Air Pollution Meteorology Quiz

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This is an "open book" quiz. You may refer to the text in this chapter. A good score is 8 correct. Answers are in the back of the book.

1. Silver iodide is a chemical that is believed to increase the likelihood of

(a) rain or snow, when it is scattered in clouds.

(b) global warming, if it accumulates in the atmosphere.

(c) global cooling, if it accumulated in the oceans.

(d) the formation of amino acids in bodies of water.

2. Which of the following statements (a), (b), or (c), if any, is false?

(a) The earth, as a whole, receives slightly more solar energy at perihelion than it does at aphelion.

(b) The earth, as a whole, receives slightly more solar energy on a day in January than it does on a day in July.

(c) The earth is closer to the sun in the southern-hemispheric summer than it is in the southern-hemispheric winter.

(d) All of the above statements (a), (b), and (c) are true.

3. Wave action on the ocean surface

(a) contributes to expansion of the Ross Ice Shelf, which may cause global cooling and the expansion of the world's forests.

(b) produces a general drop in sea level, because it causes water to be locked up in glaciers and icebergs.

(c) helps to aerate the water, and this is important to the survival of marine life.

(d) is utterly destructive, a fact that has led to a proposal to find ways to reduce it.

4. According to one theory, the earth receives a minimum of energy from the sun at intervals of approximately 100,000,000 (108) years because

(a) the solar system plunges in and out of the galactic plane, which contains interstellar dust and gas that reduces the amount of solar energy that reaches the earth.

(b) the earth wobbles on its axis, exposing each hemisphere alternately to more solar energy and then less.

(c) the orbit of the earth precesses around the sun, causing changes in the lengths of the seasons.

(d) the moon's gravitation disrupts the axial tilt of the earth, causing changes in the intensity of the seasons.

5. Pangaea is the name that has been given to

(a) a gigantic continent that is believed to have existed on earth eons ago.

(b) any form of climate change that affects all regions of the world.

(c) the tendency of earthlike climates to evolve on all planets.

(d) the effects of weather and climate on the global evolution of life.

6. Neutrinos provide an important clue in solving the puzzle of climatic variability because

(a) they are associated with the eccentricity of the earth's orbit.

(b) they come from the galactic plane.

(c) they can produce greenhouse effect.

(d) they may help explain how the sun's energy output can vary.

7. Which of the following statements (a), (b), or (c), if any, is false?

(a) A nuclear winter could increase the albedo of the earth by causing expansion of the snowpack.

(b) If the Ross Ice Shelf breaks loose from Antarctica, the level of the earth's oceans can be expected to fall.

(c) If large polar glaciers form, similar to those during the most recent ice age, the level of the earth's oceans can be expected to fall.

(d) All of the above statements (a), (b), and (c) are true.

8. In the northern hemisphere, summer is a little longer than winter, astronomically speaking, because

(a) the earth is closer to the sun in the northern-hemisphere summer than in the northern-hemisphere winter.

(b) the earth is tilted on its axis to a greater extent in the northern-hemisphere summer than in the northern-hemisphere winter.

(c) the earth travels more slowly in its orbit during the northern-hemisphere summer than in the northern-hemisphere winter.

(d) All of the above

9. The climate of the earth might be dramatically changed in the long term by

(a) placing a dam across the Bering Strait.

(b) doing things that reduce the albedo of the planetary surface.

(c) increasing the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere.

(d) All of the above

10. A theory that describes climate variability in terms of sudden, dramatic events rather than gradual change is known as

(a) evolutionism.

(b) reactionism.

(c) catastrophism.

(d) the maverick theory.

Final

Do not refer to the text when taking this exam. A good score is at least 75 correct. Answers are in the back of the book. It's best to have a friend check your score the first time, so you won't memorize the answers if you want to take the test again.

1. Suppose you want to monitor the wind direction from a convenient location indoors, even when the wind vane itself cannot be seen from that indoor location. What type of device can facilitate this?

(a) A bi-metal strip

(c) A hygrometer

(e) An anemometer

2. Refer to Fig. Exam-1. Suppose you are at Town X. You can expect that the prevailing surface winds at this location come generally from

(e) no particular direction.

North pole

Town X

Town Y

North pole

Town X

Town Y

Equator

South pole

Fig. Exam-1. Illustration for Final Exam Questions 2 and 3.

Equator

South pole

Fig. Exam-1. Illustration for Final Exam Questions 2 and 3.

3. In the situation shown by Fig. Exam-1, suppose you are at Town Y. You can expect that the prevailing surface winds at this location come generally from

(e) no particular direction.

4. Suppose you are reading a paper or scientific article, and you come across a unit symbolized kcal/kg/°C. This is a unit of

(a) heat energy transfer.

(b) air pressure.

(c) thermal density.

(d) specific heat.

(e) specific gravity.

5. Of the following cities in the United States, which experiences the most lightning?

(a) Seattle, Washington

(b) Portland, Oregon

(c) Portland, Maine

(d) Orlando, Florida

(e) San Diego, California

If thunderstorms are near your location, and you hear the civil defense sirens emit a continuous blast for 3 to 5 minutes, it means that

(a) hail can be expected to fall.

(b) winds of gale force or stronger are expected.

(c) a tornado warning has been issued.

(d) frequent lightning can be expected.

(e) a severe thunderstorm watch has been issued.

7. Fill in the blank to make the following sentence correct: "Funnel clouds are most likely to develop in the_of a tropical cyclone."

(b) forward semicircle

(c) gust front

(d) ionosphere

(e) jet stream

8. When air rises because the wind encounters a hill or mountain slope (for example, when the prevailing westerlies blow against the Pacific Coast of the United States), the effect is known as

(a) orographic lifting.

(b) gradient lifting.

(c) frictional lifting.

(d) cyclonic lifting.

(e) alpine lifting.

9. The longest winters in the civilized world occur in the interiors of

(a) Africa and Australia.

(b) North America, Europe, and Asia.

(c) South and North America.

(d) Antarctica and Australia.

(e) populated deserts.

10. The kilogram per meter cubed is a unit often used to quantify

(a) the rate of wind divergence.

(b) the rate of wind convergence.

(c) the density of a solid.

(d) the acceleration of gravity.

(e) the pressure of a gas in a closed container.

11. Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true: "A(n)____

contains two strips of metal, attached directly and having different coefficients of linear expansion."

(a) metal hygrometer

(b) aneroid barometer

(c) bi-metal-strip thermometer

(d) mercury thermometer

(e) anemometer

12. Imagine a tornado with a wind circulation, and direction of movement, as shown in Fig. Exam-2. The strongest winds in this tornado come from

(a) the northeast.

(b) the northwest.

(c) the southeast.

(d) the southwest.

(e) all directions equally.

13. In the tornado diagrammed by Fig. Exam-2, the strongest winds are

14. The term mammatocumulus refers to

(b) clouds that seem to hover around mountain peaks.

(c) clouds within the eyewall of a hurricane.

(d) the "mother cloud" of a tornado.

(e) cloud-like formations generated by blowing snow.

Main vortex 80 kt

Secondary vortex 30 kt i \

Forward motion 30 kt

Fig. Exam-2. Illustration for Final Exam Questions 12 and 13.

15. When you attempt to predict the weather for the next 45 minutes by assuming that conditions in general will not change during that time, you employ

(a) trend forecasting.

(b) persistence forecasting.

(c) historical forecasting.

(d) numerical forecasting.

(e) synoptic forecasting.

16. When you attempt to predict the weather by extending a defined rate of change into the short-term future, you employ

(a) trend forecasting.

(b) persistence forecasting.

(c) historical forecasting.

(d) numerical forecasting.

(e) synoptic forecasting.

17. When you attempt to predict the weather by assembling weather maps from observed and reported data at numerous stations, you employ

(a) trend forecasting.

(b) persistence forecasting.

(c) historical forecasting.

(d) numerical forecasting.

(e) synoptic forecasting.

18. When you attempt to predict the weather by observing parcels of air and then using a computer programmed according to laws of physics, to predict what will happen to each parcel at regular intervals into the future, you employ

(a) trend forecasting.

(b) persistence forecasting.

(c) historical forecasting.

(d) numerical forecasting.

(e) synoptic forecasting.

19. A squall line is

(a) a group of large thunderstorms.

(b) a severe blizzard.

(c) the eyewall of a hurricane.

(d) a tornado with straight-line winds.

(e) a violent dust storm.

20. A typical tornado has winds that

(a) are somewhat less than gale force.

(b) can blow in a straight line.

(c) blow straight down toward the surface.

(d) blow straight in toward a specific point on the surface.

(e) None of the above

21. Ultraviolet rays from the sun ionize atoms in the atmosphere. The ionized regions are called the D, E, F1, and F2 layers. The D layer, which is the lowest of the ionized layers, exists in

(a) the mesosphere.

(b) the troposphere.

(c) the jet streams.

(d) the polar fronts.

(e) anticyclonic weather systems.

Surface ai-10°G Fig. Exam-3. Illustration for Final Exam Question 22.

22. The scenario illustrated in Fig. Exam-3 is likely to produce

(d) freezing rain.

23. Lake-effect snow can be expected on the southern shore of Lake Ontario when the temperature is below freezing, a low-pressure system is passing, and a strong wind is blowing from

(b) southwest to northeast.

(d) northwest to southeast.

(e) southeast to northwest.

24. Suppose you are in Europe, and you are told that the outside temperature is 12°C. This is the equivalent of approximately

25. The usual cause of a heat wave in North America is

(a) a trough in the jet stream that lasts for a long time.

(b) a ridge in the jet stream that lasts for a long time.

(c) a series of hurricanes that transfers heat from the tropics to the continent.

(d) a series of warm fronts associated with a chain of low-pressure systems.

(e) a long period of unusually wet weather.

26. People who attempt to surf in breakers caused by an approaching hurricane can be endangered by

(a) littoral currents.

(b) rip currents.

(d) the sheer size of the waves.

(e) All of the above

27. When talking about the frostpoint temperature, another term is often used in its place. What is that term?

(a) Specific heat

(b) Sublimation temperature

(c) Heat of condensation

(d) Dewpoint temperature

(e) Thermal equilibrium

28. A supercell is characterized by

(a) a rotating cumulonimbus cloud.

(b) the absence of lightning.

(c) the occurrence of lightning, but only at high altitudes.

(d) the absence of charge in the atmospheric capacitor.

(e) zero voltage between clouds and the ground.

29. A potential positive side effect of global warming might be

(a) a rise in the level of the oceans.

(b) increased rates of photosynthesis in plants.

(c) melting of the ice in Antarctica and Greenland.

(d) desertification of the equatorial regions.

(e) None of the above

30. Sunlight and high temperatures can contribute to ozone pollution, worsening the air quality in large cities, when

(a) oxygen atoms in the air group into triplets (O3) rather than the usual pairs (O2).

(b) oxygen molecules in the air are split into single atoms (O) rather than existing as pairs of atoms (O2).

(c) oxygen in the air combines with carbon from automobile exhaust and nitrogen that occurs naturally, forming the notorious ozone gas.

(d) oxygen and nitrogen in the air combine to form nitrates and nitrites, well-known carcinogens that are also known as ozone in gaseous form.

(e) Forget it! Sunlight and high temperatures tend to reduce air pollution and improve air quality in large cities.

31. Passive solar heating systems are practical in regions where the climate is

(a) warm most of the time, and sunny most of the time.

(b) warm most of the time, and sunny some of the time.

(c) cool most of the time, and sunny most of the time.

(d) frigid some of the time, and sunny most of the time.

(e) All of the above

32. The earth revolves most slowly around the sun during the month of

(b) September.

(e) Forget it! The earth always revolves around the sun at exactly the same speed.

33. The center of a typical hurricane moves along the storm track at approximately

34. Which, if any, of the following (a), (b), (c), or (d) is a bad idea during an electrical storm?

(a) If you are caught oudoors, move to a low place away from all structures.

(b) Try to get into a car or truck if a building is not available for shelter.

(c) Stand next to a tall tree, so lightning will go through it instead of through you.

(d) If you are caught in the open, crouch down with your feet close together and your face toward the ground.

(e) All of the above (a), (b), (c), and (d) are good ideas during an electrical storm.

35. The smoke from a forest fire

(a) can sometimes be seen on weather radar displays.

(b) is always associated with cumulonimbus clouds.

(c) never rises more than 1000 m above the surface.

(d) is associated with tornadoes.

(e) produces rain that eventually puts out the fire.

36. The Fujita scale is associated with

(b) hurricanes.

(c) blizzards.

(d) lightning.

(e) tornadoes.

37. What is the deadliest phenomenon that occurs in association with an intense hurricane as it makes landfall?

(a) The tornadoes

(b) The high winds

(c) The storm surge

(d) The heavy rain

(e) The drop in pressure

38. A station model indicates

(a) the types of instruments in use at a particular weather station, along with their relative accuracy.

(b) the theoretical ideal configuration for equipment and processes at a weather station for a given period of time.

(c) the temperature, extent of cloud cover, wind direction, wind speed, and other information on a weather map for a particular location.

(d) the barometric pressure at a given weather station, plotted as a function of time as a storm system passes.

(e) the long-range weather forecast for a particular location, including temperature and precipitation data.

39. Suppose we are told by a reliable source that a ridge in the jet stream will develop, and will be maintained, over the north central United States for the upcoming winter season. If we live in the center of the country (Missouri, for example), what sort of winter can we expect?

(a) Warmer and drier than normal

(b) Warmer and wetter than normal

(c) Colder and drier than normal

(d) Colder and wetter than normal

(e) Essentially normal

40. Suppose a heavy, isolated thunderstorm develops over Kansas. A large portion of the storm begins rotating counterclockwise (as viewed from above). This storm has become

(b) an anticyclone.

(c) an occluded thunderstorm.

41. Winds in a typical dust devil

(a) are rarely stronger than gale force.

(d) are comparable to those in an F4 tornado.

(e) are comparable to those in a category 5 hurricane.

42. What is the difference between mass density and weight density?

(a) Mass density takes the acceleration of gravity into account, but weight density is expressed independently of the acceleration of gravity.

(b) Weight density takes the acceleration of gravity into account, but mass density is expressed independently of the acceleration of gravity.

(c) Mass density takes the number of moles of substance into account, but weight density is independent of the number of moles of substance.

(d) Weight density takes the number of moles of substance into account, but mass density is independent of the number of moles of substance.

(e) There is no difference.

43. If you are stranded in your car in a blizzard, which of the following is a bad idea?

(a) Stay with the vehicle as much as possible.

(b) Run the engine for about 10 minutes per hour.

(c) Keep the exhaust pipe clear.

(d) Eat snow as a source of water.

(e) Turn on the emergency flashers.

44. Fill in the blank to make the following sentence correct: "At a given actual temperature, the windchill factor is the air temperature that would cause the same amount of cooling to exposed flesh as would occur if the same person were walking at a normal pace____."

(b) against the wind.

(d) sideways to the wind.

(e) in direct sunlight.

45. If a small asteroid struck a land mass on the earth's surface, the global climate might become cooler as a result of

(a) a decrease in the earth's atmospheric pressure.

(b) an increase in the amount of plant photosynthesis.

(c) dust thrown into the atmosphere by the impact.

(d) a decrease in volcanic activity.

(e) a reduction in the temperature of the earth's core.

46. The severity of a heat wave over a period of time can be quantified in terms of

(a) kilocalorie-hours.

(b) energy expenditure.

(c) cooling degree days.

(d) heating degree days.

(e) radiation coefficient.

47. Fill in the blank in the following sentence to make it true: "There is a correlation between____and reduced hurricane activity in the

Atlantic and Caribbean."

(a) sunspot activity

(b) volcanic activity

(c) the El Niño phenomenon

(d) the Arctic snowpack

(e) severe winters in Canada

48. Suppose you live on the oceanfront in the southeastern United States.

Which of the following sets of observed phenomena suggests that a hurricane is approaching directly toward you?

(a) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that backs from right to left, along with strong winds that always blow in the direction from which the swells come.

(b) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that veers from left to right, along with strong winds that always blow in the direction from which the swells come.

(c) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that remains constant, along with strong winds that back until they are blowing from your left toward your right as you face in the direction from which the swells come.

(d) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that remains constant, along with strong winds that back until they are blowing directly offshore, regardless of the direction from which the swells come.

(e) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that remains constant, along with strong winds that veer until they are blowing from your right toward your left as you face in the direction from which the swells come.

49. Suppose you live on the oceanfront on the east coast of Australia.

Which of the following sets of observed phenomena suggests that a hurricane is approaching directly toward you?

(a) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that backs from right to left, along with strong winds that always blow in the direction from which the swells come.

(b) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that veers from left to right, along with strong winds that always blow in the direction from which the swells come.

(c) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that remains constant, along with strong winds that back until they are blowing from your left toward your right as you face in the direction from which the swells come.

(d) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that remains constant, along with strong winds that back until they are blowing directly offshore, regardless of the direction from which the swells come.

(e) Breakers that increase in size, decrease in frequency, and come from a direction that remains constant, along with strong winds that veer until they are blowing from your right toward your left as you face in the direction from which the swells come.

50. Suppose 10 g of pure liquid water at +100°C evaporates completely and becomes water vapor at +100°C. In this process, it

(a) gives up 540 cal of energy.

(b) gives up 1080 cal of energy.

(c) gives up 2700 cal of energy.

(d) gives up 5400 cal of energy.

(e) does not give up energy, but gains energy.

51. Fig. Exam-4 is a vertical-slice diagram of

(a) a stationary front.

(d) a tropical front.

(e) None of the above

0 100 200 300 400 500

Horizontal distance, kilometers

0 100 200 300 400 500

Horizontal distance, kilometers

Fig. Exam-4. Illustration for Final Exam Questions 51 and 52.

52. In a situation such as that diagrammed in Fig. Exam-4, the usual case is that

(a) air mass X is colder than air masses Y or Z.

(b) air mass Y is colder than air masses X or Z.

(c) air mass Z is colder than air masses X or Y.

(d) air masses X, Y, and Z are all the same temperature.

(e) it is impossible to say anything about the relative temperatures of air masses X, Y, and Z.

53. In an intense tornado, the small-scale wrenching effects that produce spectacular and bizarre damage are caused by

(a) the mesocyclone.

(b) the anticyclone.

(c) hook-shaped echoes.

(d) suction vortices.

(e) high barometric pressure.

54. When raindrops fall on the surface of a body of water, the disturbance adds air to the water. This effect is known as

(b) gasification.

(c) diffusion.

(d) ionization.

(e) irradiation.

Temperature °C

Temperature °C

Fig. Exam-5. Illustration for Final Exam Question 55.

Fig. Exam-5. Illustration for Final Exam Question 55.

55. Fig. Exam-5 is a graph that shows the behavior of

(a) a sample of air as its pressure increases under the influence of heat energy transfer.

(b) a sample of liquid water as it evaporates under the influence of heat energy transfer.

(c) a sample of water ice as it thaws under the influence of heat energy transfer.

(d) a region of the earth as the sun shines on it and heats it up.

(e) the heating of a liquid surface under infrared (IR) radiation.

56. The Azores-Bermuda high is a large, persistent system of

(a) ocean currents in the Pacific.

(b) storms that track around the Antarctic continent.

(c) cold fronts that plague the Midwestern United States in winter.

(d) blizzard-generating storms near the island of Bermuda.

(e) None of the above

57. Fill in the blank to make the following sentence true: "A cyclonic bend in the jet stream is often accompanied by atmospheric____, which causes the barometric pressure to drop more than it otherwise would."

divergence regression conversion compression inversion

58. Of the following cloud types, which one most strongly suggests the existence or evolution of a thunderstorm?

(a) Altostratus

(b) Cumulostratus

(c) Cumulus

(d) Cumulonimbus

(e) Nimbonimbus

59. Which of the following has been seriously suggested as a possible contributing factor to ice ages on earth?

(a) The eccentricity of the earth's orbit, and the precession of the orbit with respect to the background of distant stars.

(b) Periodic changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, so it is sometimes nearly a perfect circle, and sometimes a more elongated ellipse.

(c) The passage of the solar system in and out of the galactic plane, causing changes in the amount of interstellar dust between the earth and the sun.

(d) Changes in the actual brightness of the sun, causing more energy to strike the earth during some ages as compared with other ages.

(e) All of the above

60. Some materials can be considered liquids in the long-term time sense, even though they behave like solids in the short-term time sense, because of their

(b) viscosity.

(c) specific gravity.

61. A hurricane watch means that

(a) hurricane conditions are 36 hours.

(b) hurricane conditions are 24 hours.

(c) hurricanes are likely to form within the next 72 hours.

(d) conditions are favorable for the formation of hurricanes.

(e) a hurricane has been sighted.

possible in the watch area within expected in the watch area within

AWv-

Resistor

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Solar Panel Basics

Solar Panel Basics

Global warming is a huge problem which will significantly affect every country in the world. Many people all over the world are trying to do whatever they can to help combat the effects of global warming. One of the ways that people can fight global warming is to reduce their dependence on non-renewable energy sources like oil and petroleum based products.

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