How to Train a Labrador Retriever

The Ultimate Labrador Retriever Encyclopedia Guide

The Ultimate Labrador Retriever Encyclopedia Guide is a downloadable eBook that shows you exactly how you can train and look after your Labrador step by step. The guide has 14 modules of rock-solid Labrador retriever information with over 40000 words of content split into easy to read and follow modules and steps. Additionally, it contains detailed graphical representation and step-by-step training that will this process even easier for you. This eBook covers everything you need to know about Labrador Retrievers. You will cover a detailed introduction, a sound overview of the breed, all the types of Labradors, the various sizes, colours, temperaments, and the general costs involved. If you have been looking for information to help you choose a Labrador puppy, the Ultimate Labrador Encyclopedia is the perfect solution for you. Provided in the guide's central part are step-by-step training exercises that you can implement from day one. The exercises are presented in a super straightforward manner so that you can train your Labrador not only to be house trained but also walk on a leash correctly without putting your arm through hell. You will learn how to eliminate all the teething issues like consistent barking, toilet training, how to stop chewing your home and shoes, and many other things.

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Distribution of pressure

Winter conditions in Europe resulted from the distribution of pressure, and this often produced conditions in North America that were different from those in Europe. Sometimes there was a hard winter in Europe, but a mild one in North America. This happened when high pressure with two centers over northern Greenland and Iceland extended southward as a broad ridge of polar air that covered all of western Europe. At the same time, there was low pressure over western Russia and also over Labrador and high pressure over the central Atlantic at about 30 N. The cold air over Europe brought extreme conditions. Ice on the Thames was thick enough to bear the weight of coaches, there was deep snow in southern France, the Swiss lakes froze, and there was sea ice around the shores of the Adriatic. Ice along the English south coast was sometimes thick enough to bear the weight of a man. The high pressure over the central Atlantic brought warmer air to most of North America, where the winter was...

The North Atlantic Oscillation NAO

In NAO winter situations, enhanced westerly flow across the North Atlantic moves warm and moist maritime air over Europe, northerlies over Greenland and northeastern Canada carry cold air southwards, decreasing SST and land temperatures over the North-West Atlantic, the Labrador Sea ice extends further south while the Greenland Sea ice boundary is found to the North of its climatological mean extent. NAO+ winters, associated with chill, dry, northwesterlies across the Labrador Sea are characterized by deep-reaching convective renewal of LSW and widespread distribution of chilled SST across the Northwest Atlantic.

The NAO strange attractors

For instance, NAO+ conditions of the most recent winters have shown a shutdown of Labrador Sea Convection. In just two and three winters, the long-sustained cooling and freshening of LSW has been largely reversed. A comparison of Atlantic SLP anomaly pattern between the 1995-1999 period with that for 19992000 shows a slight east and northeast displacement, in the more recent period, responsible for important differences to the marine climate of the West Greenland Banks and to the convective center of the Labrador Sea.

The early Holocene delays interruptions and biosphere feedbacks

This 'event' appears to have been quite widespread and is well recorded in eastern and central North America and much of Europe (Alley et al., 1997 von Grafenstein et al., 1998), as well as the Cariaco Basin (Hughen et al., 1996). It appears to correspond with a desiccation interval in parts of tropical Africa. Barber et al. (1999) ascribed the 8200 BP event to the sudden drainage of glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway via the Hudson Strait into the North Atlantic. They date the drainage, resulting from the melting of the Laurentide ice sheet that had previously dammed the lakes, to c. 8470 calendar years BP. This date is only a few decades earlier than the date of the onset of cooling recorded in the GRIP and GISP 2 ice cores. It is thought that the freshwater pulse reduced surface salinity in the northwest Atlantic, the effect of which was to reduce the formation rates of intermediate water in the Labrador Sea, as well as North Atlantic deep water...

The End Of The Last Ice Age The End Of The Last Ice

Death throes appear to have produced one last, short-lived, sharp cooling of about 5 to 6 C over Greenland and more like 1.5 to 3 C around the North Atlantic region between about 8.2 and 8 kya. This temporary setback has been linked to the sudden release of the floodwaters of two meltwater lakes that had collected over central Canada behind the melting Laurentide ice sheet. This surge of freshwater out through the Hudson Strait and into the Labrador Sea appears to have disrupted the circulation of the North Atlantic and precipitated one last hemispheric cold event (Barber et al., 1999 see Section 2.10).

Breaking Out of Our Preconceptions

Provoked by creeping doubts about my brake fluid diagnosis, I now noticed for the first time that the liquid was yellow. I'd never seen yellow brake fluid before. Come to think of it, I thought, I have seen yellow liquid that looks like this. To gather more data, I got down on my hands and knees and smelled. Aha Standing up, I looked around and verified a fact that previously had seemed irrelevant to the mechanical puzzle One of the passengers of the stranded van was a male Labrador retriever, now joyfully running to and fro. Bingo Life makes sense.

Climate Variability and Change Coupling Atmospheric and Biological Processes in the Ocean

The North Atlantic is a convective ocean, producing NADW (North Atlantic Deep Water) in the Labrador Sea and Greenland Iceland Sea, and driving the global thermohaline circulation. Ice-core data have revealed large-scale decadal climate variability in the North Atlantic, which can be related to the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO.67 The NAO is therefore responsible for modulating (Figure 8). Zooplankton abundance also increased (lagged 1 year), as did horse mackerel catches (lagged two years) (Figure 9). It is now believed that these are indicators of a major regime shift that affected the North Atlantic around 1988. Alterations in the centre of deep water convection from the Greenland Sea to the Labrador Sea after 1988,68 and increases in the flow of oceanic water into the North Sea through the Shelf Edge Current56 appear to be the main drivers for these changes. A similar shift may have also been observed after 1996, extending further north the habitat of tropical fish species west...

Distribution of the CO Sink Source Over the Global Oceans

Tabulated in Table 1 for the full and half' effects of the atmospheric CO2 increase and its geographical distribution for the months of February and August 1990 is presented in Fig. 4 a and Fig. 4 b, respectively. During the month of February, the following areas are strong sources for atmospheric CO2 (positive ApCO2 values) (i) the northwestern subarctic Pacific (due to winter upwelling), (ii) the entire equatorial Pacific (upwelling), (iii) the eastern subtropical South Pacific (seasonal warming), (iv) the tropical and subtropical South Atlantic (upwelling and seasonal warming), (v) the western equatorial Indian Ocean, and (vi) a few patchy areas near Antarctica (local upwelling). The CO2 sink areas include (i) the temperate gyre areas in the North Pacific and North Atlantic (seasonal cooling), (ii) subpolar and polar areas of the South Atlantic and South Pacific (photosynthesis), and (iii) south and east of New Zealand (photosynthesis). In August (Fig. 4b), the strong source areas...

Abrupt climate change finds a theorist

Broecker focused on a critical juncture in the system the far North Atlantic, the Labrador and Nordic seas, where water from the surface encounters the Arctic westerlies off Canada. Now cold and salty, the current sinks to the abyss, forming the dense southward flow that oceanographers call North Atlantic Deep Water. The evaporative cooling of the surface water transfers from the ocean to the atmosphere an amount of heat that Broecker estimated to be equivalent to 30 percent of the Sun's warmth that far north. Northern Europe, which is meteorologically downstream of this process, enjoys a climate that is warmer than other regions at such high latitudes.

Ackn owl ed pra en ts

Health Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Global Change Program. Marine Ecosystems Emerging Diseases As Indicators Of Change. Health of the Oceans from Labrador to Venezuela. Year of the Ocean Special Report. NOAA- OGP and NASA Grant number NA56GP 0623. (Eds.) P. R. Epstein, B. H. Sherman, E. S. Siegfried, A Langston, S Prasad, B. Mckay. December 1998. Published by The Center for Conservation Medicine and CHGE Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

Medieval Climate Optimum

According to the sagas, Ericson's party first headed northwest across Baffin Bay and came upon a rocky coast they called Helluland, present-day Baffin Island. Then they sailed south, hugging the shore, to the wooded place they named Markland, probably Labrador. Finally, they entered a shallow bay and waited for high tide to bring them ashore to a green meadow. Here at L'Anse aux Meadows, they established a base camp, their beachhead in Vinland. The Norse encountered both Native Americans and Eskimos. The Native Americans were probably Beothuk, related to the Algonquians who occupied the coastal regions of Newfoundland during the summer, fishing and hunting sea mammals and birds - these would be puffins, gannets and related species - from birch bark canoes (Wahlgren 1986 16). The Beothuk also prized the new lands opened up by a warming climate. Later expeditions in search of Labrador's timber came in contact with numerous Beothuk people, who fought them so fiercely that the Norse never...

Peter G Brewer Catherine Goyet and Gernot Friederich by The National Academy of Sciences

Brewer (8) first proposed and demonstrated a simple and direct estimate of detection of the oceanic anthropogenic CO2 increase by examination of Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) data from the South Atlantic Ocean. He corrected contemporary deep observations for the effects of oxidative decomposition of marine organic matter, and the dissolution of carbonates, and derived a value for a corrected pCO2 that was linked to the invasion of the gaseous anthropogenic signal. An extended version of this analysis for North Atlantic waters, based upon Transient Tracers in the Ocean, North Atlantic Study (TTO NAS) data was recently given by Goyet and Brewer (9), who again calculated the invasion term for the fossil fuel CO2 component, and showed a strong correlation of this signal with the F-11 chlorofluorocarbon tracer along the isopycnal surface of Labrador Sea water. Other researchers (10) have adopted this technique with only small variations.

Mackerel Scomber scombrus

Mackerel (Figure 9.23) are found in warmish water on both sides of the North Atlantic. Their range extends from the south coast of Norway and northern North Sea, along the west coasts of the British Isles and into the English Channel, and as far south as the Canaries. They also occur in the Mediterranean and on the western side of the Atlantic from south Labrador to North Carolina.

Micmac Indians and French Settlement in the Northeast

A second case of ecological transformation in the New World is that of the hunting gathering fishing cultures of the Northeast, such as the Abenaki of northern Maine, the St. John's River Malecite, and the Micmac of southeastern Canada, all of whom shared a common culture. The Micmac lived in the area known as the Gaspe peninsula, south of Newfoundland, Labrador, and the St. Lawrence River. Micmac hunting, like that of other cultures in the Northeast, was based primarily on large animals, such as moose, deer, elk, and caribou, sources of both meat and hides. In addition, smaller animals, such as mink, muskrat, and beaver, were trapped for their furs.

Temperature tolerances and biogeography

Marine Biogeographic Regions

Cold-water populations are found in the Arctic and Southern Oceans where the surface temperature lies between about 50C and a little below 00C. In the Southern Ocean the cold water has a well-defined northern boundary at the Antarctic Convergence (see page 17) where it sinks below the warmer sub-Antarctic water. The sharp temperature gradient at this convergence effectively separates many species of plant and animal, and forms a distinct northern limit to the Antarctic faunal and floral zones. The southern boundary of the Arctic zone is less distinct except at the convergences of the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream in the Atlantic, and of the Oyo-Shiwo and Kuro-Shiwo currents in the Pacific. Broadly, the Arctic zone comprises the Arctic Ocean and those parts of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans into which Arctic surface water spreads, the limiting temperature being a summer maximum of about 50C.

Winddriven circulation of the ocean

Vorticity Open University 1989

The oceanic source of water vapour, coupled with the cold temperatures, leads to the polar oceans being particularly cloudy. Fog formation is also favoured. For example, sea smoke occurs where cold air is in contact with a warm sea that provides sufficient moisture to saturate the air. By contrast, in regions such as the Grand Banks off Newfoundland cold water flowing south from the Labrador Sea cools the air moving eastwards off a warming Canada in the spring to saturation. The abundance of latent heating potential in the atmosphere near the land-sea or sea-ice-sea boundary in polar regions makes these regions particularly subject to the development of intense storms, of smaller scale than regular depressions, called polar lows. Formation of intermediate depth water is mostly driven by the atmosphere, as discussed in 2.11.1. Some regions of the polar oceans also contribute to intermediate waters by large-scale cooling, as in the case of water in the Labrador Sea, or cooling and Ekman...

Paleoclimatic Information From Biological Material In Ocean Cores

Calcareous Foram Test

FIGURE 6.3 Two calcareous tests (200x magnification) commonly used in paleo-oceanographic studies. Bottom the foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (left coiling) (ventral view, 200x), from the North Atlantic (Irminger Basin). Top Globigerina bulloides (ventral view, 200x) from the Labrador Sea (photographs kindly provided by Laurence Candon, GEOTOP, Universit du Qu bec a Montr al). FIGURE 6.3 Two calcareous tests (200x magnification) commonly used in paleo-oceanographic studies. Bottom the foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (left coiling) (ventral view, 200x), from the North Atlantic (Irminger Basin). Top Globigerina bulloides (ventral view, 200x) from the Labrador Sea (photographs kindly provided by Laurence Candon, GEOTOP, Universit du Qu bec a Montr al).

The thermohaline circulation

Railway Map Derbyshire

The main outline of the thermohaline circulation was seen in Chapter 1 ( 1.3.2, Figs. 1.14 and 1.16). In regions where surface water is made denser through evaporative salinification, winter cooling, salt rejection during sea-ice formation or sub-ice shelf freezing, sufficiently extreme conditions can result in convection occurring to considerable depths, even to the bottom of the ocean. Along continental shelves and under ice shelves these processes may be widespread. In the open ocean deep convection to 1000 m tends to occur in limited regions (Fig. 2.14). Such convection occurs in a number of places globally through salinification in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf through cooling in the Norwegian Sea, the northern Pacific, polar latitudes of the Southern Ocean, the Gulf of Lyon in the western Mediterranean, the Adriatic and the Levantine Sea north of Cyprus through cooling supplemented by salt rejection in the Labrador and Greenland Seas, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea in the...

Dendroclimatic Reconstructions

Ring widths in spruce (mainly Picea glauca) from the northern treeline of North America contain a strong record of mean annual temperature (Jacoby and D'Ar-rigo, 1989 D'Arrigo and Jacoby, 1992). Indices averaged over many sites along the treeline, from Alaska to Labrador, reveal a strong correlation with both North American and northern hemisphere temperatures over the last century (Jacoby and D'Arrigo, 1993). Based on these calibrations, long-term variations in temperature have been reconstructed (Fig. 10.22). This indicates low temperatures throughout the seventeenth century with a particularly cold episode in the early 1700s. The eighteenth century was relatively warm, followed by very cold conditions (the coldest of the last 400 years) in the early to mid-1800s. Temperatures then increased to the 1950s, but have since declined. This record is broadly similar to that derived from trees in the northern Ural mountains of Russia, but has less in common with the Fennoscandian summer...

Fundamentals Of Dendroclimatology

Resin Duct Wood

Density variations are particularly valuable in dendroclimatology because they have a relatively simple growth function (often close to linear with age). Hence standardization of density data may allow more low-frequency climatic information to be retained than is the case with standardized ring-width data (see Section 10.2.3). Generally, two values are measured in each growth ring minimum density and maximum density (representing locations within the earlywood and latewood layers, respectively), although maximum density values seem to be a better climatic indicator than minimum density values. For example, Schweingruber et al. (1993) showed that maximum density values were strongly correlated with April-August mean temperature in trees across the entire boreal forest, from Alaska to Labrador, whereas minimum and mean density values and ring widths had a much less consistent relationship with summer temperature at the sites sampled (D'Arrigo et al., 1992). Maximum latewood density...

The Pueblo Indians and Spanish Settlement of the Southwest

Into the Pueblo culture, which had evolved slowly over time to a very complex level, the Spaniards were suddenly injected. Their presence in the New World began in 1492 with the first of four voyages by Columbus. Earlier voyages by Vikings and Basques to Labrador, Newfoundland, and the Grand Banks along the eastern coast of Canada had taken place, but land-based explorations with lasting consequences stem from the post-1492 period. In the American Southwest, the first exploration was led by Marcos de Niza, who in 1539 traveled north from Mexico to the Zuni pueblos, where he reported on the riches he had viewed. He was followed by Francisco

Thermohaline Circulation Of The Oceans

Thermohaline Circulation

Overlying these dense water masses (at 1 km depth) are Intermediate Waters, which generally have slightly lower salinities and or higher temperatures. Much of the world ocean is occupied by Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), which has a temperature of 2-4 C and a salinity of 34.2 o and originates in the circum-Antarctic polar frontal zone. At high latitudes of the North Atlantic, intermediate water from the Labrador Sea (3-4 C, 34.92 o) is found (sometimes referred to as Upper North Atlantic Deep Water, or Northwestern Atlantic Deep Water) and farther south saline water flowing from the Mediterranean Sea can also be traced at intermediate levels. In a reassessment of this model, Boyle and Rosener (1990) question whether the coupled system really has only two modes or whether in fact there have been multiple stable circulation patterns as suggested by model simulations (Rahmstorf, 1994, 1995). They suggest that rather than being controlled by an on-off switch the system may be...

Lake Windermere Interstadial

Chelford Interstadial

In studies of lake sediments, certain aquatic insects have proven useful in paleodimatic reconstruction. Midge flies (Order Diptera Family Chironomidae) can be identified by the characteristic chitinous head capsules that are often preserved in sediments (Hofmann, 1986 Walker, 1987). Walker et al. (1991a) showed that assemblages of chironomids in a suite of lakes from Labrador are related to the surface water temperature of the lakes in summer. Although the relationship may involve other factors (Hann et al., 1992) down-core analysis of chironomid remains provides an estimate of former lake surface temperatures (Walker et al., 1991b). Applying this relationship to chironomid remains in lake sediments from Maine, Cwynar and Levesque (1995) found strong evidence of a pronounced climatic reversal, which they correlated with the Younger Dryas episode (Fig. 8.10). Changes in chironomid assemblages indicate an abrupt drop in temperature of -10 C at around 11,000 yr B.P., with temperatures...

Polar Bears Under Pressure

Without ice, polar bears can become hungry, miserable creatures, especially in unaccustomed warmth. During the Baffin Island town of Iqaluit's record warm summer of July 2001, two tourists were hospitalized after they were mauled by a polar bear in a park south of town. On July 20, a similar confrontation occurred in northern Labrador as a polar bear tried to claw its way into a tent occupied by a group of Dutch tourists. The tourists escaped injury but the bear was shot to death. The bears are looking for a cooler place, said Ben Kovic, Nunavut's chief wildlife manager (Johansen, 2001, 18).

Snowlines And Glaciation Thresholds

From this brief survey it is apparent that snowlines in different regions are controlled by different climatic parameters and that these must first be understood in order to use paleosnowlines in paleoclimatic reconstructions. However, some assessment of the relative importance of different climatic variables to snowline lowering can be made by the use of an energy balance model that takes into account many of the relevant variables and the interactions between them. For example, such a model has been applied to the question of what climatic conditions were necessary to bring about extensive glacierization of northern Canada (Williams, 1979). By calculating the regional snowline for varying climatic conditions it was possible to determine where perennial snow cover is most likely to have developed in the past (i.e., which areas are most susceptible to glacierization) and the extent of glacierization brought about by different changes in climatic conditions. Interestingly, Williams's...

Ocean Circulation Changes And Climate Over The Last Glacialinterglacial Cycle

Oxygen Isotope Grip Last Interglacial

Analysis of 813C and Cd Ca in benthic foraminifera and 8lsO in planktic forams (reflecting temperature and or salinity changes in surface waters) have enabled circulation changes to be reconstructed over the last glacial-interglacial cycle in some detail longer-term changes in 813C are examined by Raymo et al. (1990). These studies indicate that significant changes in the thermohaline circulation of the oceans have occurred. Although production and circulation of NADW was similar to today in the last interglacial (5e), glacial periods were characterized by a reduction (or even cessation) of NADW production, or perhaps a change towards less dense Intermediate Water forming in the central North Atlantic and or Labrador Sea (Duplessy et al., 1988, 1991 Keigwin et al, 1994 Oppo and Lehman, 1995). The extent to which deepwater formed in the Norwegian Sea in isotope stages 2 or 6 is unclear, N. pachyderma (sin.) which makes up the rest of this size fraction and, as noted earlier, is...

A Continental and oceanic influences

Fog Effect

The Labrador coast is fringed by the waters of a cold current, analogous to the Oyashio off East Asia, but in both cases the prevailing westerlies greatly limit their climatic significance. The Labrador current maintains drift ice off Labrador and Newfoundland until June and gives very low summer temperatures along the Labrador coast (see Figure 10.17C). The lower incidence of freezing temperatures in this area in January is related to the movement of some depressions into the Davis Strait, carrying Atlantic air northward. A major role of the Labrador current is in the formation of fog. Advection fog is very frequent between May and August off Newfoundland, where the Gulf Stream and Labrador current meet. Warm, moist southerly airstreams are cooled rapidly over the cold waters of the Labrador current and with steady, light winds such fogs may persist for several days, creating hazardous conditions for shipping. Southward-facing coasts are particularly affected and at Cape Race...

Deep Ocean Circulation and Benthic Environments

Efforts to understand deep ( 2500 m) and mid-depth (1000-2500 m) oceanic circulation over orbital time scales complements studies of surface oceanic conditions. Deep-ocean circulation changes over orbital time scales are important elements in orbital theory because the deep sea provides a way to translate regional insolation changes affecting high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere into a global climate signal via the ocean's thermohaline circulation. Recall from chapter 2 that deep-water formation occurs at high latitudes in the Nordic and Labrador Seas, which form North Atlantic deep water (NADW), and in the southern oceans, where Antarctic bottom water (AABW) drives deep circulation. In the north, Norwegian Sea deep water and Greenland Sea deep water spill over the Iceland Faroes and Denmark straight sill, where they form NADW. Evidence is emerging that deep-sea benthic environments are closely linked over orbital time scales to changes in surface conditions, especially SST,...

Deep Oceanic Circulation

Deep-ocean circulation is referred to as thermohaline or density-driven circulation. The ocean's deep water masses form in high latitudes, mainly the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (Nordic) Seas and the Labrador Sea in the North Atlantic regions, called North Atlantic deep water (NADW), and around the periphery of Antarctica, called Antarctic bottom water (AABW). Note in figure 2-3 that relatively warm (2.5-4 C) NADW is underlain by colder (0-2 C) AABW. Two major processes are responsible for density-driven deep-water formation. First, open-ocean convection occurs as warm salty water reaches high latitudes, experiences seasonal wintertime cooling, and sinks owing to its decreased buoyancy. A second process known as brine rejection occurs in regions of large-scale sea-ice formation such as the margins of the Arctic Ocean and around Antarctica. When ocean water freezes it rejects'' salt, which also increases the density of upper ocean water, causing it to sink. Once formed, deep-water...

Preface On Global Warming

It would have been easy to continue feeding George W dolls to my Labrador and moaning about politicians, but there was a way to fight back. Alongside the research I was being paid to do, I started to look into the greenhouse gas that I was directly responsible for, the emissions which were mine to increase or decrease as I saw fit. I found that I was a big emitter, but also that I could do something about it. The politicians may have been dithering, but I was going to cut my own emissions - to do my bit. And so were sown the seeds of this book. First came a short paper in the journal Nature called Kyoto Begins at Home about a family of four in the USA who met their own equivalent of the USA's Kyoto commitment through a few simple lifestyle changes. During the subsequent years I researched everything from green burials to the global warming contribution of Labradors. Along the way our big car was swapped for a Smart car, low-energy bulbs spread through the house, and the mailorder...

The Concept Of A Global System

Both the circulation of the atmosphere and the oceans occur on a global scale. Major currents in the ocean carry huge amounts of heat from the equator to the poles. There are global ocean currents that circulate heat energy on the surface and at great depths, connecting the Earth's major oceans. One extremely important current moves in a winding, endless loop scientists refer to its conveyor belt-like properties as the thermohaline circulation (THC). This current is significant to major parts of the world it moves the warm salty Atlantic water that originates near the equator northward toward Greenland and Labrador, where it then cools and sinks. The current sinks more than one mile in very specific places, where it then flips around, heads south, and makes its way back through the Atlantic toward the equator again. From there, the water continues to move south, travels around the southern tip of Africa, and rises to the surface in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, as well as areas near...

Water movements below the surface

Antarctic Bottom Water Movement

From the sinking of cold water around the Antarctic continent. The spread of cold bottom water from the Arctic Ocean is obstructed by the series of submarine ridges between Scotland and Labrador (see Section 1.2.3) and by the shallow Bering Straits. Cold water sinking in the Arctic is therefore trapped in the Arctic Basin. Beneath the Southern Ocean the cold water can escape, and creeps slowly northwards along the bottom, initially at a temperature of about 0oC but gradually becoming warmer as heat is gained by admixture with other warmer water, and perhaps a little by conduction through the sea-bed. Regions where surface currents meet, and surface water consequently sinks, are termed convergences. The Antarctic Intermediate water sinks at the Antarctic Convergence, and this occurs all round the Southern Ocean, mainly between latitudes 50 and 60 S. Further north at about 40 S is the Subtropical Convergence, another zone where surface water sinks and mixes with the Intermediate water....

Ocean stability during the Holocene

Convection is the vigorous vertical mixing of water that occurs when denser water lies on lighter water. Its role is to restore gravitational stability. It is a self-maintained process convection acts as a heat pump and prevents formation of sea-ice. The resulting heat exchange between the ocean surface and the atmosphere contributes to the increase in density of the surface water, and this promotes further convection. Deep ocean convection occurs today in the Norwegian Sea, the Labrador Sea, and in the Ross and the Weddell Seas. There is geochemical evidence that convection did not take place in the Labrador Sea before 6000 years ago (Solignac et al. 2004). Labrador Sea particular, two sharp cold events around 2400 years BP and 1800 years BP. These events are triggered by stochastic sea-ice advances maintained by cyclonic anomalies in the atmospheric circulation caused by the cooling itself. By contrast, convection is very stable in the Labrador Sea. Surface density increases during...

World Rainfall Distribution Seasonal Changes Monsoons

To complete our brief survey of seasonal changes in the present epoch, fig. 16 presents a few sample rainfall 'curves' for places each of which is representative of some well-defined regime. The example from western Iceland, with most precipitation in the winter and least in summer, illustrates a regime that is typical for islands and other places near the ocean in middle and higher latitudes. This seasonal distribution is determined by the greater cyclonic activity in winter, when the overall temperature gradients are strongest. The Iceland curve shows a further feature of some interest the abruptness of the increase of rainfall from August to September. This is due to a rather sudden change in the steering of most of the North Atlantic cyclones, away from the eastward paths which they commonly pursue in summer near latitude 60-63 N to a path more northeastward into the Arctic a switch of steering that is believed to be caused by the sharpening trough in the circumpolar vortex over...

Pennsylvania in the Pennsylvanian

Wherever coal formed, it took hundreds of thousands or millions of years, at least, for peat swamps to be compressed to form seams of coal. However long it took and whenever and wherever it happened, the essential process in creating coal, always, was the extraction by plants of carbon from the carbon dioxide in the air. When that coal is then com-busted and in countries like England and Germany, virtually all the accessible coal has been burned in a period of less than three hundred years the carbon is re-released into the atmosphere, where it acts like a blanket, retaining solar irradiation to make earth warmer. Even more than the transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson appreciated, when he observed that coal carries the heat of the tropics to Labrador and the polar circle, heat is indeed a portable climate. 26 In effect, processes that took tens of millions of years to be completed are reversed in a wink of the eye, in geologic terms, with far-reaching consequences for our future on...

Validation of the model

Experiments using chemical tracers, for instance those illustrated in Figure 5.20 (see next box), have been helpful in indicating the regions where strong coupling to the deep ocean occurs. To sink to the deep ocean, water needs to be particularly dense, in other words both cold and salty. There are two main regions where such dense water sinks down to the deep ocean, namely in the north Atlantic Ocean (in the Greenland Sea between Scandinavia and Greenland and the Labrador Sea west of Greenland) and in the region of Antarctica. Salt-laden deep water formed in this way contributes to a deep ocean circulation that involves all the oceans (Figure 5.18) and is known as the thermohaline circulation (THC). Figure 5.18 Deep water formation and circulation - sometimes known as the ocean 'conveyor belt' - connecting the oceans together. The deep salty current (blue) largely originates in the Nordic Seas and the Labrador Sea where northward flowing water (red) near the surface that is...

Estimates of impacts costs under businessasusual BAU from the Stern Review

Changes in thermal and freshwater forcing could result in complete shutdown of North Atlantic THC or regional shutdown in the Labrador and Greenland Seas. In the Southern Ocean, formation of Antarctic bottom water could shut down. Such events are simulated by models and also found in the palaeoclimatic record.

Oceanic forcing by airsea exchange of moisture and heat

Average mixed layer depth over the North Atlantic Ocean at the time of maximum mixing (March). The depth of the mixed layer is determined by the depth by which the temperature has dropped by 0.5 C from the surface temperature. Note the absence of data in the Labrador Sea and around the Greenland coast, due to sea-ice. Deep convection occurs on either side of southern Greenland. Using data from Levitus etal. (1994).

Maximum Solar Radiation In Northern Hemisphere

Highest Concentration Smallpox

I had also initially proposed that new ice sheets might have begun to form in the far north if this natural cooling had been allowed to proceed. Other researchers had shown previously that parts of far northeastern Canada might be ice covered today if the world were cooler by just 1.5 to two degrees C the same amount of cooling that our experiment suggested has been offset by the greenhouse gas anomalies. The later modeling effort with my Wisconsin colleagues showed that snow would now persist into late summer in two areas of northeastern Canada Baffin Island, just east of the mainland, and Labrador, farther south. Because any snow that survives throughout the summer will accumulate in thicker piles year by year and eventually become glacial ice, these results suggest that a new ice age would have begun in northeast Canada several millennia ago, at least on a small scale.

Temperature salinity and density

Salinity Temperature And Density

The ocean, like the atmosphere, is normally vertically stratified with less dense water overlying denser water. We have seen how sharp gradients in density exist at the seasonal and permanent thermocline (Fig. 2.11). The T-S diagram in Fig. 2.13 demonstrates how deep convection can occur. Cooling of salty surface water increases the density more rapidly when the water is a few degrees above freezing, as is typical of the Labrador and Greenland Seas and the Southern Fig. 2.14. Mixed layer depth across the Labrador Sea during a two week period in late winter of 1997. Note the convection exceeding 1000 m depth in two small areas only a few tens of kilometres across at most towards the southwestern part of the Labrador Sea. Adapted from Fig. 12d of Pickart et al. (2002). Reproduced with permission from the American Meteorological Society. Fig. 2.14. Mixed layer depth across the Labrador Sea during a two week period in late winter of 1997. Note the convection exceeding 1000 m depth in two...

B North Atlantic Oscillation

The relative strength of the Icelandic low and Azores high was first observed to fluctuate on annual to decadal scales by Sir Gilbert Walker in the 1920s. Fifty years later, van Loon and Rogers discussed the related westeast 'seesaw' in winter temperatures between western Europe and western Greenland associated with the north-south change in pressure gradient over the North Atlantic. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a north-south oscillation in the pressure field between the Icelandic low (65 N) and the Azores high (40 N). The relationship between the positive and negative modes of the NAO noted by Walker, and the associated temperature and other anomaly patterns, are shown in Plate E. When the two pressure cells are well developed as in January 1984, the zonal westerlies are strong. Western Europe has a mild winter, while the intense Icelandic low gives strong northerly flow in Baffin Bay, low temperatures in western Greenland and extensive sea ice in the Labrador Sea. In the...

Three decades of spectacular development

The Tralflot, a Soviet enterprise in Murmansk. In the late 1950s the Polish shipyards put forward a tender to construct the first 15 sophisticated fishing and factory vessels for Polish fishing companies. The shipyards were, at that time, primarily export-oriented, constantly designing new vessels for both shipping and fishing. They were very anxious to use the Polish fishery as an experimental ground for testing their ability to construct good vessels which would make them more competitive against other European companies (mainly UK, West Germany, and Spain). The economic justifications of the projects that were carried out pointed to the likelihood of a beneficial expansion of the Polish fishery to the Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada) fishing grounds.

Components of the Earth System

Fig. 2.5 Eddies along the landward edge of the Gulf Stream, as revealed by the pattern of sea surface temperature. Temperatures range from 20 C in the orange regions down to 6 C in the darkest blue regions. Note the sharpness of the boundary and the indications of turbulent mixing between the waters of the Gulf Stream and the colder Labrador Current to the north of it. Based on NASA Terra MODIS imagery. Courtesy of Otis Brown.

Timescales and feedbacks

The other parts of the climate system act on much longer timescales. The ocean has a weak diurnal signal in its near-surface temperature, but this extends to only a few metres. Even the annual cycle in temperature only penetrates beyond 100 m in polar and mid-latitude regions. Large-scale mixing within the ocean occurs over months to years. Local eddies, the weather systems of the ocean, may exist for over a year flow about the North Atlantic sub-tropical gyre takes two to three decades. The deep circulation imposes the absolute scale for over-turning and ventilation of the ocean. It may take several hundred, perhaps a thousand, years for some of the water that sank in the Greenland or Labrador Seas to eventually upwell back to the surface in the Pacific Ocean.

The North Atlantic Oscillation

Changes in sea-ice cover in both the Labrador and Greenland Seas as well as over the Arctic appear to be well correlated with the NAO, and the relationship between the sea-level pressure and ice anomaly fields suggests that atmospheric circulation patterns force the sea ice variations (Deser, Walsh & Timlin, 1999). Feedbacks or

New evidence suggesting more rapid climate change

The North Atlantic has a complex current system, with the largely wind-driven Gulf Stream splitting into the North Atlantic Current that heads north-east into the Norwegian Sea, and a subtropical recirculating arm, known as the Azores and Canary Currents, that turns south. Relatively warm, but highly saline, surface water in the northern arm tends to sink to a depth of several kilometers in three regions the Labrador Sea, south of Iceland, and between Greenland and Norway. The north-flowing arm transports heat from low latitudes to high latitudes, tending to warm northwestern Europe.

Returning to the Evidence Life in the Band

Broadly speaking, Montagnais-Naskapi refers to all the semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples of the Labrador Peninsula in Canada that speak Algonkian languages. Frank Speck vividly portrays native life Sheltered only in draughty caribou-skin or bark tents, clad in caribou-skin raiment, using mostly bone and wooden implements, and processing neither political institutions nor government, they follow no occupation or industry other than hunting wild animals and fishing amid the most physically exacting and rigorous climatic environments of the continent. 1 of the Labrador Peninsula continued their tradition of interacting peacefully with each other, without war, following the arrival of Europeans. However, the encroachment of outsiders searching for furs prompted some fighting by the Montagnais-Naskapi against intruders.

Sensitivity Experiments Using General Circulation Models

Paleoclimatic Evidence

Recently, a higher-resolution GCM has been employed to examine the same problem (Dong and Valdes, 1995). The UGAMP (U.K. Universities Global Atmospheric Modeling Programme) GCM is based on the very successful forecast model of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). It has a grid spacing of -2.8 and includes 19 vertical levels, 5 of which are in the lower atmospheric boundary layer ( 850 mb). It includes a 50-m thick mixed layer ocean and an interactive surface hydrology. Topographic resolution is quite good, which may be of particular importance in experiments dealing with the initial stages of glaciation. Several studies have pointed out the critical significance of upland plateaus in Labrador, Baffin Island, and Keewatin in the development of a permanent snow cover (Ives et al., 1975). In the NASA-GISS (Goddard Institute for Space Studies) GCM used by Rind et al. (1989), topography is poorly resolved for example, the Baffin area is represented as

Source taken from IPCC

A systemic approach to the problem of dangerous climate change was used by the ICLIPS network (see below). The aim was to track down the systemic thresholds in planetary dynamics potentially transgressed in the course of unabated global warming. Figure 2 (taken from Schellnhuber, 2002) provides an overview of switch and choke elements in the Earth System that might be (de-)activated by human interference. The most prominent example of a switch element is the North Atlantic Deep Water Formation (Rahmstorf, 1995) off Greenland and Labrador, which acts as a driving force for the thermohaline circulation generating, inter alia, the Gulf Stream. Obviously, any

Historical Temperatures

A cross section of a temperate forest tree shows a variation of lighter and darker bands that are usually continuous around the circumference of the tree. These bands are the so-called tree rings and are due to seasonal effects. Each tree ring is composed of large thin-walled cells called early wood and smaller more densely packed thick-walled cells called late wood. The average width of a tree ring is a function of many variables including the tree species, tree age, stored carbohydrates in the tree, nutrients in the soil, and climatic factors including sunlight, precipitation, temperature, wind speed, humidity, and carbon dioxide availability in the atmosphere. Obviously there are many confounding factors, so the challenge is to extract the temperature signal and thus distinguish the temperature signal from the noise caused by the many confounding factors. Temperature information is usually derived from inter-annual variations in the ring width as well as inter-annual and...

Ocean Circulation

Dom are at the same latitude as Labrador in Canada. Ireland and the United Kingdom are less than half the size of Labrador but have 2,000 times the population. Current climatological theory holds that the equatorial heat carried north by the Gulf Stream keeps Britain habitable (also foggy and rainy). Perhaps even more frightening is the possibility, suggested by studies of the changing composition of gases in air bubbles in Greenland ice in relation to the age of the ice, that the change might happen within 10 years or less, leaving no time for people to adjust.33 The National Academy of Sciences says that the rapid change occurs in the same way as the slowly increasing pressure of a finger eventually flips a switch and turns on a light. Once the switch has occurred, the new hostile climate lasts at least for decades, and possibly centuries. At present, no one knows whether such a catastrophe will happen, but many climate modelers are concerned. It may be significant that Scandanavia...

And the Gulf Stream

But most scientists agree that climate models will need to be much more accurate before we can know for sure. It is not clear how delicate the balance is that keeps the Gulf stream flowing the way is does. Scientists are also asking how much of a change in ocean temperatures would alter the North Atlantic drift current. This current keeps the climate of western Europe much more temperate than that of Labrador, which is at comparable latitude. While the possibility of disrupting this long-established ocean pattern may be real, the likelihood is consistent with only the most pessimistic climate change scenarios.

Time ka BP

Like earlier researchers, Imbrie et al. (1992) determined that a critical factor driving glacial-interglacial changes is salinity-controlled convection in the Icelandic, Norwegian, and Greenland ( Nordic ) Seas and in the Labrador Sea, which they refer to as the Nordic and Boreal heat pumps, respectively. During interglacials, both areas produced deepwater, which drove the thermohaline circulation of the Atlantic and carried heat to the Southern Ocean, thereby restricting sea ice around Antarctica. With both heat pumps operating, ventilation of the deep ocean was at its maximum. As summer insolation decreased at high northern latitudes the atmosphere and ocean surface cooled, reducing evaporation and increasing snowfall and sea-ice cover. Eventually, salinity in the Nordic Seas decreased, at first slowing and then entirely eliminating convective overturning via the Nordic heat pump, drastically curtailing warm water flux to the southern hemisphere. However, the Boreal heat pump...

Mrs Carbone

It from a featureless waste of brown grass and bramble-ridden borders into a riot of colour and buzzing insects. She has turned a section over to herbs and vegetables, providing the family with fresh salads for much of the summer. There are always a hundred and one jobs to get done, with progress never helped by bored sons, husbands and Labradors. But Kate, aided by regular visits from her mother-in-law, Grandma Carbone, somehow keeps the weeds under control and the flowers dead-headed.

Ocean currents

Ocean Currents Normal And Nino

Ocean currents have names, many of which are familiar. Most people have heard of the Gulf Stream, for example, and perhaps of the California and Labrador Currents. There are also the Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents which affect the weather in Japan, and the Peru Current which flows northward parallel to the western coast of South America carrying nutrients that sustain a vast population of plankton, fish, seals, and seabirds. During an El Ni o (see the sidebar El Ni o on page 19), the South Equatorial Current which ordinarily carries warm water away from South America and toward Asia weakens or even reverses direction. The West

The subArctic

Subarctic Weather

The interior, cold-continental climates have much more severe winters, although precipitation amounts are smaller. At Yellowknife (62 N, 114 W), for instance, the mean January temperature is only -28 C. In these regions, permafrost (permanently frozen ground) is widespread and often of great depth. In summer, only the top 1 to 2 m of ground thaw and, as the water cannot drain away readily this 'active layer' often remains waterlogged. Although frost may occur in any month, the long summer days usually give three months with mean temperatures above 10 C, and at many stations extreme maxima reach 32 C or more (see Figure 10.17). The Barren Grounds of Keewatin, however, are much cooler in summer due to the extensive areas of lake and muskeg only July has a mean daily temperature of 10 C. Labrador-Ungava to the east, between 52 and 62 N, is rather similar with very high cloud amounts and maximum precipitation in June to September (Figure 10.36). In winter, conditions fluctuate between...

Pressure systems

Pressure Systems Map Asia

In summer, east coast depressions are less frequent and the tracks across the continent are displaced northward, with the main ones moving over Hudson Bay and Labrador-Ungava, or along the line of the St Lawrence. These are associated mainly with a poorly defined maritime frontal zone. The Arctic front is usually located along the north coast of Alaska, where there is a strong temperature gradient between the bare land and the cold Arctic Ocean and pack-ice. East from here, the front is very variable in location from day to day and year to year. It occurs most often in the vicinity

Surface currents

Surface Currents Trade Winds

The inflow of water into the Arctic must be balanced by an equivalent outflow. Some of the surface water cools and sinks, and leaves the Arctic as a deep current (see page 16). There is also an outflow of cold surface water from the Arctic which enters the Atlantic as the East Greenland and Labrador Currents, and flows along the coast of Labrador and down the eastern seaboard of the United States, eventually sinking below the warm waters of the Gulf Stream flowing in the opposite direction.

Why The Ocean Flows

In part, the ocean surface is driven by the winds.2 For example, look at a picture of the flow pattern in the north Atlantic Ocean (Figure 1.3). The trade winds blow the ocean surface water toward the west at low latitudes, whereas the westerlies blow the water toward the east at midlatitudes. At the same time, the rotation of the Earth forces the flow to pile up along the western boundary of the ocean (the eastern boundary of the continent), producing the Gulf Stream. Easterly (toward the west) winds at higher latitudes blow water to the west and down the east coast in the form of the Labrador Current. Similar wind-driven circulation patterns occur in other ocean basins. A very simplified pattern is shown in Figure 1.3. Note that the pattern is similar in the two hemispheres. The atmospheric winds generally blow the surface ocean currents toward the west near the equator and toward the east at midlatitudes. On the western sides of oceans (the eastern sides of continents), there are...

The Oceans

North Atlantic Deep Water Formations

Some oceanic features arising in later discussions are shown in the schematic cross section of the eastern portions of the Atlantic Ocean (figure 2-3). The figure shows the North Atlantic Current (the northeastward extension of the Gulf Stream) the equatorial divergence the subtropical gyres, labeled the North and South Atlantic Current water (NACW, SACW) the location of deep-water formation and the major deep-water masses, North Atlantic deep water (NADW, not shown is Labrador Sea deep water) and Antarctic bottom water (AABW) and the intermediate water masses, Mediterranean deep water (MEDW) and Antarctic intermediate water (AAIW). Two important surface ocean zones are the North Atlantic's Polar Front, a convergence zone located at the boundary between the North Atlantic Current and NACW water and the South Atlantic's Antarctic divergence zone, at about 59-60 S latitude, where strong upwelling leads to high productivity.

Cod Gadus morhua

North Sea And British Isles Fish Stocks

The cod (Figure 9.11) has an extensive range over the continental shelf and slope to a depth of about 600 m throughout the Arctic and the northern part of the north Atlantic. Although the isotherms do not set firm limits to its distribution, cod is most abundant in seas within the temperature range 0-10 C. It is found around Greenland (mainly on the west coast) and Iceland, in the Barents Sea and around Nova Zemlya. It occurs around the Faroes, along the Norwegian coast, in the North Sea and Baltic, the Irish Sea, and the English Channel. On the eastern side of the Altantic, the Bay of Biscay is as far south as cod extend in any numbers. It is also found along the coasts of Labrador, Newfoundland and south along the North American coast as far as Virginia. In the northern part of the Pacific, a closely related form, G. macrocephalus, occurs over a wide area. Iceland, East Greenland, West Greenland, Newfoundland and Labrador regions. There appears to be little interchange of stocks by...

Oceanic ridges

One part of the submarine ridge system forms a barrier separating the deep levels of the Arctic basin from those of the Atlantic. Much of the crest of this ridge is within 500 m of the surface, extending from the north of Scotland and the Orkneys and Shetlands to Rockall and the Faroes (the Wyville-Thompson ridge), and then to Iceland (the Iceland-Faroes rise), and across to Greenland and Labrador (the Greenland-Iceland rise).

War Driven Research

Memorial Service Program Bio Soldier

Institute developed forecasting rules for tropical regions that could be used by military forecasters, particularly those on remote islands who had access to very little information. Some senior academic meteorologists, including Sverre Petterssen and Jacob Bjerknes, traveled to Newfoundland, Greenland, Iceland, Labrador, Alaska, and India to gather information on weather conditions that could be passed on to the military officers receiving weather training.

Chapter Surprises

Mexico up to the Nordic seas (Figure 28). The increased saltiness or salinity in the Gulf Stream is due to the huge amount of evaporation that occurs in the Caribbean, which removes moisture from the surface waters and concentrates the salts in the seawater. As the Gulf Stream flows northward it cools down. The combination of a high salt content and low temperature makes the surface water heavier or denser. Hence, when it reaches the relatively fresh oceans north of Iceland, the surface water has cooled sufficiently to become dense enough to sink into the deep ocean. The 'pull' exerted by the sinking of this dense water mass helps maintain the strength of the warm Gulf Stream, ensuring a current of warm tropical water flowing into the north-east Atlantic, sending mild air masses across to the European continent. It has been calculated that the Gulf Stream delivers 27,000 times the energy of all of Britain's power stations put together. If you are in any doubt about how good the Gulf...

Icecore research

Events at, for example, 9200 years ago and between 10 200 and 10 400 years ago, 10 800 and 10 900 years ago, and 11 300 and 11 500 years ago, the so-called Pre-Boreal oscillation (e.g. Schwander et al. 2000 Bjorck et al. 2001). The most likely cause for the 8.2 ka event and other early Holocene rapid climate events is the discharge of large amounts of glacial meltwater from glacial lakes Agassiz and Ojibway via the Hudson Strait into the north-west Atlantic (Clarke et al. 2003). This freshwater pulse reduced surface salinity in the north-west Atlantic, thereby reducing the formation of intermediate water in the Labrador Sea and of North Atlantic deep water. This in turn may have led to a reduction in the northward transport of heat associated with meridional overturning circulation in the North Atlantic (Clark et al. 2001 Labeyrie et al. 2003 Oldfield 2005). Considerable attention is being paid by Holocene researchers to the 8.2 ka event and other early Holocene abrupt events because...