Co2 Conversion To Methanol And Eu Projects

Free Power Secrets

Making Your Own Fuel

Get Instant Access

1. Olah G. A., Methanol Economy (trademark) No 78/692,647.

2. World Energy Outlook 2004, International Energy Agency, Paris, 2004.

3. World Energy Council (WEC):,

4. Smil V., Energy at the Crossroads, Global Perspectives and Uncertainties, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2003.

5. World Energy Outlook 2001: Insights, International Energy Agency, Paris, 2001.

6. Energy Technologies for the 21st Century, International Energy Agency, Paris, 1997.

7. FutureGen. Integrated Hydrogen, Electric Power Production and Carbon Sequestration Research Initiative. Report to the Congress, Department of Energy (US), 2004, available at

8. Getting to 'Clean Coal', Chemical Engii-neering News, February 23, 2004.

9. Black B., Petrolia, The Landscape of America's First Oil Boom, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2000.

10. All About Petroleum, brochure from American Petroleum Institute, available at

11. Johnson J., LNG Weighs Anchor, Chemical Engineering News, April 25, 2005, p. 19.

12. Hightower M., Gritzo L., Anay L.-H., et al., Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill over Water, Sandia National Laboratories, 2004.

13. Campbell C. J., Laherrere J. H., The End of Cheap Oil, Scientific American, March, 1998, p. 78.

14. Key World Energy Statistics 2004, International Energy Agency (IEA).

15. World Coal Institute.

16. Annual Energy Outlook 2005 With Projections to 2025, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US DOE, Washington, 2005.

17. BP Statistical Review of World Energy, BP, 2005, available online at statisticalreview.

18. U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

20. Snyder R. E., Oil Shale back in the Picture, WorldOil Magazine online, August, 2004, vol. 225.

21. IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, (Eds.: J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2001.

22. Sasol:

23. Gold R., In Qatar, Oil Firms Make Huge Bet an Alternative Fuel, The Wall Street Journal, February 15, 2005.

24. U.S. Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment 2000, USGS, Denver, Colorado, 2000, available at:

25. Hubbert M. K., Nuclear Energy and the Fossil Fuels, American Petroleum Institute Drilling and Production Practice, Proceedings of the spring Meeting, San Antonio, March 7-9, 1956.

26. Campbell C. J., The Coming Oil Crisis, Multi-science Publishing, Brentwood, England, 1988.

27. Deffeyes K. S., Hubbert's Peak, the Impending World Oil Shortage, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2001.

28. Hirsch R. L., Bezdek R., Wendling R., Peaking of World Oil Production: Impact, Mitigation & Risk Management, prepared for the U.S. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). 2005.

29. Bentley R. W., Oil & Gas Depletion: an Overview, Energy Policy, 2002, vol. 30, p. 189.

30. Donnely J. K., Pendergast D. R., Nuclear Energy in Industry: Application to Oil Production, Climate Change and Energy Options Symposium, Canadian Nuclear Society, Ottawa, Canada, November 17-19, 1999.

31. Nuclear Power an Attractive Option for Tar Sands: Alberta Chamber Report, Nuclear Canada, February 10, 2004, p. 2.

32. Oil Sands Technology Roadmap. Unlocking the Potential, Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, Alberta, 2004, Available at

33. Odell P. R., Rosing K. E., The Future of Oil. World Oil Resources and Use, Kogan Page, London, 1983.

34. Maugeri L., Oil: Never Cry Wolf.Why the Petroleum Age Is Far from Over, Science, 2004, vol. 304, p. 1115.

35. Greene D. L., Hopson J. L., Li J., Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050, prepared by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the U.S. DOE, 2003.

36. Laherrere J., Natural Gas Future Supply, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) International Energy Workshop, June 22-24, Paris, 2004, available at: http://www.hubbertpeak. com/laherrere/.

37. Rogner H. H., An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon resources, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 1997, vol. 22, p. 217.

38. Odell P. R., Fossil Fuel Resources in the 21st Century, Financial Times Energy, London, 1999.

39. Odell P. R., Why Carbon Fuels will Dominate the 21st Century's Global Energy

Economy, Multi-Science Publishing, Brentwood, U.K., 2004.

40. Gold T., The Deep Hot Biosphere, Copernicus Press, New York, 1999.

41. IPCC Third Assessment Report: Climate Change 2001, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 2001.

42. Arrhenius S., On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air Upon the Temperature of the Ground, Philosophical Magazine, 1896, vol. 41, p. 237.

43. Solanki S. K., Usoskin I. G., Kromer B., et al., Unusual Activity of the Sun During Recent Decades Compared to the Previous 11,000 years, Nature, 2004, vol. 431, p. 1084.

44. Essenhigh R. H., Does CO2 Really Drive Global Warming?, Chemical Innovation, May, 2001, p. 44.

45. Idso S., B., Biological Consequences of Increased Concentrations of Atmospheric CO2, in Global Warming: The Science and the Politics (Ed.: L. Jones), The Fraser Institute, Vancouver, 1997.

46. Socolow R. H., Can we Bury Global Warming?, Scientific American, July 2005, p. 49.

47. Johnson J., Putting a Lid on Carbon Dioxide, Chemical Engineering News, December 20, 2004.

48. World Commission on Dams:

49. Wonder of the World Databank,

50. European Deep Geothermal Energy Programme:

51. Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC):

52. Wind Energy: The Facts. An Analysis of Wind Energy in the EU-25, (Ed.: H. Chandler), European Wind Energy Association (EWEA), available at:, 2003.

53. Solar Energy Technologies Program: Multi-Year Technical Plan 2003-2007 and Beyond, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) U.S. DOE, 2004.

54. IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme.

55. Sayigh A., Spotlight on PV Energy: As Commercialisation Grows, Solar Needs Attention, in Renewable Energy 2003, An official publication of the World

Renewable Energy Network, UNESCO, 2003.

56. Renewable Energy Technology Characterization, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and U.S. DOE, 1997.

57. Port O., Power from the Sunbaked Desert: Solar Generator May Be the Hot Source of Plentiful Electricity, BusinessWeek, September 12, 2005, p. 76.

58. Stirling Energy Systems:

59. Einav A., Solar Energy Research and Development Achievements in Israel and Their Practical Significance, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, 2004, vol. 126, p. 921.

60. Industrial Uses of Biomass Energy. The Example of Brazil, (Eds.: F. Rosillo-Calle, S. V. Bajay, H. Rothman), Taylor & Francis, London, 2000.

61. Buarque de Hollanda J., Dougals Poole A., Sugarcane as an Energy Source in Brazil, Instituto Nacional de Eficiencia Energetica.

62. Sao Paulo Sugarcane Agroindustry Union (UNICA):

63. Dickerson M., Homegrown Fuel Supply Helps Brazil Breathe Easy, Los Angeles Times, 2005.

64. Shapouri H., Duffield J. A., Wang M., The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: An Update, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, 2002.

65. Hess G., Ethanol Wins Big in Energy Policy, Chemical Engineering News, September 12, 2005.

66. Patzek T. W., Thermodynamics of the Corn-Ethanol Biofuel Cycle, Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 2004, vol. 23, p. 519.

67. Pimentel D., Ethanol Fuels: Energy Balance, Economics, and Environmental Impacts are Negative, Natural Resources Research, 2003, vol. 12, p. 127.

68. Pimentel D., Patzek T. W., Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower, Natural Resources Research, 2005, vol. 14, p. 65.

69. Bensaid B., Road Transport Fuels in Europe: the Explosion of Demand for Diesel

Fuel, Panorama 2005, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 2005.

70. Biofuel Barometer, Systemes Solaire, June, 2005, vol. 167.

71. Energy Technologies for a Sustainable Future: Transport, International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris, 2004.

72. Pontes T., Antonio F., Ocean Energies: Resources and Utilisation, 18th World Energy Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 21-25, 2001.

73. European Union, Atlas Project: http:// atlas/.

74. Hammerfest Str0m AS:

75. Johnson J., Power From Moving Water, Chemical & Engineering News, October 4,

76. Clément A., McCullen P., Falcäo A., et al., Wave Energy in Europe: Current Status and Perspectives, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2002, vol. 6, p. 405.

77. Ocean Power Delivery Ltd.:

78. Cowan G. A., A Natural Fission Reactor, Scientific American, July, 1976, p. 36.

79. A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Systems, US DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV International Forum, 2002, Available from:

80. Claude B., Superphénix, le Nucléaire à la Française, l'Harmattan, Paris, 1999.

81. Argonne National Laboratory-West.

82. Uranium 2003: Resources, Production and Demand, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy agency, 2004.

83. Lidsky L. M., Miller M. M., Nuclear Power and Energy Security: A Revised Strategy for Japan, Science and Global Security, 2002, vol. 10, p. 127.

84. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental and Socio-economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, UN,


85. Gabbard A., Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger?, ORNL Review, vol. 26, 1993, available at: http://www.ornl.

gov/info/ornlreview/rev26 -34/text/ colmain.html.

86. Yucca Mountain Standards, EPA.

87. Nuclear Energy Institute.

88. Morris R. C., The Environmental Case for Nuclear Power. Economical, Medical and Political Considerations, Paragon House, St. Paul, Minnesota, 2000.

89. Hoffmann P., Tomorrow's Energy. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet, The MIT Press, Cambridge, 2002.

90. Hydrogen and Other Alternative Fuels for Air and Ground Transportation, (Ed.: H. W. Pohl), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, England, 1995.

91. The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities, Costs, Barriers and R&D Needs, National Research Council and National Academy Engineering, The National Academic Press, Washington, DC, 2004.

92. U.S. Department of Energy:

93. Toward a Hydrogen Economy, editorial and special issue: Science, 2004, vol. 305, p. 957.

94. Milne T. A., Elam C. C., Evans R. J., Hydrogen from Biomass: State of the Art and Research Challenges, IEA/H2/TR-02/ 001, International Energy Agency (IEA).

95. Romm J. J., The Hype about Hydrogen. Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate, Island Press, Washington, DC, 2004.

96. Bossel U., Eliasson B., Taylor G., The Future of the Hydrogen Economy: Bright or Bleak?, 2003, Available from

97. Altmann M., Gaus S., Landinger H., et al., Wasserstofferzeugung in Offshore Windparks 'Killer-Kriterien', Grobe Auslegung und Kostenabschaetzung, Studie im Auftrag von GEO Gesellschaft fuer Energie Und Oekologie mbH, L-B-System-technik GmbH, Ottobrunn, Germany, 2001.

98. His S., Panorama 2004: Hydrogen: An Energy Vector for the Future?, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 2004, available at

99. Bientôt l'Ère Hydrogène, Alternatives Magazine, 2004, vol. 7, p. 8, available at

100. Source: BMW

101. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE).

102. Fairley P., Recharging the Power Grid, Technology Review, March, 2003, p. 50.

103. VRB-ESS: The Great Leveller, Modern Power Systems, June, 2005, p. 55.

104. Williams B., Hennesy T., Electric Oasis, IEE Power Engineering, February/March, 2005, p. 28.

105. Wilks N., Whatever the Weather. Advances in Battery Technology Could Hold the Key to Successful Development of Alternative Sources of Energy, Professional Engineering, October 6, 2004, p. 33.

106. Boyle R., The Sceptical Chymist, London, 1661.

107. Stiles A. B., Methanol, Past, Present, and Speculation on the Future, AIChE Journal, 1977, vol. 23, p. 362.

108. Methanol Production and Use, (Eds.: W-H. Cheng, H. H. Kung), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994.

109. Fiedler E., Grossmann G., Kersebohm D. B., et al., Methanol, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Vol. 21, 6th ed., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003, p. 611.

110. Fischer F., Tropsch H., Synthesis of Higher Members of the Aliphatic Series from Carbon Monoxide, Berichte, 1923, vol. 56B, p. 2428.

111. Fischer F., Tropsch H., Direct Synthesis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Ordinary Pressure, Berichte, 1926, vol. 59B, p. 830.

112. Edmonds W. J., Synthetic Methanol Process, Commercial Solvents Corporation, US Patent 1,875,714, 1932.

113. Weissermel K., Arpe H.-J., Industrial Organic Chemistry, 4th edn, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003.

114. Methanol, Chemical Week, June 22, 2005, p. 33.

115. Methanol in our Lives, Brochure by methanol producer Methanex, illustrating the presence of methanol in many products and materials of our daily lives, available from: http://www.methanex.

116. On the Road with Methanol: The present and Future Benefits of Methanol Fuel, Prepared for the Methanol Institute, 1994.

117. Bernton H., Kovarik W, Sklar S., The Forbidden Fuel. Power Alcohol in the Twentieth Century, Boyd Griffin, New York, 1982.

118. Reed T. B., Lerner R. M., Methanol: A versatile Fuel for Immediate Use, Science, 1973, vol. 182, p. 1299.

119. Beyond the Internal Combustion Engine: The Promise ofMethanol Fuel Cell Vehicles, Brochure published by the American Methanol Institute, available from:

120. Perry J. H., Perry C. P., Methanol, Bridge to a Renewable Energy Future, University Press of America, Lanham, Maryland,


121. Moffat A. S., Methanol-Powered, Science,

122. Alternative to Traditional Transportation-Fuels 1998, DOE/EIA-0585(98), Washington, DC.

123. Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program Volume 3, Technical Reports, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, 1997.

124. Alternative Fuel: Transit Buses. Final Results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Vehicle Evaluation Program, Produced for the US DOE, 1996.

125. Ogawa T., Inoue N., Shikada T., et al., Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis, Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry, 2003, vol. 12, p. 219.

126. Hirano M., Imai T., Yasutake T., et al., Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Carbon Dioxide by Catalytic Hydrogenation (Part 2) Hybrid Catalyst Consisting of Methanol Synthesis and Methanol Dehydration Catalysts, Journal of the Japan Petroleum Institute, 2004, vol. 47, p. 11.

127. Hansen J. B., Mikkelsen S.-E., DME as a Transportation Fuel, Project Carried out for the Danish Road Safety & Transport Agency and the Danish Environmental Protection agency, 2001.

128. Volvo Bus Corporation Company Presentation, 2004.

129. JFE Holdings, Inc,

130. Basu A., Wainwright J. M., DME as a Power Generation Fuel: Performance in Gas Turbines, Presented at the PETROTECH-2001 Conference, New Delhi, India, January, 2001.

131. Ohno Y., Omiya M., Coal Conversion into Dimethyl Ether as an Innovative Clean Fuel, Presented at the 12th International Conference on Coal Science, November, 2003.

132. Pavone A., Mega Methanol Plants, Report No. 43D, Process Economics Program, SRI Consulting, Menlo Park, California,


133. Ryu J. Y., Gelbein A. P., Producing Dimethyl Carbonate from CO2 and Methanol. A Green Chemistry Alternative to Phosgene as a Chemical Intermediate, in 4th Annual Green Chemistry and Engineering Conference Proceedings, Washington, DC, June 27-29, 2000, p. 33.

134. Methanol Institute Comments to US DOE On-Board Fuel Processing Review Panel,

2004, available from:

135. See, Fuel Cell Vehicles Chart (from Auto Manufacturers),

136. See, DaimlerChrysler,

137. See, Ford Motor Company,

138. For more information see the Georgetown University website on fuel cell buses, http://fuelcellbus.georgetown. edu/.

139. Methanol to Hydrogen Fueling Stations, Methanol Institute, 2003.

140. Japan Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Demonstration Project (JHFC),

141. Apanel G., Johnson E., Direct Methanol Fuel Cells - Ready to go Commercial?, Fuel Cells Bulletin, November, 2004, p. 12.

142. Voss D., A Fuel Cell in your Phone, Technology Review, November, 2001, p. 68.

143. Surampudi S., Narayanan S. R., Vamos E., et al., Advances in Direct Oxidation Methanol Fuel Cells, Journal of Power Sources, 1994, vol. 47, p. 377.

144. Surampudi S., Narayanan S. R., Vamos E., et al., US Patent 5,599,638 (1997), US Patent 6,248,460 (2001), US Patent

145. Prakash G. K. S., Smart M. C., Wang Q.-J., et al., High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Based on Poly(styrenesulfonic) Acid (PSSA) - Poly(vinylidenefluoride) 160. (PVDF) Composite Membranes, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 2004, vol. 125, p. 1217. 161.

146. Prakash G. K. S., Olah G. A., Smart M. 162. C., et al., Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Use in Fuel Cells, US Patent 6,444,343, 2002.

147. Dillon R., Srinivasan S., Arico A. S., et al., International Activities in DMFC R&D: Status of Technologies and Potential Applications, Journal of Power Sources, 2004, vol. 127, p. 112.

148. Jung D. H., Jo Y.-K., Jung J.-H., et al., 163. Proc. of the Fuel Cell Seminar, Portland, Oregon, 2000, p. 420.

149. Bostaph J., Koripella R., Fisher A., et al., 164. in Proc. of the 199th Meeting of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, Electrochemical

Society, Washington, DC, March 25-29, 2001.

150. Jung D. H., Jo Y.-K., Jung J.-H., et al., in 165.

Proceedings of the Fuel Cell Seminar, Portland, Oregon, 2000, p. 420. 166.

151. Kim D., Cho E. A., Hong S.-A., et al., Recent Progress in the Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell at KIST, Journal of Power Sources, 2004, vol. 130, p. 172.

152. 167.

153. Dolan G. A., In Search of the Perfect Clean-Fuel Options, Hydrocarbon Process- 168. ing, March, 2002, p. 1.

154. JuVOMe Presentation, Research Center 169. Julich angebote/pressemitteilungen/scooter.

155. Yamaha Motor Co.: http://www.yamaha- 170.

156. Geiger S., Jollie D., Report from the 2003 Fuel Cell Seminar, Miami, Fuel Cell 171. Today, 14 November, 2003,

157. Vectrix Corp.: http://www.vectrixusa. 172. com.

158. Olah G. A., Prakash G. K. S., Recycling of Carbon Dioxide into Methyl Alcohol and Related Oxygenates for Hydrocarbons, US Patent 5,928,806, 1999.

Temchin J., Analysis of Market Characteristics for Conversion of Liquid Fueled Turbines to Methanol, Prepared for The Methanol Foundation and Methanex by Electrotek Concepts, 2003. GE Position Paper: Feasibility of Methanol as Gas Turbine Fuel, General Electric, 2001. Stokes H., Commercialization of a New Stove and Fuel System for Household Energy in Ethiopia Using Ethanol from Sugar Cane Residues and Methanol from Natural Gas, Presented to the Ethiopian Society of Chemical Engineers ESChE at the Forum on "Alcohol as an Alternative Energy Resource for Household Use", October 30, 2004.

Ebbeson B., Stokes H. C., Stokes C. A., Methanol - The Other Alcohol: A Bridge to a Sustainable Clean Liquid Fuel, 2000. Methanol Refueling Station Costs, Prepared by EA engineering, Science and Technology, Inc. for the American Methanol Foundation, 1999, available from Ashley S., On the Road to Fuel Cell Cars, Scientific American, March, 2005, p. 62. Methanol Market Distribution Infrastructure in the United States, Prepared by DeWitt & Company, Inc for the Methanol Institute, 2002, available from: Methanol Fact Sheets, American Methanol Institute, Washington, DC, 1993. Methanex website: Methanol in Fuel Cell Vehicles: Human Toxicity and Risk Evaluation (Revised), Prepared by Statoil, Norway, 2001. Methanol Health Risk Fact Sheet, Methanol Institute, available at Methanol Health Effects Fact Sheet, Methanol Institute, available at Methanol Fuels and Fire Safety, Fact Sheet OMS-8, EPA 400-F-92-010, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Mobile Sources, Washington, DC, 1994.

173. Clean Alternative Fuels: Methanol, Fact Sheet EPA 420-F-00-040, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Transportation and Air Quality, 2002.

174. Pollutant Emissions from Georgetown University Methanol Powered Fuel Cell Buses: http://fuelcellbus.georgetown. edu/overview3.cfm.

175. Methanol, Health and Safety Guide (HSG 105, 1997), International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS),

176. Wastewater Treatment with Methanol De-nitrification, Fact Sheet, Methanol Institute, available at http://www.methanol. org.

177. Evaluation of the Fate and Transport of Methanol in the Environment, prepared by Malcolm Pirnie, Inc. for the Methanol Institute, 1999, available from

178. Brown R., Methanol Market Quiet, Chemical Market Reporter, section 2, January 31, 2005, p. 5.

179. Brown R., Methanol Pricing Steady as Supply Situation Changes, Chemical Market Reporter, section 2, October 4, 2004, p. 19.

180. Plouchart G., Panorama 2005: Energy Consumption in the Transportation Sector, Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 2005, available from aa.htm.

181. Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHM) Process: Final Report, Prepared by Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company for the US DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2003.

182. Kochloefl K., Steam Reforming, in Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Vol. 4 (Eds.: G. Ertl, H. Knözinger, J. Weitkamp), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1997.

183. Hansen J. B., Methanol Synthesis, in Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Vol. 4 (Eds.: G. Ertl, H. Knözinger, J. Weitkamp), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1997, p. 1856.

184. Turek T., Trimm D. L., Cant N. W., The Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Esters to Alcohols, Catalysis Reviews - Science and Engineering, 1994, vol. 36, p. 645.

185. Christiansen J. A., Method of Producing Methyl Alcohol From Alkyl Formate, US Patent 1,302,011, 1919.

186. Marchionna M., Lami M., Raspolli Gal-leti A. M., Synthesizing Methanol at Lower Temperature, Chemtech, April, 1997, p. 27.

187. Crabtree R. H., Aspects of Methane Chemistry, Chemical Reviews, 1995, vol. 95, p. 987.

188. Lunsford J. H., Catalytic Conversion of Methane to more Useful Chemicals and Fuels: a Challenge for the 21st Century, 2000.

189. Otsuka K., Wang Y., Direct Conversion of Methane into Oxygenates, Applied Catalysis A: General, 2001, vol. 222, p. 145.

190. Olah G. A., Electrophilic Methane Conversion, Accounts of Chemical Research, 1987, vol. 20, p. 422.

191. Olah G. A., Molnar Ä. Hydrocarbon Chemistry, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2003.

192. Olah G. A., Prakash G. K. S., Efficient and Selective Conversion of Methane to Methanol, US Provisional patent application No. 60 671-650, 2005.

193. Periana R. A., Bhalla G., Tenn W. J., et al., Perspective on Some Challenges and Approaches for Developing the Next Generation of Selective, Low Temperature, Oxidation Catalysts for Alkane Hy-droxylation Based on CH Activation Reaction, Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, 2004, vol. 220, p. 7.

194. Periana R. A., Taube T. J., Evitt E. R., et al., A Mercury-Catalyzed, High-Yield System for the Oxidation of Methane to Methanol, Science, 1993, vol. 259, p. 340.

195. De Vos D. E., Sels B. F., Gold Redox Catalysis for Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol, Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed., 2005, vol. 44, p. 30.

196. Jones C. J., Taube D., Ziatdinov V. R., et al., Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol Catalyzed, with C-H Activation, by Homogeneous, Cationic Gold, Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed., 2004, vol. 43, p. 4626.

197. Olah G. A., Gupta B., Farina M., et al., Selective Monohalogenation of Methane over Supported Acid or Platinum Metal Catalysts and Hydrolysis of Methyl Ha-

lides over Gamma-Alumina-Supported Metal Oxide/Hydroxide Catalysts. A Feasible Path for the Oxidative Conversion of Methane into Methyl Alcohol/Dimethyl Ether, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1985, vol. 107, p. 7097.

198. Olah G. A., Methyl Halides and Methyl Alcohol from Methane, US Patent 4,523,040, 1985.

199. Olah G. A., Mo Y. K., Electrophilic Reaction at Single Bonds. XIII. Chlorination and Chlorolysis of Alkanes in SbF5-Cl2-SO2ClF Solution at Low Temperature, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1972, vol. 94, p. 6864.

200. Olah G. A., Renner R., Schilling P., et al., Electrophilic Reactions at Single Bonds. XVII. SbF5, AlCl3, and AgSbF6 Catalyzed Chlorination and Chlorolysis of Alkanes and Cycloalkanes, Journal ofthe American Chemical Society, 1973, vol. 95, p. 7686.

201. Pan H. Y., Minet R. G., Benson S. W., et al., Process for Converting Hydrogen Chloride to Chlorine, Industrial Engineering Chemical Research, 1994, vol. 33, p. 2996.

202. Mortensen M., Minet R. G., Tsotsis T. T., et al., The Development of Dual Flui-dized-Bed reactor System for the Conversion of Hydrogen Chloride to Chlorine, Chemical Engineering Science, 1999, vol. 54, p. 2131.

203. Lorkovic I., Noy M., Weiss M., et al., Cj Coupling via Bromine Activation and Tandem Catalytic Condensation and Neutralization over CaO/Zeolite Composite, Chemical Communications, 2004, p. 566.

204. Schweizer A. E., Jones M. E., Hickman D. A., Oxidative Halogenation of C1 Hydrocarbons into Halogenated C1 Hydrocarbons and Integrated Processes Related Thereto, US Patent 6,452,058, 2002.

205. Periana R. A., Mirinov O., Taube D. J., et al., High Yield Conversion of Methane to Methyl Bisulfate Catalyzed by Iodine Cations, Chemical Communications, 2002, p. 2376.

206. Baik M.-H., Newcomb M., Friesner R. A., et al., Mechanistic Studies on the Hy-droxylation of Methane by Methane Monooxygenase, Chemical Reviews, 2003, vol. 103, p. 2385.

207. Ayala M., Torres E., Enzymatic Activation of Alkanes: Constraints and Prospective, Applied Catalysis A: General, 2004, vol. 272, p. 1.

208. Süss-Fink G., Stanislas S., Shul'pin G. B., et al., Catalytic Functionalization of Methane, Applied Organometallic Chemistry, 2000, vol. 14, p. 623.

209. Hamelinck C. N., Faaij A. P. C., Future Prospects for Production of Methanol and Hydrogen from Biomass, University Utrecht, Copernicus Institute,

The Netherlands, 2001.

210. Swaaij W. P. M., Kersten S. R. A., van den Aarsen F. G., Routes for Methanol from Biomass, International Business Conference on Sustainable Industrial Developments, Delfzijl, The Netherlands, April, 2004.

211. Henrich E., Kraftstoff aus Stroh, NRW Fachtagung "Was Tanken wir Morgen?", Oberhausen, November 25 -26, 2002.

212. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd: techno/biomass/.

213. Norbeck J. M., Johnson K., The Hynol Process: A Promising Pathway for Renewable Production of Methanol, College of Engineering, Center for Environmental research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, 2000.

214. Ekbom T., Lindblom M., Berglin N., et al., Cost-Competitive, Efficient Bio-Methanol Production from Biomuss via Black Liquor Gasification, Alterner Program of the European Union, 2003.

215. Cassedy E. S., Prospects for Sustainable Energy. A Critical Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.

216. Climate Change 2001, Mitigation, IPCC Third Assessment Report.

217. Nyns E.-J., Methane, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia ofIndustrial Chemistry, Vol. 21, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2003, p. 599.

218. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Municipal Solid Waste and Landfill Methane Outreach Program,

219. Sheehan J., Dunahay T., Benemann J., et al., A Look Back at the U.S. Department of Energy's Aquatic Species Program - Bio-diesel from Algae, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 1998.

220. Xiaoding X., Moulijn J. A., Mitigation of CO2 by Chemical Conversion: Plausible Chemical Reactions and Promising Products, Energy & Fuels, 1996, vol. 10, p. 305.

221. Goehna H., Koenig P., Producing Methanol from CO2, Chemtech, June, 1994, p. 39.

221a. Saito M., R&D Activities in Japan on Methanol Synthesis from CO2 and H2, Catalysis Surveys from Japan, 1998, Vol. 2, p. 175.

221b. Saito M., Murata K., Development of High Performance Cu/ZnO-Based Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis and WaterGas Shift Reaction, Catalysis Surveys from Asia, 2004, Vol. 8, p. 285.

222. Steinberg M., Fossil Fuel Decarboniza-tion Technology for Mitigating Global Warming, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 1999, vol. 24, p. 771.

223. Augustynski J., Sartoretti C. J., Kedzier-zawski P., Electrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide, in Carbon Dioxide Recovery and Utilization (Ed.: M. Aresta), Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2003, p. 279.

223a. Bagotzky V S., Osetrova N. V, Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide, Russian Journal of Electrochemistry, 1995, Vol. 31, p. 409.

223b. Electrochemical and Electrocatalytic Reactions of Carbon Dioxide, (Eds.: B. P. Sullivan, K. Krist, H. E. Guard), Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993.

223c. Olah G. A., Prakash G. K. S., Efficient Selective Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methanol, US Provisional patent application 60 671-651, 2005.

224. Specht M., Bandi A., Herstellung von Fluessigen Kraftstoffen aus Atmosphaer-ischem Kohlendioxid, in Forshungsver-bund Sonnenenergie, Themen 1994-1995, Energiespeicherung, 1995, p. 41.

225. Asinger F., Methanol, Chemie- und Energierohstoff. Die Mobilisation der Kohle, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1987.

226. Pasel J., Peters R., Specht M., Methanol Herstellung und Einsatz als Energietrae-ger fuer Brennstoffzellen, in Forshungs-verbund Sonnenenergie, Themen 19992000: Zukunftstechnologie Breenstoffzelle, Berlin, Germany, 2000, p. 46.

227. Specht M., Bandi A., 'The Methanol Cycle' - Sustainable Supply of Liquid Fuels, Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research (ZSW), Stuttgart, Germany.

228. Lackner K. S., Ziock H.-J., Grimes P., The Case for Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Air, SourceBook, 1999, vol. 57, p. 6.

229. Schuler S. S., Constantinescu M., Coupled CO2 recovery from the Atmosphere and Water Electrolysis: Feasibility of a New Process for Hydrogen Storage, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 1995, vol. 20, p. 653.

230. Rabo J. A., Catalysis: Past, Present and Future, in Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Catalysis, Budapest, Hungary, July 19-24. Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 75, p. 1-30, 1993.

231. Chang C. D., Methanol to Gasoline and Olefins, in Methanol Production and Use (Eds.: W.-H. Cheng, H. H. Kung), Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, p. 133.

232. Chang C. D., Methanol to Hydrocarbons, in Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Vol. 4 (Eds.: G. Ertl, H. Knozinger,

J. Weitkamp), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1997, p. 1894.

233. Special issue covering methanol to hydrocarbons technologies and processes, in Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 29 (1-2) (Eds.: M. Stocker, J. Weitkamp), 1999.

234. Olah G. A., Doggweiler H., Felberg J. D., et al., Onium Ylide Chemistry. 1. Bi-functional Acid-Base-Catalyzed Conversion of Heterosubstituted Methanes into Ethylene and derived Hydrocarbons. The Onium Ylide Mechanism of the C1 to C2 Conversion, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 1984, vol. 106, p. 2143.

235. Olah G. A., Bifunctional Acid-Base Catalyzed Conversion of Heterosubstituted Methanes into Olefins, US Patent 4,373,109, 1983.

236. Andersen J., Bakas S., Foley T., et al., MTO: Meeting the Needs for Ethylene and Propylene Production, presented at ERTC Petrochemical Conference, Paris, France, March 3-5, 2003.

237. UOP:

238. Lurgi:

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Solar Power Sensation V2

Solar Power Sensation V2

This is a product all about solar power. Within this product you will get 24 videos, 5 guides, reviews and much more. This product is great for affiliate marketers who is trying to market products all about alternative energy.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment