Making and Keeping Friends

Making and Keeping Friends

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Oil Crisis Helped Cement Saudi Friendship with the West

The friendship between the Saudis and the United States can be traced back to a meeting between President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Abdul Aziz, also known as King Ibn Saud, in 1945, during which the two leaders briefly discussed the Palestinian-Israeli question, although it's not clear whether they also talked about oil. Yet, the importance of Saudi's oil potential wasn't lost on Roosevelt, nor was Aziz unaware of how much the Americans could serve to counterbalance the growing influence of the British in the region. In any case, FDR and Aziz got to respect each other, and one might even say they became friends of some sort.1 The British already had established a foothold in the kingdom, and had close contact with Aziz's enemies, even as early as 1902, long before the founding of the kingdom. At the time, the area that is now called Saudi Arabia was inhabited by various clans and ruled by warlords. Two of the main warlords, Hussein in the west and Abdul Aziz in the center and east,...

Gradeschool and middleschool years

In the regular education classroom, and the nature of that inclusion, varies widely from one area of the country to another and from one school district to another. Nevertheless, inclusion approaches are very common in the grade-school years, with children receiving pull-out speech, physical, and occupational therapy, and also commonly participating in social skills groups or friendship circles to support social development.

Adulthood and independence

Most individuals with ID show continued support needs as adults, with an increased focus on independence from parents and other primary caregivers. While many continue to live with their parents into adulthood 112 , independent and semi-independent living opportunities are also sought. Parents of adults with ID become increasingly concerned with planning for a time when they will no longer be able to play an active support role 113 . Vocational opportunities and establishments of outlets for social interaction and social support are important areas for intervention, and risk of social isolation is heightened. Appropriate residential supports and meaningful life activities combined with friendship and support from others is associated with increased happiness for these adults 114 . In adulthood, many individuals are vulnerable to experiencing mental and physical health problems which may not be well recognized 115 . It is important to continue to keep in mind the individual's level of...

General independence skills

Important prerequisites to independent living 43 . However, rates of independent residence and community participation are lower than expected 44 . Though adolescents with SBM are hopeful about their future, with generally positive beliefs and expectations about independent functioning, their actual participation in adolescent activities such as decision-making, household responsibilities, and friendship activities is often limited 45 . Independent functioning in SBM has been shown to correlate with spinal lesion level and the presence of hydrocephalus 43 , with lesions above the lumbar level strongly associated with dependence on others. The generally disappointing rate of functional independence in adults with SBM is a source of great concern among families and caretakers of individuals with this condition.

The Scripps Directorship

We understand that the impression has been gained in some quarters that opposition is vanishing at Scripps Institution to Dr. Revelle as a candidate for Director. We assure you that whereas we have a high regard and friendship for him, we feel as strongly as before that his appointment . . . would not be in the interest of the institution. His recent administrative actions confirmed our conviction.

Psychosocial and adaptive function

Children treated for brain tumors can encounter significant psychosocial adjustment issues. Similar to children who have to deal with chronic or other life-threatening illness, families face complex challenges in coping with medical procedures and extended treatment, disruption to family life, and absence from school. Specific psychological problems can arise and these are more likely to be in the domain of internalizing disorders and social skills 73 . As compared to survivors of other childhood cancers, survivors of CNS tumors encounter not only more educational problems, but also more difficulties establishing or maintaining friendships 74, 75 . The quality of social relationships in children surviving brain tumors is receiving increased attention as it is recognized that friendships and social support are critical for positive adjustment and overall health. An ongoing multi-site study of peer relationships in children with brain tumors indicates that these children are at...

Highschool years transition to independence

Beginning in the high-school years, there is typically a gradual incorporation of preparation for independent functioning and vocational aspirations within the school setting and in the community. This typically begins at approximately age 14, and active involvement of the adolescent in the planning is encouraged. Development of friendships and networks of social support continues to be important, and during this period differences between the individual with ID and same-aged typically developing peers may be more evident. As we have mentioned previously 70 , the area of transition to independence is one with a sparse empirical literature, although several recent initiatives promoting self-determination in adolescents with ID have shown some success 111 .

Psychosocial development and quality of life

Healthy social development is associated with academic success, positive psychological childhood adjustment and adult outcomes 49 . There is significant evidence that children with neurodevelopmental conditions are at increased risk for social developmental difficulties 50, 51 . Children with CP are at risk for impairments in prosocial behavior, as well as specific social problem-solving deficits 52, 53 . Regarding peer relations and friendships, recent findings indicate significant social risks in the regular classroom setting, with evidence of gender-specific risks associated with CP 54 . Girls with CP had weaker prosocial behavior, fewer reciprocated friendships, and were more isolated and victimized. Other findings have shown that children with congenital neurodevelopmental conditions (CP and spina bifida) have fewer friends, a higher

Universal assessment issues

Higher incidence of ADHD than in generalpopulation pharmacologicaltreatment may be beneficial. Riskfor depression comparable to that of generalpopulation, with decreased risk in individuals with lower intellect. Socialrisks across the lifespan include less frequent socialcontact and lower quality friendships

Psychosocial effects of TBI

Except in more severe cases, basic living skills tend to have a favorable long-term outcome after TBI 58 . Personal and family roles are more likely to be strained by personality and behavioral changes after TBI. Aggression and other manifestations of disinhibition can obviously be problematic in close relationships. However, impaired social skills and social problemsolving (particularly in conjunction with poor awareness) also negatively affect relationships 63 . For TBI survivors, attrition of friendships often accompanies such changes, further narrowing social support. Even subtle social and behavioral impairments can lead to more distant familial relationships and attrition of social relationships. Unfortunately, this can exacerbate the problem, as familial and social support are in turn predictors of more favorable psychosocial outcome 45 .

Relations as Vehicles for Understanding Planning from the Ground Up in Africa Garth Myers

Let me provide one visceral example of why fieldwork can offer something from these ongoing relationships that is irreplaceable. Zanzibar city's historic working-class heart is the neighbourhood area known as Ng'ambo, literally 'the Other Side'. It is closely built and disorderly to Western eyes, a system of twisted alleys that seems like a hedge maze for visitors. Planners from the 1920s onward have sought to rebuild Ng'ambo to make it orderly, with wide roads, streetlights and drains. By living in such a neighbourhood and observing everyday spatial behaviour I came to understand that the majority of women residents of Ng'ambo walk through alleys rather than on those wide streets that have been created. They do so because the alleys are cooler, more comforting, and less likely to bring them under the scrutiny of groups of young men who gather on stoops of main streets, often under street lights. Lighting, women often said, was a major priority for them, but lighting for the alleys,...

Conclusion Green Politics

Bryan Norton's arguments regarding policy convergence are also subject to critique. In the first place, his 'lexical ordering' seems able to license some pretty fierce despoliation before the 'system fragility' constraint kicks in. At best, radicals might argue, his focus on systems rather than on individuals seems tailor-made to justify a certain amount of mayhem to individuals provided system fragility is not thereby endangered. At worst, the 'free play' of production could go on for a very long time before the 'larger context' was deemed to be under threat. How many 'non-essential' individuals, species and habitats could go under before the possibility of production itself was threatened The very fact that this question can be so framed without misrepresenting Norton's position is, of course, the principal reason why radical greens will regard his hand extended in friendship with some caution - from their 'in principle' point of view no part of human or non-human nature can be...

Interdependence and Cooperation

Thanks to their open boundaries and the multiple linkages (shared values, religion, worldview, Law, kinship, friendship and marriage alliances) that is, crosscutting ties joining every Mardu band to all others in their society, the arena of shared understandings is huge when groups need to resolve their differences. Everyone is mindful also of how much their survival rests on mutual hospitality and unfettered access to their neighbors' natural resources in both lean and bountiful times.4

Overcoming Barriers To Green Buildings

Some of the barriers to green building performance have little to do with cost and a lot to do with how engineers and architects have become accustomed to working with each other, much like brothers and sisters in the same family who want nothing to do with each other during adolescence, but who become good friends later in life. Dan Nall is senior vice president of Flack+Kurtz, one of the leading building engineering firms in the United States. Here's his take on the situation.*

Scientist of the Decade Carl Gustav Rossby

In addition to completing several scientific articles during his stay with the bureau, Rossby tried to convince officials to incorporate the new Bergen School techniques into their forecasting. He met with great resistance. Most bureau personnel did not have college degrees and were suspicious of this enthusiastic Swede, who was trying to tell them to change their way of doing business. One person at the bureau was attracted to his message the navy lieutenant Francis W. Reichelderfer. Reichelderfer became a good friend of Rossby's and introduced the Bergen School methods to his navy colleagues. (In 1938, when Reichelderfer became the chief of the Weather Bureau, Rossby joined his team to introduce the

Networks of interaction

As well as inter-organisational networks, social movements are characterised by inter-personal networks, and it is through these that the solidarity necessary to develop a collective identity and sustain activism is forged. At local level the network ties between individuals with different organisational allegiances are likely to be particularly important. Comparison of green activism in Manchester, Oxford and North Wales showed that there was a community of green activism which cut across the boundaries between different groups (Doherty et al. 2001) and that these ties had built up through joint campaigns. Studies also show that social ties play an important role in the formation of new movements and in recruitment of new groups of activists. It is invariably pre-existing social groups that form and join movements. These may be groups based upon friendship, as McAdam (1988) showed in his study of student recruits to the Freedom Summer civil rights campaign. In this case potential...

Known Geographic And Temporal Distribution

Only m1 specimens are identified here (other specimens are listed under Phenacomys sp. ). These specimens differ from P. gryci in having a greater number of closed triangles on m1 and in lacking any indication of a Mimomys Kante. A few morphologically intermediate forms between these relatively advanced Phenacomys morphotypes and those of P. gryci were found in Porcupine Cave. In an effort to preserve our friendship, we made no effort to identify these specimens beyond generic level. The reliance on labial dentine tracts to identify Phenacomys m1s to a finer taxonomic level holds great promise (Repenning and Grady, 1988), but the variation in this feature within the extant and fossil species of Phenacomys is in need of further exploration (Bell and Barnosky, 2000). The Phenacomys material from Porcupine Cave should be reexamined as part of a comprehensive revision of North American Pleistocene Phenacomys.

Translation of ideas from niche to mainstream

Complementary currency movements are facing a similar issue. Time banks in the UK have reached saturation in terms of available funding and the current model of (community-based) practice. The movement intends to evolve out of its niche by reframing itself and seeking to become integrated into existing public service provision, for example schools, hospitals, regeneration trusts etc. This approach avoids the need for funding for individual projects, and could potentially reach thousands of people at a time rather than dozens, but at the expense of the ties of support and friendship forged in close-knit community projects. The third group of complementary currencies examined in Chapter 7 (NU green reward points) appear far more mainstream than the community-based LETS and time banks, adopting the technology and language of supermarket loyalty schemes to appeal to a wide public. This grassroots innovative niche is deliberately designed to reduce the distance between itself and the...

The rationale for complementary currencies

This review illustrates how the current system of provision of money and exchange mitigates against actions and activities for sustainable consumption, and limits the scope of lifestyle changes which are possible within this system. The solution which a New Economics analysis suggests is to create new, alternative exchange systems which rectify these negative aspects these are known as complementary currencies. The New Economics approach views all money systems as social infrastructure with in-built incentives, behaviour-framings and value. These can de structured to deliver sustainable consumption outcomes (Greco, 1994 Boyle, 2002 Seyfang, 2000 Lietaer, 2001 see Chapter 3 for a fuller discussion). For example Briceno and Stagl (2006) investigate complementary currencies as a type of 'produce service system', a socio-technical infrastructure whereby consumers access services, rather than owning products, for example through sharing and hiring goods. They find limited success at...

Initiation the European Commission

His part, he put the EU first on his list of priorities, the Commission second, the EDG third, and the environment fourth -he saw himself as much less an environmentalist than a bureaucrat. He also argued that this shift had allowed the Environment DG to be taken more seriously by other services its credibility would be undermined if it was perceived as a proselytizing organization rather than a professional service working in the broader interests of European integration. At the same time, another staff member argued that the EDG was not so technocratic as to be immune to internal politics, and to the influence of rivalries, friendships and professional biases.

Chapter overview

When ideas are tested, data are needed, graphs are plotted, statistical tests are applied and ideas begin to have substance. In contrast, pupils often find numbers daunting and unhelpful. This chapter looks at ways to help pupils make friends with numbers, sometimes by letting the computers do the number crunching, and suggests ways in which we can introduce numeracy into our teaching to enhance the scientific understanding of our learners rather than baffle them.


Thanks Flo for the head-clearing yomps over the fields. Thanks to my parents John and Joan for always being so interested, not to mention providing a great childhood with Mike, Paul and Elisabeth. Thanks to Glyn and Allan for all your support, good meals and great company. Thanks to Mahmoud Ibrahim, John McCrystal, Elspeth, Irene, Brian, Angie, Richard, Jenny, and all my good friends and neighbours in Threemiletown for making our little corner of West Lothian a Scottish Bedford Falls.

Wrecking The Future

However, in 1986 OPEC dropped the oil price, and the smart people responsible for ensuring US energy security had a very deep insight. They said, Oh look, oil is cheap today. Who needs fusion We can get all of the cheap energy we need just by depending upon our good friends in Saudi Arabia. Acting upon this wisdom, they cut the budget in half. As a result, nearly all parts of the US fusion program except for the tokamak were rapidly shut down. (In one particular atrocity, an extremely important experiment, the Livermore Lab MFTF-B magnetic mirror, built over four years at a cost of some 400 million in today's money, was decommissioned the same month it was


Adolescents with VI face different issues than their sighted peers, in part related to variability in adolescent identity development. Most teens look forward to the milestone of obtaining their driver's license, but for teens with VI this is a symbol of independence they cannot share. In a study looking at the perceptions of teens with VI and their best friends, Rosenbaum found that regardless of the age of onset of the VI, almost all of the teens expressed negative feelings about their own VI 80 . Coping skills among teens varied widely, from attempting to hide their VI from others to describing it as a positive experience, suggestive of greater acceptance. Additional themes included negative impact on self-esteem secondary to exclusion from families, feelings of isolation at school, difficulties fitting in with peers, and struggles in establishing best friends.

Naming and shaming

Finally, as described by Skjsrseth in Chapter 9, greater attention to corporate climate accountancy provides opportunities for energy intensive companies to differentiate themselves from competitors by waving flags of climate friendship. This 'bragging' strategy is apparently one pursued by certain European petroleum companies, including British Petroleum (BP), Amoco and Shell. Such processes, and concomitant activities such as research on energy efficient production and consumption, will be important for the ability of states to meet their climate commitments. That said, there are clear limits to the force of naming, shaming and bragging. As Andresen and Gulbrandsen bring out in Chapter 8, public interest in climate change issues is dwindling in most Western societies, partly because the sophistication of the climate regime makes the contested issues rather technical and difficult to follow.


And necessity of grass roots community activity in the development process. 'Think globally, act locally', is a catch phrase often used in any debate on sustainable development. Citizen participation in development and the political structures which sustain it is clearly an essential requirement of local and regional government in a sustainable world. It can be argued that the lowest level or tier of government should be the local community which occupies a clearly defined district or quarter of the city. 'Community' in the twenty-first century, however, is not necessarily associated with a physically identified place. Many associations, friendship patterns and communities of interest extend far beyond the confines of the local neighbourhood they form a rich web of overlapping communities. It is not the intention here to dispute this explanation of community, nor is it the intention to suggest the need or desirability to change this particular aspect of urban culture. It is, however,...


Although individuals with ASD continue to make progress throughout their lives, adult outcomes are often still poor. A minority of adults go to college, attain employment, have true friendships, or achieve true independent living status 85-87 . The best predictor of quality of life for adults with ASD appears to be the amount of support that is available to the individual 85 , with the adult's perception of the support they receive perhaps being more important than the actual support received 86 .

Research directions

Friendships and perhaps increasing isolation in adulthood. At this point, there is the need for greater emphasis on intervention outcome research including prospective studies of interventions to address social isolation and passivity. Children with disabilities are at great risk for passivity, yet the most commonly used behavioral rating instruments do not assess this aspect of functioning. There is increasing awareness of the prevalence of comorbid ADHD in children with CP, but little is known about the efficacy of pharmacological and behavioral interventions in this population. In addition, current ADHD rating scales were not designed for use in a population with significant motor impairments.


Some of the TsunamiHelp team continued to stay in touch, to build friendships on the strength of that month of working together. We debated the creation of a formal organisation, of documenting processes, but for most of us, we had neglected the rest of our lives for too long, and the process of catching up meant that these thoughts fizzled out.

Collective identity

It is because of this pejorative legacy that importance of emotion tended to be downplayed in recent social movement theory. More recently Kevin Hetherington (1998) has used Raymond Williams's (1989) concept of 'a structure of feeling' to try to capture the emotional bond of solidarity often found in new kinds of elective communities. Hetherington focuses on the rituals and 'ethic of aesthetics' through which participants in movements communicate their allegiances towards each other. Often this 'libidinal economy' (Goodwin et al. 2000) of friendship, solidarity or love shapes the dynamics of a group. The jealousies and tensions between activists affect turnover and levels of commitment. Shared emotional feelings towards outsiders are also a major factor in explaining motivation. Moral outrage towards opponents, pride in collective identities, a sense of shame at the indignity of a tarnished identity, are all part of the emotional fabric of movements.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Nature cannot be understood merely as a commodity, a resource it can only be understood in romance. So Emerson revels in nature's 'sanctity', in the 'spell' of nature its 'enchantments'. 'We make friends with matter', reconciling mind and matter. Nature 'shames us out of our nonsense'. 'Cities give not the human senses room enough.'6 Richer aesthetic experiences are possible in forest and field more to see, smell, touch, taste, more sense of space, time, place, proportion.

Francis Bacon

Bacon was a politician, jurist, royal councillor, natural scientist and essay writer, who spent his entire life within the highest political, courtly and intellectual circles around Queen Elizabeth and King James I. His maternal uncle, Lord Burghley, was the most powerful statesman of his age. After Cambridge University and a period in France, he became a lawyer and Member of Parliament. Despite his earlier friendship with the charismatic Earl of Essex, he was active in the prosecution of Essex for treason a

The Canelo Project

Canelo Straw Bale

Leading proponents of the US straw-bale housing movement, Athena and Bill Steen founded the non-profit Canelo Project in 1990 to further their experimental and educational work (see Figure 6.3). Their seminal book 'The Straw Bale House' (Steen et al., 1994) consolidated the then-emerging contemporary interest in straw-bale building among environmentalists keen to develop low-cost, energy-efficient buildings from natural, local materials, and inspired a growing movement in the US and around the world, with its practical advice, technical know-how and building plans. Further publications celebrate the beauty and diversity of applications of simple hand-built straw-and-clay construction and decoration techniques, and the vernacular of self-built shelter around the world (Steen and Steen, 2001 see also Canelo is located in southern Arizona, in the south-west United States, set among oak woodlands and high desert. The project aims to develop 'ways of living that...

The Japan factor

AIJ project approval is also helped by the fact that China and Japan have a long history of cooperation regarding the environment and technology. While the United States is barred from giving aid to communist regimes, Japan is presently the number one donor to China totaling 102 million in environmental assistance from 1993 to1996 (UNDP 1996 50). This relationship was strengthened at the UNCED where then Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto pledged to increase ODA between 9 billion and 10 billion in the span of five years (JMOFA 1997 24, 25 Yamamoto 1999 83). In 1992, Japan's MITI initiated the Green Aid Plan (GAP) which today has thirty-nine energy related projects in China (NEDO 2002 5). At COP3, the Japanese government declared the Kyoto Initiative, where a low-return, long-term loan was specifically designated for the purposes of climate change.19 In 1997, the Japanese government twice lowered the interest rate for loans to China, first from 4 to 2.5 percent and then to 1.8 percent,...

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