Remediation of working memory

In addition to interventions that have focused on directly targeting attention, the Cogmed Working Memory Training Program (Cogmed) has demonstrated evidence for enhancing working memory and reducing behavioral symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity in children with ADHD 74, 75 . This software-based training program was developed to improve working memory abilities, particularly in children with ADHD or severe attention problems. The training is implemented with a software...

Psychotherapy and psychoeducation

While medication can alleviate symptoms of ADHD, it does not provide guidance on the coping skills and strategies needed for adults with ADHD to be successful in daily functioning. Adults with ADHD experience much higher rates of failure in relationships, work, and academic environments, which suggests that such strategies are needed to improve their long-term outcomes. Moreover, the high rates of comorbidity with mood and anxiety disorders, conduct problems, and substance abuse call for...

Neuropsychological aspects of psychopathology across the lifespan a synthesis

Hunter As evident in the previous two chapters, the understanding of psychopathology and its associated neuro-psychological deficits across the lifespan is complicated by the uneven investigation of pediatric and adult disorders 1, 2 . In particular, as Sivan 2 emphasizes, while select disorders that impact developmental functioning are considered in the pediatric neuropsychol-ogy literature (i.e. the comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...

Limitations and considerations

Each neuroimaging technique discussed above has advantages and disadvantages with regard to answering a specific research question or appropriateness of use in a particular clinical population or context. Due to the strength of the magnetic field, MRI techniques are not usually appropriate for individuals with ferrous metal or electronic devices in their bodies (e.g. shrapnel, infusion pumps, neurostimulators, pacemakers) due to safety risks. Other common concerns for MRI are factors such as...

References

SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975 2004. 2007, National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD. http seer.cancer.gov csr 1975 2004 . 2. Pui CH, and Evans WE. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. N Engl J Med 2006 354 2 166 78. 3. Jemal A, et al. Cancer statistics, 2006. CA Cancer J Clin 2006 56 2 106 30. 4. Oeffinger KC, et al. Grading of late effects in young adult survivors of childhood cancer followed in an ambulatory adult setting. Cancer 2000 88 7 1687 95. 5. Hewitt M,...

Memory

Deficits in memory are considered a hallmark of ADHD for both children and adults, as is suggested by the DSM-IV criteria of forgetfulness and difficulty following through with tasks. Research has suggested that there are problems in both visual and verbal working and long-term memory in persons with ADHD. Agreement has largely been found with regard to deficits in verbal memory for adults with ADHD. Tests with more complex demands such as the Wechsler Memory Scales-III Logical Memory subtest...

Conventional neuroimaging methodologies

Historically speaking, older structural and functional neuroimaging techniques are often referred to as conventional imaging methodologies, though the categorization of what techniques are considered cutting-edge versus those which are labeled conventional continues to evolve over time as ever-newer imaging technologies are developed. Structural imaging techniques such as computed axial tomography CAT or CT and magnetic resonance imaging MRI have become routine neuroimaging methodologies, with...

Nonverbal learning and memory

Pediatric patients with epilepsy exhibit low average range 15 to average range 14, 37, 39 simple nonverbal recall. Patients with higher intellectual functioning exhibited better visual memory performance 37 . Across patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, right-sided focus was associated with significantly decreased visual retention 20, 37 . On the other hand, patients with frontal lobe 37 and partial epilepsy 29 do not exhibit the same effect of lateraliza-tion. Complex etiological variables...

Structural changes

Advances in neuroimaging have allowed us to visualize the brain at various stages of aging. Clearly identifying structural changes that are typical of normal versus abnormal aging remains difficult. As we review in the following section, there is consistent evidence that the human brain physically declines with age, although the regions and characteristics of this decline vary somewhat by study methodology and sample. Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between age and brain...

Psychopathological conditions in adults

Ruocco, Elizabeth Kunchandy and Maureen Lacy With psychiatric disorders affecting nearly one-half of American adults at some point in their lifetime, it is important to consider the impact psychopathological conditions may have on neuropsychological function this is particularly true as individuals entering adulthood and later, old age, are often at greater risk for the development of psychopathological conditions. Whereas several adult psychopathological conditions may present with...

Cerebral cortex

Brodmann Map

The cortex is divided into four lobes, the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital. As was discussed earlier in the chapter on top-down control and the organization of functional systems, the cortex is the most highly organized and complex aspect of brain management. The cortex is thought to be necessary for conscious behaviors thalamo-cortical relationships , though recent research suggests that some level of consciousness can exist without the cortex 61 . There are two hemispheres divided...

Hurler syndrome

Hurler Syndrome Mri

Most children with Hurler syndrome show normal developmental milestones during the first year of life. During the second year, development slows, and in the third year plateaus followed by decline. Because of new treatments, data are sparse regarding the untreated natural history of cognitive development. However, our database yields cross-sectional information about 137 untreated or not yet treated children suggesting Table 15.1. Tab e of ysosoma d seases. Table 15.1. Tab e of ysosoma d...

Alternatives to the discrepancy model

One popular alternative to defining LD based on the IQ-Achievement discrepancy model as mentioned in the chapters is referred to as response to instruction RTI . The goal of RTI is to monitor the intensity of instruction and make systematic changes in the instructional context as a function of a student's overt performance. This is done by considering various tiers of instructional intensity. This approach is compatible with those that attempt to identify the cognitive and neuropsychological...

Neuropsychological and adaptive outcomes in children

The literature documenting neuropsychological late effects in children treated for brain tumors is extensive 23, 41-43 . In survivors of childhood brain tumors, studies have consistently identified younger age at diagnosis and higher intensity of treatment as contributors to increased risk of developing neurocognitive deficits and learning disabilities. Recent studies document the added contribution of hydrocephalus and other medical complications as well as tumor location 44, 45 . For adults,...

Interventions for written expression

Research is limited regarding assessment and intervention of written expression. Unlike reading and mathematics which have definite input and output characteristics , written expression is predominantly an output task. As a result, approaches taken with intervention are often focused on how a child reaches the final product. For example, the ability to accurately spell words is an integral component ofwritten expression. Research indicates that children who have spelling deficits often present...

Neurocognitive outcomes

Pediatric leukemia and lymphoma survivors may suffer from neurocognitive impairment on a transient i.e. acute or lasting i.e. late effects basis in one or more domains that impede learning new information along with maintaining previously learned information, ultimately leading to declines in intelligence and academic and vocational success, as well as lowered self-esteem and behavioral disorders. Adult survivors of pediatric ALL treated with chemotherapy were 1.6 and 2.0 times as likely to...

Etiology of hearing loss

Knowing the etiology of a hearing loss is essential to understanding its potential impact on development Table 10a.1 . While hearing loss itself does not cause Table 10a.1. Etiology of hearing loss. Table 10a.1. Etiology of hearing loss. Neurological neuropsychological correlates Range of sensorineuralhearing loss from unilateralto bilateral, characteristically a low frequency hearing loss No known cognitive, psychiatric or neurological implications Sensorineuralhearing loss coupled with vision...

Dreisbach Ballard Russo 2001

Neurological disorders. In Atkinson RC, Lindzey G, Thompson R, eds. Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology. New York Worth Publishers 2003 697 722. 2. Williams J, Sharp G. Epilepsy. In Yeates K, Ris M, Taylor H, eds. Pediatric Neuropsychology Research, Theory, and Practice. New York The Guilford Press 2000 47 73. 3. Julien RM. A Primer of Drug Action A Comprehensive Guide to the Actions, Uses and Side Effects of Psychoactive Drugs. New York Worth Publishers 2004. 4....

Epidemiology of mathematics disorder

Several studies have provided strong evidence for a genetic predisposition for a mathematics disorder. A familial predisposition was observed in half of all children diagnosed with a deficit in mathematics. Research has also implicated chromosomes 6 and 15 as playing an important role in the development of a mathematics disorder 34 . There is also evidence to support different mathematics disorder profiles, corresponding to different phenotypes ofmathematics deficiency 35 . For example, studies...

Advanced MRI techniques

Fmri Motor Task

Voxel-based morphometry VBM approaches allow the quantification of GM and WM density or concentration and volume on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the entire brain through computational analysis of conventional T1-weighted anatomic images e.g. SPGR, MP-RAGE, or TFE series 2022 . Through statistical parametric mapping techniques routinely used to analyze functional neuroimaging data, VBM can evaluate a particular tissue compartment across every voxel in the brain relative to a user-defined a...

Classification of brain tumors

Tumors of the central nervous system are classified according to the presumed cell of origin and location the most recent revision of the World Health Organization classification scheme includes new variants and incorporates genetic profiles 7, 8 . The WHO classification also provides a grading scheme based on histology that ranges from benign grade I to malignant grade IV based on proliferative potential and invasiveness. Major categories of brain tumors include neuroepitheleal tumors, tumors...

A lifespan review of developmental neuroanatomy

On the development of functional neural systems The structure of the brain is in constant flux from the moment of its conception to the firing of its final nerve impulse in death. As the brain develops, functional networks are created that underlie our cognitive and emotional capacities. Our technologies for evaluating these functional systems have changed over time as well, evolving from lesion-based case studies, neuro-pathological analyses, in vivo neurophysiological techniques e.g....

Karachunski Clark Shapiro Lysosomal Storage

Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D, eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. New York McGraw Hill 2001. 2. Bjoraker K, Delaney K, Peters C, Krivit W, Shapiro E. Long term outcomes of adaptive functions for children with MPS I. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2006 27 290 6. 3. Shapiro E, Krivit W, Lockman L, Jambaqu I, Peters C, Cowan M, et al. Long term beneficial effect of bone marrow transplantation for childhood onset cerebral X linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Lancet 2000 356...

Emerging adulthood as a distinct developmental period ages

While adolescence is traditionally viewed as the primary transitional period between childhood and adulthood, Arnett 1 posits an additional developmental period, distinct from adolescence and young adulthood, that occurs between the ages of 18 and 25, namely, emerging adulthood. The primary developmental challenges of emerging adulthood include taking responsibility for one's self, making independent decisions, becoming financially independent, and exploring one's identity 1 . Risk behaviors...

Developmental models in pediatric neuropsychology

A single good model is worth a thousand empirical studies James Heckman Nobel Prize, Economics, 2000 quoted by David Kirp 1 Good models are like good tools they do a certain job rea sonably well simple models that work well for a wide variety of jobs are especially valuable they yield islands of concep tual clarity in the midst of otherwise mind numbing complexity and diversity On what grounds does a hard-nosed number-crunching economist make such a claim What does he mean What are the...