Monsoon Evolution at Tectonic Time Scales

Long-term monsoon records in deep-sea sediments have been developed from Deep Sea Drilling Project Ocean Drilling Program cruises to the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the South China Sea. Therefore, all our knowledge on the Pre-Quaternary evolution of the East Asian monsoon in the marine realm comes from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 184 in the South China Sea (see http www-odp.tamu.edu sched and 2.1. Land-sea distribution and initiation of the Asian monsoon system Dealing with the...

Centennial and decadalscale variations

The lack of laminated deep-sea sediments in East Asian waters with high sedimentation rates precludes the possibility of studying the East Asian monsoon on decadal or centennial scales. However, such opportunities are provided by coral heads. Massive corals with annual resolution produce ideal records of decadal time scales. To date, only a few corals have been Fig. 3.4. Millennial-scale variations in lithology recorded in the Sea of Japan over the last 0.9 million years. (A) Aeolian dust...

Abundance of Living Resources

Global warming and climate change perturb the biomass yields of populations in marine and coastal ecosystems. Natural factors may have an important impact on long-term changes in dominant fish species. The alteration in the relative abundance of species belonging to various ecotypes is closely related to climate change. It seems to be accepted that small pelagic fish such as the Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and prawn (Penaeus orientails) species are more sensitive to climate change. The...

Thermaldynamical Effects Of The Tibetan Plateau On The East Asian Monsoon

Mechanism Monsoon

GUOXIONG WU, QIONG ZHANG, ANMIN DUAN and JIANGYU MAO 1. Introduction The Tibetan Plateau Qinghai-Xizang Plateau extends over the latitude-longitude domain of 25-45 N, 70-105 E, with a size of about one quarter of the Chinese territory and a mean elevation of more than 4,000 m above sea level. Surface elevation changes rapidly across the boundaries of the Plateau, especially the southern boundary. Strong contrasts exist between the western and eastern parts of the Plateau in land surface...

Introduction

The East Asian monsoon is an integral part of the global circulation system. During the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, a persistent high pressure system develops as a result of the cold air mass in the high latitudes of Eurasia. This generates southward surface flow along the east of the Tibetan Plateau forming the strongest winter monsoon in the world. This monsoonal flow commonly penetrates as far south as the South China Sea and can even generate cross-equatorial flow. In summer,...

Literature Cited

Bryant, B. Campbell, J. duToit, K. Galvin, E. Holland, L. Joyce, A. K. Knapp, P. Matson, R. Miller, D. Ojima, W. Polley, T. Seastedt, A. Suarez, T. Svejcar and C. Wessman. 1996. Rangelands in a changing climate Impacts, adaptations and mitigation. Pp. 131-158 in Climate change 1995. Impacts, adaptations and mitigation of climate change. Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on...

Precipitation Change

Precipitation change is an important issue in the East Asian monsoon regions. Floods have caused huge life and economic losses in the past, and continuing droughts have damaged agriculture and water resources. Some studies have concentrated on the projections of precipitation over East Asia for the 21st century, while others have tried to determine the changes in the geographical distribution of the precipitation. Most of the projections, with over 40 climate models and scenarios, suggest that...

List Of Contributors

And Quarternary Geology Institute of Earth Environment CAS, Xian 710075, China Joanne Linnerooth-Bayer International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA A-2361 Laxenburg Austria and Chemistry National Sun Yat-sen University Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan Sciences Nanjing University Nanjing 210093, China Research Institute University of British Columbia 2029 West Mall, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z2 East Asia TEA Institute of Atmospheric Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences P.O. Box 9804 Beijing...

Impact on Human Health

Several studies examining the relationship between air pollution and human health have been conducted in China. One study which examined the relationship between the air pollution and mortality in Beijing showed that the risk of mortality increase by 11 with each doubling of sulfur dioxide concentration, and by 4 with each doubling of total suspended particles. Pulmonary heart disease also increased significantly with higher pollution levels Xu et al. 1994 Xu et al. 1996 . Respiratory diseases,...

Conclusions

The discussion above shows that there are interannual climate variations in East Asia, especially in the summer rainfall in eastern China. The ENSO-like mode and tropospheric biennial oscillation are major features of interannual climate variation in East Asia. The ENSO-Monsoon relationship not only points to the impact of ENSO on the East Asian monsoon, but also to the possible exciting of the East Asian monsoon, particularly the anomalous East Asian winter monsoon, on the occurrence of ENSO....

Late Quaternary Paleoclimate Simulations And Model Comparisons For The East Asian Monsoon

HARRISON, XING CHEN and YINGQUN ZHENG 1. Introduction The wealth of paleoenvironmental evidence from East Asia shows that dramatic changes in the strength and extent of the Asian monsoon occurred during the Quaternary, in response to changes in insolation, glaciation, land-surface conditions, human activities, etc. An et al. 1990 Winkler and Wang 1993 . Physically based models provide a powerful tool for attempting to understand these past changes in climate. The Paleoclimate...