How I Survived Melanoma Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

How To Prevent Skin Cancer

Complete Guide to Preventing Skin Cancer. We all know enough to fear the name, just as we do the words tumor and malignant. But apart from that, most of us know very little at all about cancer, especially skin cancer in itself. If I were to ask you to tell me about skin cancer right now, what would you say? Apart from the fact that its a cancer on the skin, that is.

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How I Survived Malignant Melanom

By The Time You've Finished Reading How I Survived Melanoma Skin Cancer Seven Survivors Tell Their Stories. You'll Feel Like A New Person, with A New, More Positive Outlook! You will learn: 1. How do I know if I have melanoma? What are the signs and symptoms? I wanted to know why the doctor was so concerned when she looked at that little mole on my forearm. What was it that looked so sinister? How worried should I be? Was the doctor over-reacting? 2. What tests will the doctor carry out to see if I have melanoma? Will they be able to tell me on the spot if there is a problem? Or will I have to wait for days, fretting about whats going on? 3. How curable is melanoma? If they do tell me its melanoma, what exactly does that mean? Is it a death sentence? Will they tell me You have 12 months to live. Get your life in order and prepare for the worst.? 4. What are the stages of the disease? The reading Id done said that there were different stages of melanoma. What are the symptoms of each stage? What are the survival rates of each stage? If I had a later stage melanoma, wouldnt I know about it? Wouldnt I actually feel like I was sick? 5. How quickly does the disease progress or spread? Should I have gone to the doctor sooner? Id noticed the mole changing over about 3 months. Was this delay critical? 6. How is melanoma normally treated? Would I have to go through chemotherapy and radiation treatment? If so, for how long? What are the odds of curing the disease using these treatments? How extensive is any surgery likely to be? How big will the scars be? 7. What are the common side effects of the treatments? Would I lose my hair? Would I become sterile? What else could I expect? 8. What alternative treatments are available? Id heard of people going on special macro-biotic diets. Id seen lots of herbal remedies on the internet. Which of these are proven and documented, and which ones are snake oil? Is it possible to combine alternative treatments with surgical other western treatments? How do I find a doctor that is open to using both alternative and western treatments? 9. What are the latest treatments being developed, and who is carrying out clinical trials of these new treatments?

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Skin Cancer

The sun is the cause of at least 90 percent of all skin cancers.6 We all know that the sun shines more intensely at low latitudes than at high latitudes. The tropics are hotter than the poles. Hence, we would expect, even with a healthy ozone layer, that skin cancer would be more common at low latitudes. And this is exactly what is found (figure 8.2). When the ozone layer Annual deaths from skin cancer per 100,000 people Annual deaths from skin cancer per 100,000 white males in the United States, compiled before thinning of the ozone layer. A latitudinal control is evident (Department of Health and Human Services). Annual deaths from skin cancer per 100,000 people Annual deaths from skin cancer per 100,000 white males in the United States, compiled before thinning of the ozone layer. A latitudinal control is evident (Department of Health and Human Services). was virtually undamaged in 1960, the occurrence of skin cancer among Caucasians increased by 10 percent for each 3 of latitude...

Threats to Human Health

The most obvious threat of ozone depletion to humans is increased exposure to UVB radiation that causes skin cancer and cataracts. There are two types of skin cancer nonmelanoma and melanoma. The American Cancer Society reported in 2005 that more than one million cases of nonmelanoma skin cancer are diagnosed in the United States each year and estimated that between one thousand and two thousand people would die from the disease. The incidence of cancer is closely tied to cumulative exposure to UV radiation. In 1988 the EPA estimated that each 1 drop in ozone is projected to result in a 4-6 increase in these types of skin cancer. Melanoma skin cancer is less common, but far more deadly, accounting for just 4 of skin cancer cases but a staggering 79 of skin cancer deaths, according to the American Cancer Society in 2005. Melanoma is more likely to metastasize (spread to other parts of the body, particularly major organs such as the lungs, liver, and brain). In April 2005 the American...

The Effects Of Ozone Loss On Agriculture And Human Health

Although skin cancer rates have increased alarmingly, it is difficult to separate the effects of ozone loss from those of increased Sun exposure due to people moving to lower latitudes. In the United States, it is estimated that a 1 loss of stratospheric ozone results in a rise of approximately 3 in non-melanoma skin cancers and 1 in fatal melanomas. Increased UV exposure is also increasing eye damage since the cornea absorbs UV light. High doses cause snow-blindness, temporary corneal damage that disappears after several hours, but chronic exposure brings about cataracts. Increased UV may also cause immune system suppression and reduce peoples' defenses against infectious diseases and some cancers. Some of these effects are already being seen near the Antarctic ozone hole.

Greenhouse Effect And Ozone

Ozone reduction is a global issue since it makes the earth vulnerable to solar radiation. When the protective ozone layer is thin or absent, the sun's harmful UV radiation is able to get through the atmosphere and reach the Earth's surface. Exposure to this radiation causes skin cancer, eye damage, and other health problems.

Environmental Problems

Fearing skin cancer from exposure to the sun are a vocal and powerful political lobby for change. The greenhouse effect upon climate change is one area, which has not so far received such powerful popular support. The economic pain from curbing atmospheric pollution is all too apparent, while the gains are not immediately appreciated. In global terms, we continue with economic policies and land use practices which increase atmospheric emissions, particularly greenhouse gases.

The Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol was the first international agreement designed to solve an important environmental problem. Some people fear that some of the momentum has been lost in the years since the original protocol was ratified by 188 countries, because the 2003 amendment was ratified by only 81 countries. Nonetheless, CFC consumption has been greatly reduced Between 1986 and 2004, CFC use went from 1.1 million to approximately 70,000 ODP tons. (ODP tons are obtained by multiplying the natural tons by the ozone depleting potential ODP of a substance relative to freon-11.) Had use continued to climb at the pre-1980 rate, CFC consumption would have reached 3 million tons in 2010 and 8 million in 2060. By 2050, atmospheric CFC levels would have been 10 times higher than in 1980, with an additional 20 million skin cancer cases in the United States and 130 million globally. Scientists predict that the first healing of the Antarctic ozone hole will occur late in the 2000s, and the ozone layer...

Ozone In Water Treatment

The layer of ozone that forms at an altitude of about 100,000 kilometers helps protest us from the Sun's short wave length ultraviolet radiation. Exposure to this radiation has been shown to increase the incidence of skin cancer. This ozone is chemically the same is the ozone discussed in this chapter but its production by sunlight and its value to humanity is entirely unrelated to the use of ozone described below.

Here Comes the Sun Duck and Cover

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), invented in the 1940s, are very useful as refrigerants, propellants in spray cans, and solvents to clean machine parts. Unfortunately, they also deplete the ozone layer. As CFCs deplete the ozone layer, humans suffer worse sunburns, more cataracts, and more skin cancers. The National Academy of Sciences estimates that for every 1 decline in the ozone layer we will suffer an additional 10,000 cases of skin cancer each year. Also, the increased ultraviolet radiation damages plants, perhaps even reducing agriculture yield. Phytoplankton, the foundation of the oceanic food web, is also adversely affected. We really don't know the full extent of damage from CFCs.

Ozonelayer Protection

The Montreal Protocol came into force in 1989. It bans the production and use of chemicals that have been shown to damage the ozone layer, a concern first raised by scientists in the 1970s. Without the protective ozone layer, we all would get skin cancer Discovery of a persistent ozone hole over Antarctica in 1984 by British scientists highlighted the damage to the ozone layer and heightened public concern over the chemicals that were believed to be causing the phenomenon.109

Prudence In Uncertainty

From quite early on there was evidence of changes in the communities of marine organisms near the dump sites of the North Sea. Studies showed, for example, that there was an increase in epidermal papilloma (a form of skin cancer) among the local fish population. But for ten years no action was taken to halt the dumping practices because there was still uncertainty in establishing a causal link between the dumping of the wastes and the damage to the fish. The early studies focused on the acidity of the wastes as a potentially causative factor. Later it emerged that the likely cause was in fact the metal content of the wastes, with attention focused particularly on chromium. But the upshot of the continuing dispute was that known toxic wastes continued to be dumped, despite opposition from environmental lobby groups, for over a decade. Even when new evidence emerged of a correlation between chromium content in the fish and epidermal papilloma, scientists could still not prove an...

The ozone layer the problem

Stratospheric ozone forms between about 15-50 km (9-30 miles) above the surface of the earth when oxygen molecules are split by ultraviolet radiation from the sun and then bond with other oxygen molecules to form ozone (O3). The ozone layer is essential to human health, helping screen out harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), excessive amounts of which can cause sunburn, eye disorders such as cataracts, infectious skin disease, skin cancer, skin aging and depression of the immune system. It can also kill micro-organisms and cells in animals and plants, decrease photosynthesis, damage seed quality, reduce crop yields, and limit the production of phytoplankton in aquatic ecosystems, affecting the early development stages of fish, shrimp and other marine species (UNEP, 1995). UV-B radiation can also contribute to the formation of tropospheric (ground-level) ozone, which is harmful to human health. Ground-level ozone is a byproduct of interactions involving various pollutants generated by...

Tale Of Two Protocols

But careful analysis and economic rationality were not the whole story The nation's attention was also riveted by a vivid image, the ominous and growing ozone hole over Antarctica. Ordinary people could easily understand the idea that the earth was losing a kind of protective shield, one that operated as a safeguard against skin cancer, a dreaded condition.

The ozone layer the policy response

Global production and emissions of ozone-depleting substances have fallen sharply since the late 1980s for example, production of CFC-11 by major manufacturers in industrialized countries grew from 290000 tonnes in 1980 to 382000 tonnes in 1987, but was down to just 33000 tonnes in 1995. Overall, global production of CFCs in 1995 was only 10-20 per cent of its peak value (EEA, 1998, p. 66). Unfortunately, the presence of CFCs in the atmosphere ensures that the ozone layer will not fully recover until at least 2033, and perhaps as late as 2050. Hence ultra-violet radiation levels are expected to continue to grow, as will their associated effects on human health. The EEA concludes that if measures currently in force are fully implemented, additional cases of skin cancer caused by ozone depletion should peak at 78 per million per year in about 2055. Increases in UV radiation are likely to be largest in the western parts of the EU because of relative ozone depletion levels (EEA, 1999,...

Costs and Benefits of CFC Regulation

Why did the United States adopt such an aggressive posture with respect to ozone depletion A large part of the answer is that cost-benefit analyses, by the Council of Economic Advisers and others, suggested that the United States had far more to gain than to lose by a well-designed agreement. The EPA's analysis projected that existing emissions would produce over 5 million skin cancer deaths by 2165, together with over 25 million cataract cases figures that Cases of skin cancer avoided Cases of skin cancer deaths avoided Monetized health benefits (nonfatal skin cancers and

The threat to the ozone layer

One of the most important functions of the atmosphere is to provide the surface of the earth with protection from solar radiation. This may seem contradictory at first sight, since solar radiation provides the energy which allows the entire earth atmosphere system to function. As with most essentials, however, there are optimum levels beyond which a normally beneficial input becomes harmful. This is particularly so with the radiation at the ultraviolet end of the spectrum (see Table 6.1). At normal levels, for example, it is an important germicide, and is essential for the synthesis of Vitamin D in humans. At elevated levels it can cause skin cancer, and produce changes in the genetic make-up of organisms. In addition, since ultraviolet radiation is an integral part of the earth's energy budget, changes in ultraviolet levels have the potential to contribute to climatic change.

Youthfulness and health

In addition to imagery centring on portrayals of youthful female bodies, the ads frequently refer, explicitly or implicitly, to the risk of 'premature ageing'. In this context, youth and health are deemed equivalent. The word 'damage' could in principle refer to either health risk (melanoma) or spoilt appearance and ageing effects. But wrinkles and ageing are referred to explicitly in these texts, while cancer melanoma never is. 'Damage' in its aesthetic self-presentational aspect is therefore what is salient in the ads rejuvenates your skin .improving the overall condition of your skin minimise the damage a major cause of skin damage and premature wrinkles free radicals, the primary cause of skin ageing more crow's feet .more liver spots, more thinning skin and more premature ageing.

Ozone and ultraviolet effects

As well as worries about the addition of CO2 to the atmosphere, scientists are also concerned about the depletion of another gas, ozone. Ozone in the stratosphere absorbs much of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. This is important because ultraviolet-B (UV-B) is harmful to most life forms. It is the UV-B rays from the sun that cause sunburn and skin cancer in humans and UV light is used to kill bacteria in sewage treatment plants.

Ozone Layer Depletion

The ozone present in the stratosphere, at altitudes between 12 and 25 km, plays a natural equilibrium-maintaining role for the earth through absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation (240-320 nm) and absorption of infrared radiation (Dincer, 1998). A global environmental problem is the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, which is caused by the emissions of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons (chlorinated and brominated organic compounds), and NOx. Ozone depletion can lead to increased levels of damaging UV radiation reaching the ground, causing increased rates of skin cancer and eye damage to humans, and is harmful to many biological species. It should be noted that energy-related activities are only partially (directly or indirectly) responsible for the emissions that lead to stratospheric ozone depletion. The most significant role in ozone depletion is played by the CFCs, which are mainly used in air conditioning and refrigerating equipment as refrigerants, and NOx emissions,...

Ultraviolet Radiation

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation that lies between visible light and x rays in its energy and wavelength. It is a component of the radiation that reaches the Earth from the sun. The broad UV band, having wavelengths between 190 nanometers (nm) and 400 nm, is conventionally divided into three parts UV-A or near-UV (315 to 400 nm), UV-B or mid-UV (280 to 315 nm), and UV-C or far-UV (190 to 280 nm). Much of the incident solar UV radiation is absorbed by gases in the earth's atmosphere and never reaches the earth's surface. This is fortunate, because UV radiation can chemically alter important biological molecules, including proteins and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and thereby cause damage to living systems. The most familiar effect on humans is sunburn, which is the manifestation of UV's damage to outer skin cells. Long-term effects of excessive UV exposure include skin cancer, eye damage (cataracts), and suppression of the immune system.

Surface Warming Stratospheric Cooling And Ozone Depletion

The energetic nature of UV-B radiation can break the bonds of DNA molecules. While plants and animals are generally able to repair damaged DNA, on occasion damaged DNA molecules can continue to replicate, leading to dangerous forms of skin cancer in humans. The probability that DNA can be damaged by ultraviolet radiation varies with wavelength, shorter wavelengths being the most dangerous.

Cancer Of The Skin

Ozone depletion has already resulted in an enormous increase in the incidence of skin cancer in the Southern Hemisphere. In Queensland, Australia, where the most damaging UV-B radiation is highest, three out of every four people can expect to get some form of skin cancer during their lives. With the rapidly thinning ozone layer over the Northern Hemisphere, ozone depletion is expected to account for a 10-20 per cent increase in skin cancer in the Pacific Northwest in the next few decades. In the USA in 1935 the chances of developing the most serious form of skin cancer (malignant melanoma) was 1 in 1500. In 2000 it is now 1 in 75 So do people sitting beside large areas of glass or even under glass roofs in buildings have an increased risk of developing skin cancer The situation here is as follows. There are two different types of wavelength that have been identified as causal in the development of skin cancer. These are UV-A and UV-B. UV-B is ten times stronger than UV-A as a cancer...

Male D female

Malignant and usually fatal (Dotto and Schiff 1978). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) forecasts that 39 million more people than normal could contract skin cancer within the next century, leading to more than 800,000 additional deaths (Chase 1988). Levels of skin cancer are currently rising among the white-skinned peoples of the world, but there is no direct evidence that the rise is linked to thinning ozone. Rather, it may be caused by lifestyle factors, such as the popularity of seaside holidays in sunny locations and fashion trends which encourage a 'healthy' tan. In Scotland, between 1979 and 1989, there was an 82 per cent increase in the occurrence of melanomas (Mackie et al. 1992) (see Figure 6.7), and similar values apply across most of northern Europe, an area not renowned for abundant sunshine and not particularly affected by thinning ozone until relatively recently. Rising skin cancer totals there may reflect the impact of exposure to higher levels of ultraviolet...

Adult brain tumors

Treatment for brain tumors in adults is similar to that in children. The three major treatment approaches of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are used to prolong survival. Benign tumors in adults (menin-giomas) are treated with surgery if the tumor is in an accessible site. In some cases, meningiomas are found in the course of work-ups for other issues and, if not associated with symptoms, these may not require intervention beyond periodic surveillance. Radiotherapy is used when resection is not feasible. Most brain tumors in adults are metatastatic, occurring ten times more often than primary brain tumors. These tumors occur primarily in the context of lung and breast cancer and melanoma. Patients are treated with surgery and often whole brain radiation in addition 86 . A substantial proportion of these tumors are not surgically resectable 6 . Overall survival is poor, with life expectancy of 1 year or less 86, 87 . Survival rates for primary neuroepithelial tumors in adults vary...

How Does It Happen

The thinner the ozone layer, the more UV radiation you receive and the greater your likelihood of skin cancer. For each 1 percent loss of ozone molecules, skin cancer is expected to increase about 4 percent. If you lived near the South Pole, the heart of the ozone hole (where ozone concentrations have decreased 75 percent, from 350 Dobson units to 90), your skin-cancer risk would increase by 300 percent. The effect on the millions of resident penguins is unknown. Their numbers have already been seriously depleted by global warming and the resulting loss of pack ice, as well as by a decrease in their food supply plankton and krill. Americans make about 25 million visits per year to tanning salons. Between 1 and 2 million Americans have a serious tanning habit, paying good money to cook in tanning salons as many as 100 times a year. These commercial tanning parlors are bad news. The object in these widely popular establishments is to produce a tanned skin in a short time. Hence, these...

Risks to People

Exposure to UV leads to either suntan or sunburn, and to skin cancer. UV-A creates The most serious outcome of undue exposure to UV is skin cancer, an abnormal, cumulative and irreversible growth of cells of the skin. The incidence of skin cancer is three times as much at Cloncurry as at Brisbane, 7 degrees further south, though the amount of UV is only 30 per cent more. About 1 per cent of Australia's population acquires skin cancers each year, including over 7,000 people with melanomas, a type which can become lethal. There has been a worldwide increase of skin cancers, e.g. an 82 per cent increase in Scotland between 1979-1989. The rise is chiefly due to the popularity of suntanning. The problem will worsen if the annual hole in the ozone layer over the poles (Section 1.4) continues to extend towards more inhabited latitudes, and it is unfortunate that the ozone hole occurs in a season of relatively high radiation intensities in the southern hemisphere. Harmful UV is increased by...


In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, physicians and scientists showed associations between human cancer and certain occupational exposures (such as soot for chimney sweeps). In the twentieth century many chemicals were discovered to have carcinogenic activity. We also know that radiation is a carcinogen. Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb attacks, uranium miners, people who painted watch faces using radium-containing paint (and who were in the habit of wetting their radioactive brushes with their mouths), women who received radiation as a treatment for breast disease such as mastitis, and children irradiated to treat them for ringworm all had increased levels of cancer. Even the ultraviolet radiation of sunlight causes skin cancer.

Ozone Depletion

The idea that CFCs posed a threat to the ozone layer was initially suggested in a stunning academic paper in 1974, written by Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina.5 According to their analysis, CFC molecules migrate slowly to the upper atmosphere, where ultraviolet radiation causes them to release chlorine atoms. These atoms could endanger the ozone layer, which protects the earth from sunlight. The potential consequences for human health were clear, for Rowland and Molina wrote only two years after the loss of ozone had been linked with skin cancer.6 In 1971, it was prominently suggested that a 1 percent ozone loss would cause an additional 7,000 cases of skin cancer each year.7 If Rowland and Molina were right, CFC emissions would create serious health risks. Why did so many consumers respond There are three answers. The first is that skin cancer is easy to envision, and an easily envisioned harm is especially likely to affect behavior. Second, people could easily imagine that a...

The Ozone Hole

In 1985, a group of British scientists, using ground-based techniques, discovered extraordinary and unexpected ozone depletion over Antarctica. There had been theories propounded about the impacts of commonly used chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) on ozone depletion in the stratosphere. Such depletion could lead to skin cancer and other effects. Yet, there lacked convincing evidence of human impacts on depletion, as well as a sense of urgency. Antarctica provided the urgency. NASA followed up the British Antarctic findings with alarming satellite images that confirmed what quickly became known as the ozone hole. Environmentalists, media, and politicians throughout the world demanded action. With NASA largely funding the enterprise and NOAA a leading partner, an interagency, international expedition went to Antarctica. It determined that the likely cause was indeed man-made chemicals rather than some natural change. In 1987, the Montreal Protocol was concluded, with NASA and...

Tradeoff Analyses

A specific illustration of a trade-off involving an environmental concern is that of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Discussions of the problem of stratospheric ozone depletion often emphasize the role of UV radiation in causing skin cancer as a compelling reason to maintain the ozone layer. However, others have pointed out that UV radiation has certain beneficial effects, its carcinogenic properties notwithstanding it plays a critical role in the synthesis of vitamin D, an inadequate supply of which can result in brittle bones or, in extreme cases, rickets. Moreover, Ray and Guzzo (1994) argued that if an equally inexpensive and effective replacement for freon as a refrigerant is not devel