Areas of mud flat are also formed subtidally, beneath expanses of calm shallow water where there is little movement beyond the rise and fall of the tide. In these shallows, cooling and warming of the water produce wider changes of temperature than occur in river or sea. The lowest temperatures frequently coincide with the lowest salinities because in winter the outflow of fresh water may be greatly increased by rainfall or the rapid melting of snow. In summer, high temperatures and high salinities exist together when drought periods reduce the amount of fresh water at the same time as sunshine is heating and evaporating the water. Where industrial plant is sited near a river mouth, cooling installations may pour out quantities of warm water, so that the temperature of the estuary becomes continuously raised.
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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.