Topics for further study and class discussion or written work

1 Describe in outline the main ocean currents, at the surface and below. How are they set in motion and what factors influence their courses? In what ways is this knowledge of interest to biologists?

2 In general terms describe the overall conditions of life in the marine environment. Giving your reasons, what do you consider to be the major subdivisions of the environment? In what respects do biological conditions in the sea differ from those of freshwater environments?

3 What are the chief processes which bring about vertical water mixing in the seas? Where and when do they occur? Discuss the various effects of vertical water mixing on marine organisms.

4 Discuss the problems involved in measuring the physical and chemical characteristics of the oceans, and indicate why these data are important to biologists.

5 What do you understand by the term 'biomass' and how can this quantity be expressed? Review the methods and difficulties of quantitative sampling of marine plankton, nekton and benthos. Discuss the relevance of biomass estimates in the study of marine ecosystems.

6 Discuss the influence of temperature and salinity upon the distribution of marine species.

7 How do you account for vertical zonation in the sea? Discuss the phenomenon of diurnal vertical migrations, and the advantages and problems associated with this behaviour.

8 By what means do pelagic organisms keep afloat and adjust their depth? Review the mechanisms and problems of buoyancy control.

9 Describe the migrations of a named marine species, explaining how they were discovered. Discuss the ways in which pelagic animals may be able to navigate.

10 Review the adaptations of the abyssal fauna.

11 If you were the Creator designing a new species for the abyss, with what distinctive attributes would you endow it?

12 Discuss the factors influencing phytoplankton production. Review proposals for increasing the production of phytoplankton in the open sea and discuss their appropriateness.

13 Discuss the reasons why quantities of phytoplankton and zooplankton appear to be in inverse relationship.

14 How do you explain the patchy distribution of marine plankton?

15 Describe the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles of temperate seas and discuss the activities of bacteria in marine cycles.

16 Discuss the value of plankton studies as a means of investigating the movements of water.

17 Review the factors that bring about zonation of shore organisms. Discuss how intertidal zonation is established and maintained.

18 Discuss the effects of crowding on shore populations.

19 Review the causes of periodic changes in shore populations.

20 Give an account of marine wood-boring and rock-boring organisms, and discuss the problems they create for man.

21 All the discoverable specimens of Gibbula cineraria were collected within a quadrat of 3 m side at approximately MLWN level on a rocky shore. The maximum shell diameter of each specimen was measured to the nearest 0.5 mm, and the following data obtained:

Max. shell

No. of

Max. shell

No. of

diameter

specimens

diameter

specimens

<7.0 mm

0

13.5

2

7.0

1

14.0

5

7.5

3

14.5

9

8.0

5

15.0

11

8.5

2

15.5

6

9.0

2

16.0

4

9.5

9

16.5

7

10.0

5

17.0

4

10.5

1

17.5

4

11.0

0

18.0

2

11.5

0

18.5

0

12.0

1

19.0

2

12.5

4

19.5

1

13.0

0

>19.5

0

Discuss what inferences might be drawn from this information. What problems are posed, and what further investigations would you attempt?

22 Give outline accounts of the biology of any of the following, with special reference to their ecology: fucoids, littorinids, limpets, trochids, barnacles, Arenicola marina, Hediste diversicolor, Calanus finmarchicus, Euphausia superba, marine mammals of British coastal waters, whales.

23 Review the ecological conditions and populations of any of the following: rocky shores, intertidal sands, estuaries, the bottom at shallow depths, fast-flowing tidal channels, the English Channel, the North Sea.

24 Give an account of observations you have yourself made on any marine organism or group of organisms.

25 Discuss the role of pelagic larvae in the life cycles of benthic marine animals.

26 Give a general account of selective settlement by marine larvae.

27 Give an account of food webs in the sea.

28 In relation to the populations of the seashore or shallow sea bottom, discuss what meaning you attach to the term 'community'.

29 What do you understand by an 'ecosystem'? Discuss this concept in relation to (a) the surface layers of the open sea (b) the sea bottom at deep levels (c) the neritic province (d) the seashore.

30 Give an outline historical account of the development of oceanography and marine biology. What future advances in these fields of study do you foresee?

31 Give an account of camouflage by marine organisms.

32 Outline the chief methods of commercial fishing, explaining how these are related to the habits of the species sought.

33 Give an account of the biology of a named food fish of commercial importance, and indicate how this knowledge can be of value to the fishing industry.

34 Outline a programme of investigations to study the biology of a marine fish.

35 Discuss the problems of overfishing in north-east Atlantic waters, and outline a policy for the regulation of sea fisheries.

36 Give some account of methods of marine fish culture, and the associated problems.

37 Discuss proposals for obtaining more food from the sea.

38 How might past El NiƱo southern oscillation events have influenced the spread of species within the Pacific Ocean?

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How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

How To Have A Perfect Boating Experience

Lets start by identifying what exactly certain boats are. Sometimes the terminology can get lost on beginners, so well look at some of the most common boats and what theyre called. These boats are exactly what the name implies. They are meant to be used for fishing. Most fishing boats are powered by outboard motors, and many also have a trolling motor mounted on the bow. Bass boats can be made of aluminium or fibreglass.

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