Drilling Project Ocean Drilling Program cruises to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the South China Sea. Therefore, all our knowledge on the Pre-Quaternary evolution of the East Asian monsoon in the marine realm comes from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 184 in the South China Sea (see http www-odp.tamu.edu sched and 2.1. Land-sea distribution and initiation of the Asian monsoon system Dealing with the...

Conclusions

The discussion above shows that there are interannual climate variations in East Asia, especially in the summer rainfall in eastern China. The ENSO-like mode and tropospheric biennial oscillation are major features of interannual climate variation in East Asia. The ENSO-Monsoon relationship not only points to the impact of ENSO on the East Asian monsoon, but also to the possible exciting of the East Asian monsoon, particularly the anomalous East Asian winter monsoon, on the occurrence of ENSO....

Centennial and decadalscale variations

The lack of laminated deep-sea sediments in East Asian waters with high sedimentation rates precludes the possibility of studying the East Asian monsoon on decadal or centennial scales. However, such opportunities are provided by coral heads. Massive corals with annual resolution produce ideal records of decadal time scales. To date, only a few corals have been Fig. 3.4. Millennial-scale variations in lithology recorded in the Sea of Japan over the last 0.9 million years. (A) Aeolian dust...

Anthropogenic impact on nitrogen flux

Riverine fluxes of nutrients from the Yangtze River have greatly increased in recent years (e.g. Zhang et al. 2003). The transport of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the Yangtze to the estuary increased by 0.775 Tg per year between 1980 and 1989 (Duan et al. 2000), and Shen et al. (2003) observed that 2,849 x 103 Gg total nitrogen and 1,746 x 103 Gg dissolved inorganic nitrogen were discharged at the mouth of the Yangtze river in 1998. The reason for the increase in nitrogen concentration in...

Abundance of Living Resources

Global warming and climate change perturb the biomass yields of populations in marine and coastal ecosystems. Natural factors may have an important impact on long-term changes in dominant fish species. The alteration in the relative abundance of species belonging to various ecotypes is closely related to climate change. It seems to be accepted that small pelagic fish such as the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and prawn (Penaeus orientails) species are more sensitive to climate change. The...

Socioeconomic Vulnerability in Japan

Japan's coastline is over 34,000 km long and the majority of the population and economic activities are concentrated in the coastal zones. Although coastal municipalities occupy only about 32 of the total area of 370,000 km2, they account for 46 of the population, 47 of the industrial output, and 77 of the total expenditure for retail business or market goods. A notable feature is the artificial coast which occupies 29 of the total coastline, while the natural beaches cover about 57 , and...

Late Quaternary Paleoclimate Simulations And Model Comparisons For The East Asian Monsoon

HARRISON, XING CHEN and YINGQUN ZHENG 1. Introduction The wealth of paleoenvironmental evidence from East Asia shows that dramatic changes in the strength and extent of the Asian monsoon occurred during the Quaternary, in response to changes in insolation, glaciation, land-surface conditions, human activities, etc. An et al. 1990 Winkler and Wang 1993 . Physically based models provide a powerful tool for attempting to understand these past changes in climate. The Paleoclimate...

Precipitation Change

Precipitation change is an important issue in the East Asian monsoon regions. Floods have caused huge life and economic losses in the past, and continuing droughts have damaged agriculture and water resources. Some studies have concentrated on the projections of precipitation over East Asia for the 21st century, while others have tried to determine the changes in the geographical distribution of the precipitation. Most of the projections, with over 40 climate models and scenarios, suggest that...

List Of Contributors

And Quarternary Geology Institute of Earth Environment CAS, Xian 710075, China Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA A-2361 Laxenburg Austria and Chemistry National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan Sciences Nanjing University Nanjing 210093, China Research Institute University of British Columbia 2029 West Mall, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z2 East Asia TEA Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences P.O. Box 9804 Beijing...

Impact on Human Health

Several studies examining the relationship between air pollution and human health have been conducted in China. One study which examined the relationship between the air pollution and mortality in Beijing showed that the risk of mortality increase by 11 with each doubling of sulfur dioxide concentration, and by 4 with each doubling of total suspended particles. Pulmonary heart disease also increased significantly with higher pollution levels Xu et al. 1994 Xu et al. 1996 . Respiratory diseases,...

Approaches to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Lost Nitrogen

Nitrogen is indispensable for maintaining the recently achieved food self-efficiency in East Asia. Many areas still do not use enough fertilizer to maximize crop yields and the regional variability is large (compare North Korea and China). The average rate of nitrogen application for rice production in China was 180 kg ha-1, which is markedly higher than the world average and among the highest average national nitrogen rates for rice in the world (Buresh et al. 2004). In the Taihu Basin 300 kg...

Demographic Transition Fertility and mortality

The driving forces for the shift to a slower population growth regime in most of the East Asian countries come from two competing factors. The first is the decline in death rates, particularly among infants. Due mainly to the very high infant mortality rate, population growth in East Asia used to be modest in the past few centuries even though women were, on average, giving birth to six or more children during their reproductive span. As death rates declined, East Asia's population growth...

Decreased water and sediment fluxes

During the last 40-50 years, water and sediment discharges by the Yellow River decreased rapidly (Ye 1994 Wang et al. 1997 Pang et al. 1999 Xu and Sun 2003). Figure 15.2 shows the water and sediment discharges at the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Yellow River from 1950 to 2002. A clear decline in discharge since the 1970s occurred in the middle, and lower reaches, especially at Lijin station. The Lijin station is the most downstream sampling point on the main stream of the Yellow...

Future Research Needs

This chapter discusses the vulnerability of East Asia to sea-level rise and climate change based on existing studies. The profile and characteristics of vulnerability are quite diverse, in some cases also very serious, reflecting the variety of natural and man-made systems in the region. These results also lead us to a consideration of response strategies. Vulnerability is an overall concept for coping with the adverse effects of sea-level rise and climate change. It consists of several...

Disaster Damage Trends

Since the late 1960s, the losses caused by natural disasters in East Asia have been increasing. Figure 20.1 shows direct disaster losses in East Asia Fig. 20.1. Reported economic damages (USD at 2000 prices) and number of people affected by natural disasters in East Asia (OFDA CRED 2004). Fig. 20.1. Reported economic damages (USD at 2000 prices) and number of people affected by natural disasters in East Asia (OFDA CRED 2004). (normalized for exchange rate fluctuations) from 1960 to 2003. It is...

Financial disaster risk management

Risk management policies should include mitigation and prevention efforts as well as consideration of risk-financing instruments. The victims of economic damages from natural disasters (households, businesses, agriculture, and the public sector) do not always absorb the full losses. The financial burdens can be transferred to others through the assistance of four main institutions (1) the government or taxpayers, (2) insurance and other risk-transfer arrangements, (3) family and neighbors, and...

Fate of Added Nitrogen

As outlined above, in 2005 as a direct result of population growth, 27.1 Tg of nitrogen was applied to soils in East Asia to stimulate plant growth, and 23.4 Tg N was excreted from animals in the form of urine and faeces. It is well known that fertilizer nitrogen is not used efficiently and that much of the nitrogen applied can be lost from the plant-soil system by denitrification, ammonia volatilization, leaching, run-off, and by wind and water erosion (Cai 1997 Yan et al. 2003 Zhu 1997 Zhu...