Some laboratory exercises

A Salinity measurements by titration and conductimetry.

B pH measurements in seawater and determination of titration alkalinity.

C Estimation of a minor constituent; for example phosphate (Murphy and Riley, 1962).

D Elementary studies on barnacles, for example Semibalanus balanoides, B. perforatus, B. crenatus, Chthamalus stellatus, Elminius modestus.

Diagnostic characters. Measurement of rate of cirral activity over ranges of temperature, salinity and pH. Comparison of the activity ranges of different species in relation to distribution. Observation of the light reflex, and investigation of its sensitivity and fatigue.

E Elementary studies on bivalves, for example Mytilus, Cardium, Pecten, Tellina, Venerupis, Ensis, Mya.

Diagnostic characters. Comparison of structure of siphon, shell, mantle, ctenidium, palps and foot in relation to habitat and mode of life. Use of suspensions or cultures to investigate filtering rates, and pathways of feeding, selection and rejection. Measurement of food particle transport rates over ranges of temperature and salinity.

F Studies on Ligia.

Observation of melanophores. The rate of colour change associated with changes of illumination and background.

The effects on colour change of covering part or whole of eyes.

Study of the phototaxis, hydrotaxis and thigmotaxis of Ligia and statistical treatment of results.

Measurement of rate of water loss, and comparison with other shore forms, e.g. Gammarus, Idotea.

G Studies on Corophium (Barnes et al., 1969).

Observation of swimming and burrowing behaviour. Substrate selection. Light reactions. Cuticle permeability.

H Behaviour of Hydrobia or Littorina. Phototaxes and geotaxes. Substrate selection (Barnes, 1979; Barnes and Greenwood, 1978).

I Osmotic relationships.

Measurement of weight changes of various animals in relation to changes of salinity, for example Nereis diversicolor, N. pelagica, Perinereis cultrifera, Arenicola marina, Carcinus maenas.

Measurement of ionic concentrations in body fluids of Arenicola and Carcinus, and the changes consequent on changing salinity (Na, K and Ca by flame photometry, CI by titration). Freezing point of blood samples.

J Examination of named species of planktonic plants and animals for diagnostic features.

Examination of plankton samples from various sources, with special reference to seasonal and geographical differences.

Observations on live plankton - flotation, swimming and filtering activity, phototaxis, etc.

K Examination of representative collections of benthos from shallow bottoms, shores and estuaries with attention to adaptations, zonation, feeding relationships and community structure.

The use of shell measurement and size/frequency curves for population analysis and determination of mean growth rates.

L Examination of commercial fish species with reference to recognition features, adaptations, gut contents, parasites, scale and otolith markings. The growth rate curve from herring scale rings.

(In addition to the foregoing exercises, laboratory time is also required following field-work, for sorting collected material, measuring, counting, tabulating and graphically representing results.)

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