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Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Chapter 2

Coal in the Industrial Revolution, and Beyond 11 Chapter 3

History of Oil and Natural Gas 18

Oil Extraction and Exploration 22 Natural Gas 23

Chapter 4

Fossil Fuel Resources and Uses 27

Coal 28

Oil 32

Tar Sands 37

Oil Shale 38

Natural Gas 39

Coalbed Methane 46

Tight Sands and Shales 47

Methane Hydrates 47

Outlook 49

Chapter 5

Diminishing Oil and Gas Reserves 51 Chapter 6

The Continuing Need for Hydrocarbons and their Products 60

Fractional Distillation 63 Thermal Cracking 64

VI | Contents Chapter 7

Fossil Fuels and Climate Change 72

Mitigation 81

Chapter 8

Renewable Energy Sources and Atomic Energy 84

Hydropower 87 Geothermal Energy 91 Wind Energy 94

Solar Energy: Photovoltaic and Thermal 97 Electricity from Photovoltaic Conversion 98 Solar Thermal Power for Electricity Production 100 Electric Power from Saline Solar Ponds 101 Solar Thermal Energy for Heating 102 Economic Limitations of Solar Energy 102 Biomass Energy 103 Electricity from Biomass 103 Liquid Biofuels 104

Ocean Energy: Thermal, Tidal, and Wave Power 108 Tidal Energy 109 Waves 110

Ocean Thermal Energy 110 Nuclear Energy 111

Energy from Nuclear Fission Reactions 113

Breeder Reactors 118

The Need for Nuclear Power 119

Economics 121

Safety 121

Radiation Hazards 124

Nuclear Byproducts and Waste 125

Emissions 127

Nuclear Power: An Energy Source for the Future 127 Nuclear Fusion 128 Future Outlook 131

Chapter 9

The Hydrogen Economy and its Limitations 133

The Discovery and Properties of Hydrogen 133 The Development of Hydrogen Energy 135 The Production and Uses of Hydrogen 138 Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels 140 Hydrogen from Biomass 141 Photobiological Water Cleavage 142 Water Electrolysis 142

Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy 144

The Challenge of Hydrogen Storage 145

Liquid Hydrogen 147

Compressed Hydrogen 148

Metal Hydrides and Solid Absorbents 149

Other Means of Hydrogen Storage 150

Hydrogen: Centralized or Decentralized Distribution? 150

Safety of Hydrogen 153

Hydrogen in Transportation 154

Fuel Cells 155

History 155

Fuel Cell Efficiency 156

Hydrogen-Based Fuel Cells 159

PEM Fuel Cells for Transportation 162

Regenerative Fuel Cells 165

Outlook 166

Chapter 10

The "Methanol Economy": General Aspects 168 Chapter 11

Methanol as a Fuel and Energy Carrier 173

Properties and Historical Background 173 Present Uses of Methanol 175

Use of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Transportation Fuels 177

Alcohol as a Transportation Fuel in the Past 177

Methanol as Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) 180

Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Diesel Fuels Substitute in

Compression Ignition Engines 182

Biodiesel Fuel 186

Advanced Methanol-Powered Vehicles 187

Hydrogen for Fuel Cells from Methanol Reforming 187

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) 191

Fuel Cells Based on Other Fuels and Biofuel Cells 195

Regenerative Fuel Cell 196

Methanol for Static Power and Heat Generation 196 Methanol Storage and Distribution 197 Methanol Price 200 Methanol Safety 201

Emissions from Methanol-Powered Vehicles 205 Methanol and the Environment 206 Methanol and Issues of Climate Change 208

Chapter 12

Production of Methanol from Syn-Gas to Carbon Dioxide 209

Methanol from Fossil Fuels 212 Production via Syn-Gas 212 Syn-Gas from Natural Gas 215 Methane Steam Reforming 215 Partial Oxidation of Methane 216

Autothermal Reforming and Combination of Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation 217

Syn-Gas from CO2 Reforming 217

Syn-Gas from Petroleum and Higher Hydrocarbons 218

Syn-Gas from Coal 218

Economics of Syn-Gas Generation 219

Methanol through Methyl Formate 219

Methanol from Methane Without Syn-Gas 220

Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol 221

Catalytic Gas-Phase Oxidation of Methane 221

Liquid-Phase Oxidation of Methane to Methanol 224

Methanol Production through Mono-Halogenated Methanes 226

Microbial or Photochemical Conversion of Methane to Methanol 228

Methanol from Biomass 229

Methanol from Biogas 235

Aquaculture 237

Water Plants 237

Algae 238

Methanol from Carbon Dioxide 239

Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Flue Gases 242

Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere 243

Chapter 13

Methanol-Based Chemicals, Synthetic Hydrocarbons and Materials 246

Methanol-Based Chemical Products and Materials 246

Methanol Conversion to Olefins and Synthetic Hydrocarbons 248

Methanol to Olefin (MTO) Process 249

Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) Process 251

Methanol-Based Proteins 252

Outlook 253

Chapter 14

Future Perspectives 254

The "Methanol Economy" and its Advantages 256 Further Reading and Information 260 References 274 Index 283

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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