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An Enlightenment Scale Opportunity

There's another way to look at climate change As an opportunity on the scale of the Enlightenment or the Renaissance, a rare chance to radically change the face of society When Europe emerged from the Dark Ages, it moved from a period of irrational superstition mythology, not reason, ruled people's lives and fear, not optimism, was the operating principle of the day into an age of reason and rationality. The movement was traumatic, but ultimately it improved every aspect of people's lives, from medicine to law, science to government. Like the Enlightenment, tackling climate change will require a century-long and revolutionary mobilization of society's intellectual resources, finances, mores, vision, government, and technology. We have scouted this climate problem to death. Yes, we are frightened by the immensity of the undertaking. But this is the opportunity of a lifetime, maybe of a species. Like the leaders of the Enlightenment, who viewed themselves as courageous, able, and...

Putting the Sizzle in the Solar Steak

When asked what his secret sauce is, he laughs, because he wishes there were just one. What he and his original team of thirty scientists found was that multiple improvements were necessary. They had to find a way to locate the ugly metal electrodes only on the bottom of the cell they had to change the refraction characteristics so that light not absorbed by the panel got reflected and could be absorbed somewhere else they had to figure out how to roughen the surface of the cell to increase absorption. He calls this process total internal absorption, which sounds like a type of Zen meditation but is the prescription for wringing the most out of every photon of light and, not coincidentally, for building the fastest-growing tech company in America. The firm produces one hundred megawatts of power a year, with 680 million

From metatheory to metanarrative

Power relations between the author and the object of inquiry. For Geertz, anthropologists established their authority to speak for others by writing in a monological mode, as if they were but conduits of truth about the world. And finally, Jean-Francois Lyotard's The Postmodern Condition (1984) helped once again to open the door to continental European thought. Lyotard argued that since the Enlightenment, Western academics had supposed that reality (social and environmental) could be understood through one or other intellectual framework. For him, these master frameworks threatened to squeeze out more modest, more local petits r cits (or small stories about the world).

The Third Power and the Question of the State

If we are to agree to give up the conveniences of modernism and the hope of salvation through Science, if we are finally to secularize public life by entrusting it to the little transcendence of collective experimenting, if we are to charge history with giving us tiny measured doses of the enlightenment that nature can no longer provide, we need a guarantee that can serve as a provisional absolute. This is what I call the power to follow up*, a procedural power that must not be confused with the power to take into account* and the power to put in order*. We might call it the power to govern, if everyone agreed to use this expression to designate the relinquishment of all mastery. The art of governing is not the necessary arbitration of reason or the necessary arbitrariness of sovereignty it is that to which one is obliged to have recourse when one can no longer benefit from any shortcut. When we have to compose the common world little by little, going from one trial to another along...

No Possible Change within the Conventional Energy System

The impact that the existing atomic fossil energy system has had on shaping society is particularly apparent in the world's two antithetical socio-cultural poles the big cities of the industrialized societies on the one hand, and the rural areas of the Third World on the other. It was the fossil energy system which developed with the industrial revolution that paved the way for the growing megacities of the industrial modern age. Now that fossil energies are nearing exhaustion, the megacities are threatened with collapse, taking with them the cultural forms of civil society which have developed since the beginning of the modern era in the wake of enlightenment and secularization, the industrial society and democratization.

California Native Peoples and the Advent of Europeans

A number of rationales existed for the settlement of California and the American West. America's Manifest Destiny, proclaimed journalist John L. O'Sullivan, was for Anglo-Saxon America to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence had given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty. 2 Senator Thomas Hart Benton argued that the white race should expand its civilization to the West Coast and take over land occupied by the red race. Other rationales included the concept of American Progress, depicted in an 1872 painting of that name by John Gast. Imbedded within the painting of settlers moving west is the ideal of transforming wild nature and wild Indians into civilization. The painting represented an Enlightenment narrative of progress, the idea of bringing light to a dark land.

Positive or negative teleologies utopianism and apocalypticism

Belief that historical trends are inevitably leading to a wonderful millennial outcome (Manuel and Manuel, 1979), including the Enlightenment narrative of inevitable human progress (Nash, 2000 Tuveson, 1949). By apocalypticism I do not mean simply the belief that something very bad may happen, since very bad events are simply a prelude to very good events for most millennialists, but that the bad event will be cataclysmic, or even the end of history.

Preempting the s Hangover

Rodgers argues that environmentalism should be a science in which the collection of data and analysis of it dominates decision making. At this time, especially in government and university circles, I see environmentalism literally as a secular religion in which a set of beliefs that are not required to be supported by fact are used to tout the intellectual and moral superiority of a cult. . . . The ultimate state of enlightenment of members of the Church of the Holy Environment is to internalize that humans are evil and bad and that they only pollute and destroy things that are good, namely the environment. 3

Dichotomies of thought

The division that afflicts the contemporary world of environmental knowledge reflects, or reproduces, a number of long-standing divisions that have characterized modern science at least since the seventeenth century. Thomas Kuhn once identified an essential tension in modern science between a mathematical and an experimental tradition, each upholding a very different idea of what science was all about and how a scientist went about obtaining truth (Kuhn 1978). Others, like Habermas in our day, have referred to a division of science into instrumental, or positivist, varieties on the one hand, and communicative, or hermeneutic, varieties on the other, what Max Horkheimer and Teodor Adorno in the 1940s called the dialectic of enlightenment (Adorno and Horkheimer 1944 1972). Where the positivist tends to seek a specialized knowledge, often based on a thorough investigation of a delimited area of reality, the hermeneutic scientist seeks a general, or critical, understanding of a wide range...

Politics And Sustainable Development

Computer models were crude, but they will subscribe to the report's conclusion that the days of uncontrolled growth are numbered' (Dobson, 1991). Green ideology also questions the current dominant paradigm with its foundation in The Enlightenment, science, technology and the objective of rational analysis (Capra, 1985). The Green's world view removes man from centre stage

The agricultural sector in transition

Embraced animal traction, had made huge strides since 1994 to shift to organic techniques. There were also differences in the regimes for different crops non-prioritized crops such as maize had remained low-input, whereas crops such as banana had modified from high chemical input to a relatively more organically oriented production regime. Thus, although the agricultural sector as a whole was in the phase of input substitution, many individuals and groups had nevertheless undergone huge transformations from their starting points at the beginning of the decade. Others had not. In the transition process, workers in the sector noted two points where a shift in attitude was required the first shift came in the letting go of agrochemicals in favour of organic inputs, and the second was required in order to accept that even organic substitutes were unnecessary and to make way for more benign management approaches.

Keep a spending journal For a month write down everything you

Buy the item, where you bought it and when, and how much it cost. At the month's end, review the list to learn about how you shop. For example, do you indulge in retail therapy when you have a bad day Try meditating, doing yoga, taking a walk instead anything that doesn't cost money. Or maybe you're an impulse buyer who goes into a store for one item and comes out with a bag full of stuff. If so, try writing down what you need before you leave the house, and then stick to that list when you're in the store.

Preface and acknowledgments

This book has had a very long gestation. The senior author (R.U.A.) has spent much of his time during the last 40 years or more - amidst numerous distractions - trying to understand the fundamental relationship between technology and economics. Some of that history is recapitulated in the book. However, the author's learning experience during a year at Resources for the Future, Inc. (RFF) during 1967-8 was crucial. In particular, it was a line of research initiated by Allen V. Kneese at RFF that has led us finally to this point. It was during that period that the senior author began to see that the economy is truly a physical system that converts raw materials into goods and services, subject to the laws of thermodynamics. It has taken most of the rest of the time since 1968 to understand how and why our conceptualization is inconsistent with standard neoclassical economic theory. Enlightenment has been very slow in coming, and even now it would be foolish to claim 'Eureka ' But since...

Educating and Engaging the Public Local Agenda and Community Based Initiatives

The local Agenda 21 initiatives have placed a great importance on community participation, and local governments have utilized a wide variety of process, participation, and visioning tools along the way. Gloucestershire's (United Kingdom) LA21 has used a creative visioning process called the Time Machine. Described as a guided meditation, a trained facilitator takes groups of eight to ten people through this process of imaging the future of their community. The intrepid time travelers are asked to close their eyes and imagine themselves in the utopian Gloucestershire of 2030. The groups then look at the aspects of future life (health, political systems, landscapes, etc.) that they (would like to) see. After being returned to the present, participants reflect on their experiences individually and then discuss what would be contained in their group vision (Forum for the Future, 1998).

Conclusion Green Politics

The question is Where will these changes in values and practices at the cultural level come from My view is that they will be produced, if at all, at the promptings of the radical critique advanced by ecologism itself. Radical ecology's role for the twenty-first century is as a condition for the possibility of its reformist cousin. Without radical ecology, the convergence thesis advanced by Norton, the 'ecologising of the Enlightenment' proposed by Hayward (1995), and the cultivation of 'ecological virtue' suggested by John Barry (1999, pp. 31-5), would be literally unthinkable. Barry criticizes 'binary' accounts of green politics such as the one given in this book (environmentalism 'versus' ecolo-gism) on the grounds that they are 'a hindrance to the future evolution of green politics' (J. Barry, 1999, p. 4). But he produces a few binary oppositions of his own, such as that between green ideology and green political theory (the latter is regarded as more 'mature' (ibid., p. 6)), and...

The Basis and Basics of Freuds Theory

Freud helped formulate our modernist worldview, ushered in by the Enlightenment, a worldview that assumes both the environment and human behavior are determined by material, physical events. In the latter half of the 19th century, Europe's increasingly materialist culture was supported by an industrial revolution in full gear. Freud learned from his brilliant and world-famous mentors, Ernst Brucke and Hermann Helmholtz, that mental life is the result of activity of the central nervous system, and that all psychological events should be Freud was caught up in the new openness and vitality of enlightenment thinking, but he also worked in a sexually repressive society that forbade his patients, mostly women, opportunities for expressing their sexual desires. Impressed by the bizarre symptoms that he treated in his patients, Freud came to believe that psychological functioning is a creative outcome of the interplay between physical, instinctually based drives and the social, cultural, and...

The scientific revolution as a cultural process

The new institutions of modern science did not go unchallenged, however. Experimental philosophy was opposed both by the upholders of traditional, religious knowledge and by the marginalized radicals and their descendants (Russell 1983 136ff). In the later seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries the scientific aristocracy that had emerged in London and Paris at the Royal Society and the Academie des Sciences was challenged by dissenting groups and representatives of the emerging middle classes. The Enlightenment also embodied a kind of social movement, or broader-based cluster of social activity. Many of the radical dissenters fled from Europe to the colonies in North America, and some of those who stayed behind established scientific societies, often in provincial areas in opposition to the established science of the capital cities. Many of the participants in the radical enlightenment shared with the academicians and their royal patrons a belief in what Max Weber termed the...

Turning The Tide An Introduction

Stares of cuttlefish and swim with graceful eagle rays. I meditate on the sound of my breath and the bubbles I leave, and become aware of a school of big tarpon fish cruising by, their beautiful scales gleaming in the sunlight. I have come to know barracudas as individuals, guarding their territories merely by glaring at me.

The Idea of Wilderness

The concept of wilderness is one of the most complex ideas in environmental and human history. As environmental historian Roderick Nash pointed out in Wilderness and the American Mind (1967), the word wilderness comes from old English and Germanic words, wildern and wildeor. Nash notes, The root seems to have been 'will' with a descriptive meaning of self-willed, willful, or uncontrollable. From 'willed' came the adjective 'wild' used to convey the idea of being lost, unruly, disordered, or confused. 6 To many people living in medieval Europe, the ancient forests contained dense trees and underbrush, deep shadows, and frightening beasts. The word was likewise associated with barrenness and the desert. In the Bible, the book of Deuteronomy is called In the Wilderness, and many of the connotations of wilderness come from the desert lands in which the Israelites sought enlightenment and in which they wandered for forty years. Wilderness, therefore, means not only a dense forest, but also...

Real Growth Promoting the Well Being of People and Nature

Darrin McMahon, in his wonderful book Happiness A History, traces these questions down through the centuries. McMahon finds the origins of the right to happiness in the Enlightenment. The Enlightenment, he writes, sought to create space of happiness on earth. To dance, to sing, to enjoy our food, to revel in our bodies and the company of The 'pursuit of happiness,' McMahon writes, was launched in different, and potentially conflicting, directions from the start, with private pleasure and public welfare coexisting in the same phrase. For Jefferson, so quintessentially in this respect a man of the Enlightenment, the coexistence was not a problem. But Jefferson's formula almost immediately lost its double meaning, in practice, McMahon notes, and the right of citizens to pursue their personal interests and joy won out. This victory was confirmed by waves of immigrants to America's shores, for whom America was truly the land of opportunity. To pursue happiness in such a land was quite...

Environmentalism As Moral Crusade

Cism which still runs through much environmentalism. There is a yearning for a past golden (pre-Enlightenment) age, or even the Garden of Eden, when people lived in a more harmonious relationship with nature, ignoring the point that life for most people was, compared with today, nasty, brutish and short. Environmentalism is often described as a new social movement like the social movements of the past, it emerged in a period of rapid social change (as during the Industrial Revolution). It reflects a yearning for stability, including the certitude of moral rectitude. It involves a radical politics, which (as Theodore Lowi, 1987, has put it) concerns itself with things which are 'wrong in themselves' rather than 'harmful in their consequences', which is the basis of the mainstream politics of post-Enlightenment liberalism within which most mainstream political parties and interest groups operate. In liberalism, the concern is with the minimization of inevitable harm in radical politics,...

Brief Future Global Energy

Plant requires eight years of planning, designing, testing, and safety analyses, before it produces the first kilowatt. We cannot afford the luxury of meditation until catastrophy hits. But if history repeats itself, we probably will suffer great losses first before action is taken.

Notes on Contributors

Jan Golinski is professor of History and Humanities at the University of New Hampshire. He is the author of Science as Public Culture Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain, 1760-1820 (Cambridge 1992) and of Making Natural Knowledge Constructivism and the History of Science (Cambridge 1998) and co-editor of The Sciences in Enlightened Europe (Chicago 1999).

Historical specificity

The third view - that ecologism has its roots in the nineteenth century - is probably the most widely accepted (see e.g. Heywood, 1992 Macridis, 1992 Vincent, 1992), and is often based on a reading of Anna Bramwell's seminal Ecology in the 20th Century (1989). Among the similarities between nineteenth-century thinking (some of it, anyway) and contemporary ecologism, Vincent notes 'a critical reaction to the European Enlightenment tradition . . . E cologism looks sceptically at the supreme value of reason', a denial of 'the central place of human beings and the belief that nature is without value and can simply be manipulated by humans', and finally the impact which Malthus and Darwin made for the integration of a 'strongly materialist and scientific perspective with an immanent and naturalistic understanding of religion and morality' (Vincent, 1992, pp. 211-12). The final important consequence of historicizing the ideology is that it enables us to emphasize the novelty of its...

Nature and Ambivalence About the Market Economy

Rational, harmonious whole rather than a tumultuous wilderness. Arriving on a slave ship at age eighteen and studying ancient literature and Latin at the behest of her impressed mistress, she mastered the fashionable classical allusions and tropes that were conventions of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment the nine muses including Calliope, muse of poetry Aurora, goddess of the dawn the sun as illustrious king of the day and the gentle zephyr, or wind. In An Hymn to the Morning and An Hymn to the Evening (1773), she evoked the beauty of nature, the transitory quality of life, and the power of God's action in the natural world. Presaging the more romantic nature poetry of Philip Freneau and William Cullen Bryant, Wheatley became the country's first published black poet.

Types of millennialism

Premillennialists are generally fatalists who do not believe human beings can influence the timing or outcome of the Tribulations, Rapture, and Second Coming (Wojcik, 1997). The best the believer can do is to save as many souls as possible before the end. A very similar doctrine can be found among certain Mahayana Buddhists who held that, after the passing of each Buddha, the world gradually falls into the age of mappo or the degeneracy of the Buddhist teachings. In the degenerate age enlightenment is nearly impossible, and the best that we can hope for is the intercession of previously enlightened, and now divine, beings to bring us to a Pure Land (Blum, 2002). The Japanese monk Nichiren Daishonin (1222-1282) founded one of the most successful schools of Japanese Buddhism using the idea of mappo as the rationale for his new dispensation. For Nichiren Buddhists, Japan will play a millennial role in the future as the basis for the conversion of the entire world to the Buddhist path...

Inhofe Correct on Global Warming by David Deming

Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe has been taking a lot of heat lately for his skeptical stance on global warming. He's been called a social dinosaur for his failure to accept the politically correct view. But in my opinion, Sen. Inhofe is absolutely correct to be skeptical. As the Enlightenment philosopher Denis Diderot said, skepticism is the first step towards truth.


Each human generation believes that it is endowed with special importance, that it faced a particularly important challenge (for example, the greatest generation and World War II), that it has a special quality or character (for example, the baby boomers), or that it lived at a particularly important time (for example, the age of enlightenment). The term for this is chronocentrism. Although each generation earnestly believes in its own significance, there is objective evidence that those of us alive today actually are witnessing the most important time in human history. We truly stand at a crossroads.

Fight or Flight

Richard Rosan, president of the Urban Land Institute, recognized the city-terrorism problem early on. With this cloud of uncertainty hanging over America, there is a pressing need to make sure that the benefits of urban living continue to outweigh the disadvantages, he said a few weeks after the attacks. The desire of people to be together is evident by the way they flock to cities seeking employment, entertainment, and enlightenment. They want to work and live in places that are vibrant and safe, not just tolerable. Terrorism might be the last straw for some, Rosan argued, but the focus should remain on the basic building blocks for cities, like schools and infrastructure. In the long run people will leave if they are fed up with inadequate transit systems, inefficient planning, and a low quality of life.

John Tulloch

There are, in fact, some grounds of agreement between theorists of postmodernism and of 'risk society' most notably in their critique of the 'grand narratives' of the Enlightenment tradition (such as science and Marxism). Like Baudrillard and other postmodernists, Beck argues for a global society in which we are increasingly free from controlling and normative expectations, whether those of class or of modern institutions. For both Baudrillard (1984) and Beck (1992a, 1996a), the condition of the individual in this situation of fragmentation is 'schizophrenic'. Baudrillard speaks of everything becoming 'undecidable' and Beck emphasises the 'incalculability' of risk among all sectors of society.

Back to the garden

Perhaps the most important effect that environmentalism has had over the past thirty years is to help people worldwide to rediscover their relationship with the earth. Environmental movements, or the emerging ecological culture, have contributed to a project of global public cultivation, or enlightenment, by which millions of people have learned each in their own way why the survival of our natural surroundings is important for the human species. The land ethic was what Aldo Leopold called it back in the 1940s, and it has, of course, taken many forms in the years since, some of which are community-based (e.g. collective gardens), some of which are professional (e.g. organic agriculture), some of which are militant (e.g. occupying virgin forests) and some of which, or most of which, are personal. Perhaps it is in this personal dimension that

Theory and Context

There are many theories across the social sciences that offer conceptualizations of society. Marxists theories view social relations as the product of material conditions and thus emphasize class. Feminist theorists focus on the fundamentally patriarchal nature of societies and have criticized Marxists for not giving equal weight to gender (Massey, 1991). Despite substantive differences in content, theorists in this social theory tradition share a common goal in the development of a general theory of society. The impetus for generalization harks back to the claimed scientific status of classical Marxism, and the search for such 'grand theory' has been identified with the modernist project of the Enlightenment (Barnes and Gregory, 1997). It is also a goal that has been challenged by those who doubt the capacity of any single theoretical framework to represent the (social) world.

Vastu Shastra

Similar to Feng Shui, a design philosophy and approach known as Vastu Shastra is based on teachings of the ancient scriptures of India. Introduced into the US by the American practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (TM), Vastu Shastra aims to harmonize people, buildings and land. While individual homes have been built using these ancient principles, the largest commercial expression of this approach to creating healthy work and living environments is an office building in Rockville, Maryland, expected to open for business in 2007. Vastu Shastra is also concerned with proportion, a key to successful design in nature. Proportion is a key principle in architecture, and nature often mimics the same proportions at different scales, an approach characterized by fractal geometry. As you might suspect in a healthy building, Vastu Shastra also has a focus on using natural and non-toxic materials, filling rooms with daylight and fresh air and using the sun's power for on-site energy...

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Emerson is a 'romantic', provided one correctly understands this now somewhat outmoded term. The reference is not to a suitor overly swayed by love, but to a philosophical movement, Romanticism, that reacted to an Enlightenment overemphasis on rationalism, objectivity, Cartesian dualism, and hard science, mind versus matter, the new science that was bringing increased competence at exploiting the world, and at the same time decreased confidence about the place of humans in the scheme of things. Emerson was wondering already about the negative results. Provocatively we might say that Emerson is already a 'postmodernist', or at least that he is uncomfortable with the increasingly assertive urban, urbane 'modernism' secularizing Boston life and at once civilizing it and alienating it from the New England landscape. At first yes, but ultimately no. A better perspective sees a creative discontent in which nature satisfies, but never quite fully. She is ever 'inaccessible', always remaining...

William Wordsworth

Wordsworth's external and internal 'natures', while literally as old as the hills (and the Lakes of his native District), were startlingly new and paradoxical ones too. His reinvention of ancient nature worship or pantheism, for example, was both a challenge to and easily reconcilable with Christian humanism, Enlightenment individualism, the heady power and energy of the industrial age, and rural Toryism. the spirit indwells in the mutually constituting relationship between nature and human beings not in the trees themselves. This is a view that while finding some sympathy in Enlightenment sensibility anticipates twentieth-century phenomenology, the philosophy of experience.

Calculating Chaos

More than that, the day was not far off when weather not only would be forecast to perfection, but its rains and winds would be tamed. Like the bounties of land and sea, the unruly products of the sky would be intelligently redesigned to the purposes of enlightened humanity. The dangers of fogs and hails would be relics of the past. Man-made showers would prevent droughts. Man-made droughts would prevent floods. Hurricanes would be suppressed or steered harmlessly out to sea. Barring enlightenment, John von Neumann's ambition was gaining new currency weather control would become a weapon of war.


The intellectual history of the past two hundred years is littered with thinkers who have questioned the idea of progress as understood by modernity, but ecologism's reluctance to endorse modernity's notion of progress is not based on 'some view of the cyclic growth and degeneration of civilizations', nor on 'objections based on a philosophical and epistemological opposition to the notion of a scientific history' (as in rejections of the Marxist notion of progress), but on a 'particular vision of man's relationship to the physical and biological world what could be called the ecological viewpoint ' (Wells, 1982, p. 3). This viewpoint is animated by the fundamentally conservative thought that 'the basic political question - what should be done - depends on an account of what can be done' (ibid., p. 15). Conservatives generally oppose the Enlightenment view that humans can control their environment, and while political ecologists obviously have to believe that a modicum of control is...

John Muir

Recovering his vision, Muir determined to have a three-year-long 'sabbatical' to store, he wrote, 'a stock of wild beauty sufficient to lighten and brighten my after life in the shadow'.8 Muir's own Sierran baptism and mountain enlightenment climaxed this long search for self-understanding an odyssey of spiritual and intellectual searching that took place largely out of doors across the North American continent.


Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and a few others where post-Enlightenment scientific materialism has taken hold as the dominant way of seeing the world. In these generally democratic countries, the economy functions more or less according to the laws of supply and demand if people buy a lot of some good or service, then private businesses organize to produce as much of that good as they can and still make a profit (keeping in mind that at least some of the demand may be stimulated by advertising in the first place). People spend their money as they see fit with little interference by governments. As a result, the economy produces what is wanted by citizens who have the money to pay rather than what might be needed by impoverished members of society who cannot vote in the marketplace. In the end, the citizens of free-market countries have access to the most prodigious outpouring of manufactured goods and consumer services, both necessary and trivial, ever made...


At this point the wider green movement is likely to lose its bioregional nerve. Its members will want to subscribe to Sale's declaration that 'Bioregionalism . . . not merely tolerates but thrives upon the diversities of human behaviour' (ibid., p. 234) but, as images of slavery and sexism come to mind, misty eyes will snap into focus and greens will remember that they are as much the heirs of the Enlightenment tradition as its committed critics. They most certainly believe that 'their model of postindustrialism will maximise democracy, freedom, tolerance, equality and other rationalist values which made their appearance in Europe a few hundred years ago' (Frankel, 1987, p. 180), and in this


The CAT's respectability, it is suggested, makes it a likely source of inspiration in that it is recognizably similar to 'our' society they have telephones and a restaurant, they care about being warm, and they are surrounded by technology, some of it makeshift but some of it extremely complex (if 'alternative'). The members' daily lives do not appear to revolve around long periods of meditation, shamanistic rituals or talking to lettuces, and so the day visitor is less likely to dismiss the community as irrelevant to her or his own experience. I am sure this is true, but one is still confronted with the distinction between environmental and fully green change. The CAT's success will lie in raising an environmental consciousness rather than in providing a 'liberated zone' (in Rudolf Bahro's evocative phrase) of sustainable living, and this is the distinction Harper was pointing to in describing the Centre as a 'successful institution' rather than a 'community'. Most community...

Mind Body Therapy

With this underpinning, its practices believed to affect health include relaxation, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, yoga, reiki, visual imagery, tai chi, qigong, group support, spirituality, and prayer. Curiously enough, mind-body therapeutics views illness as an opportunity for personal growth and transformation, and its practitioners as facilitators and guides in the process. Research issues raised here questions whether emotions influence susceptibility to and severity of infectious disease, as well as rapidity of wound healing questions that remain to be answered.

Charles Darwin

Darwin's impact upon environmental thinking and practice has been profound but also ambiguous. For some writers, both followers and critics, the theory of natural selection continued the Enlightenment process of the 'disenchantment' of nature, with the effect that notions like 'respect' for nature as the Book of God or as a purposeful organism could be dismissed as merely 'romantic'. Among so-called 'Social Darwinists',

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