Infants and children

The clinical symptoms associated with SB put intensive physical, psychological, and social demands on the children and families involved, placing them at risk for increased levels of psychosocial problems and family distress 37 . As a result, parents of children with SB have elevated psychosocial concerns 44 . Research has shown that the parenting environment is crucial to the developmental outcomes of children 45 , particularly children with medical and neurodevelopmental concerns. Responsive...

Remediation of working memory

In addition to interventions that have focused on directly targeting attention, the Cogmed Working Memory Training Program (Cogmed) has demonstrated evidence for enhancing working memory and reducing behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity in children with ADHD 74, 75 . This software-based training program was developed to improve working memory abilities, particularly in children with ADHD or severe attention problems. The training is implemented with a software...

Neuropsychological aspects of psychopathology across the lifespan a synthesis

Hunter As evident in the previous two chapters, the understanding of psychopathology and its associated neuro-psychological deficits across the lifespan is complicated by the uneven investigation of pediatric and adult disorders 1, 2 . In particular, as Sivan 2 emphasizes, while select disorders that impact developmental functioning are considered in the pediatric neuropsychol-ogy literature (i.e. the comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...

Role of neuropsychological assessment in learning disorders

A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment is not always necessary or required for many children who have specific learning disabilities 64 . Traditional school-based evaluations, which utilize an RTI approach coupled with the examination of ability and achievement development, may be sufficient to effectively identify and then remediate a specific learning disorder. However, there remain a significant number of children for whom this approach may be insufficient this is particularly the...

Limitations and considerations

Each neuroimaging technique discussed above has advantages and disadvantages with regard to answering a specific research question or appropriateness of use in a particular clinical population or context. Due to the strength of the magnetic field, MRI techniques are not usually appropriate for individuals with ferrous metal or electronic devices in their bodies (e.g. shrapnel, infusion pumps, neurostimulators, pacemakers) due to safety risks. Other common concerns for MRI are factors such as...

References

SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975 2004. 2007, National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD. http seer.cancer.gov csr 1975 2004 . 2. Pui CH, and Evans WE. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2006 354 2 166 78. 3. Jemal A, et al. Cancer statistics, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin 2006 56 2 106 30. 4. Oeffinger KC, et al. Grading of late effects in young adult survivors of childhood cancer followed in an ambulatory adult setting. Cancer 2000 88 7 1687 95. 5. Hewitt M,...

Mucopolysaccharidosis Type III

Sanfilippo syndrome has been ignored, despite its being the most common of the MPS disorders, because no treatment has been found to be effective. Four different subtypes have been identified, A, B, C, and D, each with a different enzymatic deficiency, but all four deposit heparan sulfate in cells. Sanfilippo A is the most common and most severe. The somatic manifestations of MPS III are few primarily it is a neurodegenerative disease. Although atrophy on the MRI sometimes precedes dementia in...

Conventional neuroimaging methodologies

Historically speaking, older structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are often referred to as conventional imaging methodologies, though the categorization of what techniques are considered cutting-edge versus those which are labeled conventional continues to evolve over time as ever-newer imaging technologies are developed. Structural imaging techniques such as computed axial tomography CAT or CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI have become routine neuroimaging methodologies, with...

Subtypes of mathematics disorder

Levine and associates 39 have posited a 16-subcomponent model that classifies the skills necessary for performing mathematics. Subcomponents of the model include the following Learning facts all mathematical procedures involve underlying facts i.e. multiplication tables and simple addition and subtraction Understanding details all math procedures involve attention to and understanding of detail Mastering procedures the processes involved in multiplication, division, reducing fractions, and...

Neuroanatomical features of mathematics disorders

While mathematics disorder has not received the attention given to reading disorders, research has suggested that lesions in both hemispheres and select Numericalmagnitude Semantic understanding of math concepts and procedures Constructionalapraxia Visualspatialsketchpad holds visual spatialinformation in temporary storage Mentalmath Magnitude comparisons Geometric proofs Allocation of attention Inhibition of distracters when problem solving Attention to math operational signs Retrieval of...

Thalamus and hypothalamus

The thalamus and hypothalamus, among other structures, compose the diencephalon. The thalamus is a complex bilateral structure with extensive reciprocal connections to major structures throughout the brain, including efferent fibers to cortical regions thalamo-cortical axons and afferent fibers from cortical regions corticothalamic axons . There are 11 thalamic nuclei that are classified as either relay or association nuclei based on their target projections. These are specific nuclei. There...

Structural changes

Advances in neuroimaging have allowed us to visualize the brain at various stages of aging. Clearly identifying structural changes that are typical of normal versus abnormal aging remains difficult. As we review in the following section, there is consistent evidence that the human brain physically declines with age, although the regions and characteristics of this decline vary somewhat by study methodology and sample. Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between age and brain...

Psychopathological conditions in adults

Ruocco, Elizabeth Kunchandy and Maureen Lacy With psychiatric disorders affecting nearly one-half of American adults at some point in their lifetime, it is important to consider the impact psychopathological conditions may have on neuropsychological function this is particularly true as individuals entering adulthood and later, old age, are often at greater risk for the development of psychopathological conditions. Whereas several adult psychopathological conditions may present with...

Cerebral cortex

Brodmann Map

The cortex is divided into four lobes, the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. As was discussed earlier in the chapter on top-down control and the organization of functional systems, the cortex is the most highly organized and complex aspect of brain management. The cortex is thought to be necessary for conscious behaviors thalamo-cortical relationships , though recent research suggests that some level of consciousness can exist without the cortex 61 . There are two hemispheres divided...

Hurler syndrome

Hurler Syndrome Mri

Most children with Hurler syndrome show normal developmental milestones during the first year of life. During the second year, development slows, and in the third year plateaus followed by decline. Because of new treatments, data are sparse regarding the untreated natural history of cognitive development. However, our database yields cross-sectional information about 137 untreated or not yet treated children suggesting Table 15.1. Tab e of ysosoma d seases. Table 15.1. Tab e of ysosoma d...

Written language disorder subtypes

A disorder of written language can occur at many different levels, including spelling, handwriting, semantic knowledge, executive functions, memory processes, and metacognitive processes. The age of the child is another important factor when determining what part of the writing process is potentially impacted, and how it affects written language competency 58 . Spelling is an important part of written language even if the development of computer programs, such as spell check, have made the...

Cognitive progression in epilepsy

When considering the lifespan implications of epilepsy on cognition, an important issue concerns the changes that occur over time. This issue is commonly referred to as progression, and has been the focus of investigation at the molecular, physiological, and cellular level 24 . From a neuropsychological perspective, the issue ofprogression entails the possibility that continued cognitive decline is evident among people with epilepsy over the course of the disorder. To date, research relevant to...

Neuropsychological and adaptive outcomes in children

The literature documenting neuropsychological late effects in children treated for brain tumors is extensive 23, 41-43 . In survivors of childhood brain tumors, studies have consistently identified younger age at diagnosis and higher intensity of treatment as contributors to increased risk of developing neurocognitive deficits and learning disabilities. Recent studies document the added contribution of hydrocephalus and other medical complications as well as tumor location 44, 45 . For adults,...

Neurocognitive outcomes

Pediatric leukemia and lymphoma survivors may suffer from neurocognitive impairment on a transient i.e. acute or lasting i.e. late effects basis in one or more domains that impede learning new information along with maintaining previously learned information, ultimately leading to declines in intelligence and academic and vocational success, as well as lowered self-esteem and behavioral disorders. Adult survivors of pediatric ALL treated with chemotherapy were 1.6 and 2.0 times as likely to...

Etiology of hearing loss

Knowing the etiology of a hearing loss is essential to understanding its potential impact on development Table 10a.1 . While hearing loss itself does not cause Table 10a.1. Etiology of hearing loss. Table 10a.1. Etiology of hearing loss. Neurological neuropsychological correlates Range of sensorineuralhearing loss from unilateralto bilateral, characteristically a low frequency hearing loss No known cognitive, psychiatric or neurological implications Sensorineuralhearing loss coupled with vision...

Dreisbach Ballard Russo 2001

Neurological disorders. In Atkinson RC, Lindzey G, Thompson R, eds. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology. New York Worth Publishers 2003 697 722. 2. Williams J, Sharp G. Epilepsy. In Yeates K, Ris M, Taylor H, eds. Pediatric Neuropsychology Research, Theory, and Practice. New York The Guilford Press 2000 47 73. 3. Julien RM. A Primer of Drug Action A Comprehensive Guide to the Actions, Uses and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs. New York Worth Publishers 2004. 4....

Advanced MRI techniques

Fmri Motor Task

Voxel-based morphometry VBM approaches allow the quantification of GM and WM density or concentration and volume on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the entire brain through computational analysis of conventional T1-weighted anatomic images e.g. SPGR, MP-RAGE, or TFE series 2022 . Through statistical parametric mapping techniques routinely used to analyze functional neuroimaging data, VBM can evaluate a particular tissue compartment across every voxel in the brain relative to a user-defined a...

Classification of brain tumors

Tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the presumed cell of origin and location the most recent revision of the World Health Organization classification scheme includes new variants and incorporates genetic profiles 7, 8 . The WHO classification also provides a grading scheme based on histology that ranges from benign grade I to malignant grade IV based on proliferative potential and invasiveness. Major categories of brain tumors include neuroepitheleal tumors, tumors...

A lifespan review of developmental neuroanatomy

On the development of functional neural systems The structure of the brain is in constant flux from the moment of its conception to the firing of its final nerve impulse in death. As the brain develops, functional networks are created that underlie our cognitive and emotional capacities. Our technologies for evaluating these functional systems have changed over time as well, evolving from lesion-based case studies, neuro-pathological analyses, in vivo neurophysiological techniques e.g....

Karachunski Clark Shapiro Lysosomal Storage

Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D, eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. New York McGraw Hill 2001. 2. Bjoraker K, Delaney K, Peters C, Krivit W, Shapiro E. Long term outcomes of adaptive functions for children with MPS I. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2006 27 290 6. 3. Shapiro E, Krivit W, Lockman L, Jambaqu I, Peters C, Cowan M, et al. Long term beneficial effect of bone marrow transplantation for childhood onset cerebral X linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Lancet 2000 356...

Hypocortisolism

The most common cause of hypocortisolism is Addison's disease 75-80 of cases , which is a rare autoimmune disorder destruction of the adrenal cortex see Box 10 . The prevalence of the disease is approximately 39-60 cases per million people. Most cases are diagnosed in individuals between the ages of 30 and 50, although there are familial autoimmune conditions involving onset in childhood and Box 9 Hypercortisolism Cushing's syndrome Signs and symptoms truncal obesity, plethoric full facies,...

Emerging adulthood as a distinct developmental period ages

While adolescence is traditionally viewed as the primary transitional period between childhood and adulthood, Arnett 1 posits an additional developmental period, distinct from adolescence and young adulthood, that occurs between the ages of 18 and 25, namely, emerging adulthood. The primary developmental challenges of emerging adulthood include taking responsibility for one's self, making independent decisions, becoming financially independent, and exploring one's identity 1 . Risk behaviors...

Developmental models in pediatric neuropsychology

A single good model is worth a thousand empirical studies James Heckman Nobel Prize, Economics, 2000 quoted by David Kirp 1 Good models are like good tools they do a certain job rea sonably well simple models that work well for a wide variety of jobs are especially valuable they yield islands of concep tual clarity in the midst of otherwise mind numbing complexity and diversity On what grounds does a hard-nosed number-crunching economist make such a claim What does he mean What are the...