Marine Ecology Contents

Preface ix

1 The oceans 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Extent and depth of the oceans 2

1.3 Ocean currents 9

1.4 Biological features of the marine environment 19

1.5 Elementary classification of the marine environment 20

2 Marine plankton 25

2.1 Definitions 26

2.2 Marine phytoplankton 27

2.3 Marine zooplankton 38

2.4 Other topics 44

3 Measuring and sampling 46

3.1 Oceanographic data 46

3.2 Biological sampling 61

3.3 Underwater observations 80

4 The seawater habitat - physical and chemical conditions 96

4.1 Introduction 96

4.2 Temperature 97

4.3 The composition of seawater 109

4.4 Specific gravity and pressure 124

4.5 Viscosity 135

4.6 Illumination 137

4.7 Currents 156

5 Organic production in the sea 166

5.1 Primary production 166

5.2 Measurements of organic production 174

5.3 Some factors regulating production 178

5.4 Ocean seasons 193

5.5 Some mathematical models 202

5.6 Geographical differences of fertility 205

5.7 Turbidity currents 210

6 The sea bottom 213

6.1 The substrate 213

6.2 Benthic communities 220

6.3 Classification of communities 226

6.4 The food supply 232

7 Energetics of a marine ecosystem 244

7.1 Primary production 245

7.2 The grazing chain 248

7.3 The detritus chain 250

7.4 The energy balance sheet 253

7.5 Conclusion 253

8 The seashore 256

8.1 Tides 256

8.2 Waves 260

8.3 The evolution of coastlines 267

8.4 Some problems of shore life 270

8.5 Food sources 272

8.6 Zonation 273

8.7 Fitting the shore environment 275

8.8 Rocky shores 283

8.9 Sandy shores 292

8.10 Muddy shores 296

8.11 Estuaries 297

8.12 Tropical shores and coral reefs 303

9 Sea fisheries 313

9.1 Fishing methods 313

9.2 The biology of some European food fishes 326

9.3 The overfishing problem 350

9.4 Fishery research 358

9.5 The regulation of fisheries 368

9.6 The seas in relation to human food supplies 376

10 Human impact on the marine environment 395

10.1 Marine pollution 395

10.2 Climate change and global warming 419

10.3 Management and marine nature reserves 424

10.4 Effects of fisheries and acquaculture 429

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